Ormiophasia Townsend, 1919,

Gudin, Filipe M. & Nihei, Silvio S., 2019, Taxonomic revision of the Neotropical genus Ormiophasia Townsend, 1919 (Diptera: Tachinidae), with the description of eight new species, Zootaxa 4643 (1), pp. 1-74: 5-12

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scientific name

Ormiophasia Townsend, 1919
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Ormiophasia Townsend, 1919 

Ormiophasia Townsend, 1919: 164  . Type species: Ormiophasia busckii Townsend, 1919  , by original designation.

Pseudoneoptera Séguy, 1926b: 19  . Type species: Pseudoneoptera morardi Séguy, 1926b  , by monotypy; Séguy (1926b: 20, key to genera); Séguy (1927a: 423, key to genera; 424, catalog); Townsend (1931: 82, synonymy with Ormiophasia  ); Sabrosky (1953: 181, as Ormiophasia  , catalog); Tavares (1964: 38, comments on synonymy).

Plagiatormia Séguy, 1926b: 19  (as Plagiotormia  , incorrect original spelling). Type species: Plagiatormia obscura Séguy, 1926b  , by monotypy; Séguy (1926b: 20, key to genera); Séguy (1927a: 423, as Plagiotormia  , misspelling, key to genera; 424, catalog); Townsend (1931: 82, synonymy with Ormiophasia  ); Sabrosky (1953: 181, as Ormiophasia  , catalog); Tavares (1964: 38, comments on synonymy).

Pseudormia Séguy, 1927b: 262  . Type species: Pseudormia inflata Séguy, 1927b  , by monotypy; Séguy (1925: 375, nomen nudum, comparison to Ormia  ; 376, key to genera); Séguy (1926a: 5, nomen nudum, comparison to Ormia  ; 9, as Peudormia, misspelling, key to genera); Séguy (1926b: 20, nomen nudum, key to genera); Séguy (1927a: 424, nomen nudum, key to genera, catalog); Townsend (1931: 82, synonymy with Ormiophasia  ); Sabrosky (1953: 181, as Ormiophasia  , catalog); Tavares (1964: 38, comments on synonymy).

Diversity and distribution. The ranges of the 16 species currently ascribed to Ormiophasia  cover an area from Southeast Mexico to northern Argentina.

References. Townsend (1919: 164, description of Ormiophasia  and of the type species O. busckii  ); Aldrich (1922: 5, comments on Ormia  , treated O rmiophasia as synonym of Ormia  ); Townsend (1927: 223, key to genera of Neotropical Muscoidea [sensu Townsend]); Malloch (1929: 279, as Ormia  , comments on validity of Ormiophasia  ); Townsend (1931: 82, synonymized Plagiatormia  , Pseudormia  and Pseudoneoptera  with Ormiophasia  ); Townsend (1936: 100, comments on larval characters; 101, key to genera of Ormiini  , comments on synonymies of Plagiatormia  , Pseudormia  and Pseudoneoptera  ); Townsend (1938: 236, redescription, description of larva); Townsend (1942: 325, illustration of larva); Sabrosky (1953: 171, key to genera of New World Ormiini  ; 172, key; 181, catalog, comments on synonymies of Plagiatormia  , Pseudormia  and Pseudoneoptera  ); Thompson (1963: 455, comments on larvae being related to Euphasiopteryx  and Ormia  ); Tavares (1964: 37–52, taxonomic revision, comments on synonymies of Plagiatormia  , Pseudormia  and Pseudoneoptera  ); Tavares (1965a: 14, key to genera of Neotropical Ormiini  ); Guimarães (1971: 22; catalog); Tschorsnig (1985: 55, illustration of male ejaculatory apodeme; 97, description of male terminalia of Ormiini  ); Gramajo (1997: 96, record of Ormiophasia  , as Ormiaphasia, misspelling); Toma & Nihei (2006: 243, catalog of type material); Wood & Zumbado (2010: 1410, as Ormia Robineau-Desvoidy  ; treated Ormiophasia  as synonym of Ormia  ); Evenhuis et al. (2015: 197, catalog of Townsend’s genera); Nihei (2016: 914, catalog of Colombiam Tachinidae  ); O’Hara (2018: 55, catalog).

Diagnosis. Ormiophasia  resembles Ormia  , sharing many characters with this genus, such as: occiput extremely concave, especially in females; presternum with a pair of pits on anterior surface ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1); anterior surface of distiphallus membranous ( Figs 38–42View FIGURE 38View FIGURE 39View FIGURE 40View FIGURE 41View FIGURE 42); hypoproct with a lateral patch of very short, spiniform setae ( Fig. 3BView FIGURE 3); and female tergite six with a row of strong, posteriorly curved setae. However, although many authors have considered Ormiophasia  and Ormia  as synonyms, Ormiophasia  can be clearly distinguished by its darker body color, varying between brownish-yellow, brown and dark brown ( Figs 9–14View FIGURE 9View FIGURE 10View FIGURE 11View FIGURE 12View FIGURE 13View FIGURE 14) ( Ormia  species generally have a pale yellow body color); ocelli well developed (vestigial or missing in Ormia  ); one pair of presutural acrostichal setae (two to three pairs in Ormia  ); tegula of same color as body ( Ormia  usually with tegula black, contrasting with body color); male wing without callosities on veins C and R 2+3 ( Ormia  usually with callosities on C and R 2+3) (see Tavares 1962, 1965a, 1965b); male terminalia with apex of cerci broad, at least 1/3 of total width of cerci ( Figs 38–42View FIGURE 38View FIGURE 39View FIGURE 40View FIGURE 41View FIGURE 42) (in Ormia  the cerci are tapered apically, less than 1/3 of total width of cerci) (see Tavares 1962, 1965a, 1965b); and female terminalia with hypoproct bare, without setulae ( Fig. 3BView FIGURE 3, setulose in Ormia  ). Additionally, Ormiophasia  also differs from other Ormiini  genera by having head hemispherical in profile, with genal length not exceeding 0.2 times length of head; face developed, at least 1.1 times width of facial ridge; facial ridge broad but not exceeding 2.9 times width of parafacial; and male terminalia with cerci completely fused.

Genus characterization. Both sexes. Head hemispherical in profile; oral axis shorter than antennal axis. Eye bare. Ocelli well developed. Antenna inserted in the middle of the eye, reaching halfway between lunule and lower facial margin; scape reduced, with row of marginal setulae; pedicel dorsally setulose, with one dorsal preapical seta; first flagellomere oblong; arista arising basally on dorsal surface, bare or weakly plumose, base pubescent and lightcolored, becoming tapered and darker distally. Fronto-orbital plate setulose to level of first anterior frontal seta. Parafacial bare. Facial ridge broad and subequal to facial length, setulose below vibrissa. Face slightly concave at vibrissal angle, with lower facial margin not visible in profile. Gena about 1/10 of head height, genal setae 4–5. Genal dilation setulose. Vibrissae strong and crossed, arising far above lower facial margin; supravibrissal setae 1–2, about 1/3 length of vibrissa; subvibrissal setae 3–4. Mouthparts well developed; clypeus globose; palpus developed, about 1.5 times length of prementum, clavate, covered with appressed setae from median area to apex; prementum setulose; labella padlike. Occiput covered with silver setulae, with row of short postocular setae; lower occipital area strongly concave.

Thorax densely covered with black setulae. Presternum bilobed ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1), each lobe with a pit on anterior surface. Basisternum bare, inflated; ventral surface grooved medially. Prosternal tympanal membrane corrugated, with corrugation equally distributed across entire membrane. Acrostichal setae 1+2–3; dorsocentral setae 2+3; intra-alar setae 1+2; supra-alar setae 1+2 (first postsutural seta weak, about 1/2 length of second postsutural seta). Postpronotal setae 3, with inner seta weaker. Notopleural setae 2, equal-sized. Postalar setae 2, equal-sized. Proepisternal setae 1, strong, upcurved, with 1–3 weaker setae near base. Katepisternal setae 2, divergent. Anepimeral seta 1. Katepimeron, katatergite, anatergite and postalar wall bare. Scutellar setae strong, convergent; basal pair subequal to subapical pair; lateral pair 2/3 length of subapical pair, closer to basal pair; apical pair absent; discal pair half length of subapical pair, more widely separated than subapical setae. Wing. Tegula setulose, with 1–2 inner marginal setae. Cells sc, c and r 1 with light yellow infuscation. Vein C ending just after vein M 1, at wing apex. Cell r 4+5 open; length of opening subequal to or shorter than crossvein r-m. Vein M 1 arched towards apex; bend of vein M angular or rounded, sometimes with a short stem. Legs. Fore coxa with an outer row of 3–4 anterior setae followed by 4–6 marginal setae. Fore tibia with 1 posterodorsal preapical seta, 2 posteroventral median setae, 1 preapical seta and 1 ventral preapical seta. Mid femur with 1 strong anteromedian seta and 2–3 strong posterodorsal preapical setae. Mid tibia with 1 strong anterodorsal postmedian seta, 1 apical seta, 1 posterodorsal apical seta, 2 posteromedian setae, 1 weak apical seta, 1 posteroventral apical seta, 1 weak ventral apical seta and 1 strong anteroventral apical seta. Hind femur with row of 3–4 posterodorsal basal setae and row of 11–12 weak posterodorsal setae from middle to apex. Hind tibia with 2 anterodorsal median setae, 1 preapical seta, 1 weak ventral apical seta, 2–3 weak anteroventral median setae and 1 weak apical seta. Pulvilli light yellow. Claws brown, with apex black.

Abdomen globose and widely connected with thorax, wider than long; densely covered with black setulae. Middorsal depression on syntergite 1+2 extending to hind margin of syntergite. Syntergite 1+2 and tergite 3 with one pair of marginal lateral setae. Tergite 4 with row of 8–10 marginal setae. Tergite 5 with row of 6–8 discal setae. Sternites visible, each with a weak row of marginal setae.

Male. Head holoptic ( Figs 5–6View FIGURE 5View FIGURE 6). Ocellar triangle constricted, tubercle-shaped. Dorsal ommatidia larger than peripheral ones. Thorax. Lateral cervical sclerite with external lobe oblong (e.g., Fig. 15EView FIGURE 15). Basisternum less inflated than in female. Prosternal tympanal membrane reduced. Posterior spiracle with posterior lappet shaped as an operculum. Terminalia ( Figs 3AView FIGURE 3, 38–42View FIGURE 38View FIGURE 39View FIGURE 40View FIGURE 41View FIGURE 42). Sternite 5 with posterior margin bilobed, setulose posteriorly. Epandrium with dorsal surface covered with strong, upcurved setae. Surstylus not fused with epandrium; strongly arcuate mediad; posterior surface with a slight distal, median ridge; articulation with bacilliform sclerite rounded; articulation with epandrium tapered and narrow; inner surface covered with microtrichia. Connection of bacilliform sclerite to hypandrium broad, becoming tapered towards surstylus. Anterior margin of hypandrium slightly longer than phallapodeme; concave; posterior area weakly sclerotized; hypandrial arms not fused with each other or with aedeagus. Basiphallus connected directly to distiphallus at a 90 o angle; distiphallus simple, smooth, with anterior surface grooved. Phallapodeme flat, slender. Ejaculatory apodeme narrow, with posterior apex slightly broader. Pregonites flat, bare, slightly concave, not fused with each other and not fused with hypandrium; anterior margin broad, reaching lower posterior margin of hypandrium. Postgonite long, bare, rod-like, with rounded apex, almost reaching connection between basiphallus and distiphallus. Cerci fused, with apex broad and at least 1/3 of total length of cerci; covered with setae.

Female. Head dichoptic ( Figs 7–8View FIGURE 7View FIGURE 8). Ocellar triangle level with eyes, not protruding as a tubercle. Ommatidia all of the same size, not differentiated. One pair of inner vertical setae, strong and crossed, subequal to vibrissa. One pair of outer vertical setae, same size as inner vertical setae, divergent. One pair of upper orbital setae, divergent, half size of vertical setae. Two pairs of proclinate orbital setae. Thorax. Lateral cervical sclerite with external lobe extended and tapered at margin (e.g., Fig. 15FView FIGURE 15). Basisternum very inflated, much more than in male. Prosternal tympanal membrane broad. Posterior spiracle with posterior lappet stylus- or plume-shaped (except operculum-shaped in O. lanei  ). Terminalia ( Fig. 3BView FIGURE 3). Tergite 6 broad, voluminous, setulose, separated into two equal-sized sclerites, bearing spiracles 6 and 7; inner margin with very strong, inward-curved setae. Tergite 7 absent. Tergite 8 developed, bare, separated into two equal-sized, concave sclerites. Epiproct (tergite 10), when present, represented by one pair of setae in membrane. Sternites 6, 7 and 8 each with a row of weak marginal setae. Hypoproct (sternite 10) bare; lateral surface with patch of very short, spiniform setae; ventral surface with longitudinal median row of short setae; posterior margin with row of slender, weak setae. Cerci free, not fused, with weak, slender marginal setae. Three equal-sized spermathechae, spherical, smooth.

Remarks. The first four species included in Ormiophasia  were based mainly on female specimens, which probably caused most of the confusion about the validity of the genus. The male and female terminalia had not been studied and described at that time, but they include important diagnostic characters for the genus. Aldrich (1922) and Curran (1934) treated Ormiophasia  as a junior synonym of Ormia  , without justification. Only Malloch (1929) made some considerations based on characters such as the width of the female frontal vitta, which is narrow in Ormiophasia  . Townsend (1919: 164) had already mentioned this character when describing Ormiophasia  , and Sabrosky (1953: 172) also used it to differentiate Ormia  and Ormiophasia  in his key. Ormia punctata  Robineau- Desvoidy, examined by Malloch, clearly has frontal vitta broader than in other Ormiophasia  species, but there are also other species of Ormia  with a narrower frontal vitta. Townsend did not know males of Ormiophasia  for a long time after the original description ( Townsend 1927: 223, “ ♂ desconhecido [unknown]”), until he included descrip- tions of male terminalia in his Manual of Myiology ( Townsend 1936, 1938). These descriptions were superficial and incomplete, however, and relative to all Ormiini  . In this context, the contributions and impact of the publications of Tavares (1962, 1964, 1965a, 1965b) on the taxonomy of New World Ormiini  should be highlighted, since the male terminalia of a comprehensive number of species were described in detail for the first time. Furthermore, Tavares was the first to diagnose these genera based on male terminalia ( Tavares 1965a: 14). However, he described his species based only on males, without associating them with their respective females. The association of females with males and the dissections of female terminalia made in the present study have provided additional and valuable characters to differentiate Ormiophasia  and Ormia  .

Some comments about Tavares’s holotypes are also warranted. The right wing, antenna and male terminalia of his type material were mounted on slides and linked with their respective specimens by a code (see Fig. 19EView FIGURE 19). However, during the Brazilian military government (1964–1985), an event known as the “Massacre de Manguinhos” took place ( Jurberg 1993; Costa et al. 2008). This episode, which occurred on April 1st, 1970, greatly impacted the history of science in Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Unidade Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, where Omar Tavares had worked and where his holotypes are deposited. The term “Massacre de Manguinhos” was coined by helmintologist Herman Lent ( Jurberg 1993), who worked for the same institute. The “Manguinhos” entomological collection is one of the most important historic scientific collections in Brazil. During the “Massacre de Manguinhos”, scientists were politically persecuted and the scientific collection was dismantled and transferred to another building inside the institute. The relocation of the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz collection resulted in the loss of much of the material.Although Tavares’s holotypes are still in good condition, their respective slides were lost, probably during this episode. Only the slides of the male terminalia of the paratypes, housed in MZSP and USNM, are available for study.

The type material of all nominal species of Ormiophasia  was examined during this study. All of Séguy’s and Townsend’s holotypes are in good conditions of preservation ( Figs 16View FIGURE 16, 24View FIGURE 24, 29View FIGURE 29, 30View FIGURE 30). The type specimens of Tavares ( Figs 18View FIGURE 18, 20View FIGURE 20, 22View FIGURE 22, 25View FIGURE 25, 27View FIGURE 27) have damaged abdomens due to their dissection. The examination of type material allowed for a reliable identification of the material included in this study. Furthermore, as Sabrosky (1953: 173) remarked, Ormiophasia  specimens exhibit a significant variation in body coloration, which ranges from brownish-yellow to almost black. The color and pruinosity of the head and thorax, and the male cerci and surstylus, were the most important characters supporting the description of the eight new species.

So far, there are no known host records for any Ormiophasia  species.

Key to species of Ormiophasia 

Although Ormiophasia  (and Ormiini  ) species are sexually dimorphic, the key provided below aims to identify both male and female specimens (except for O. obscura  , O. buoculus  sp. nov. and O. townsendi  sp. nov., of which only males are known); when necessary, characters exclusive to one sex are included in couplets. The identification of female specimens, however, has to be done carefully, since the females of several species are very similar (e.g., O. costalimai  and O. inflata  or O. causeyi  and O. chapulini  sp. nov.). The male terminalia are the most reliable source of information allowing to confirm species’ identity.

Tavares (1964) provided the first key to Ormiophasia  species, but some characters used in his key fail when large series are examined, due to variation (e.g., of body color or of number of setae). Furthermore, there are some errors in the key, which are commented on in the Remarks under the respective species in the present paper. Some important characters used by Tavares are maintained here for some species (e.g., those of the male terminalia of O. lanei  ). Séguy (1926b) also provided a key to his monotypic genera Plagiatormia  , Pseudoneoptera  and Pseudormia  , based on the length of the opening of cell r 4+5, the shape of the bend of vein M, the length of the antenna and the shape of the face. Although these characters can be seen in Séguy’s holotypes, they are variable in the additional material examined (except in O. obscura  , so far known only from the holotype).

1 Basicosta broad, twice width of tegula ( Fig. 4BView FIGURE 4); female wing with strong brown infuscation around all veins except A 1 +CuA 2 (male wing with weak infuscation at the tip of vein R 2+3 and around veins M 1 and dm-cu, see Figs 33GView FIGURE 33, 34FView FIGURE 34), and with veins R 2+3, R 4+5, M 1 and CuA 1 thickened ( Figs 33HView FIGURE 33, 34GView FIGURE 34); thorax dark brown or brownish-yellow.......................... 2

- Basicosta subequal in width to tegula ( Fig. 4AView FIGURE 4); female and male wings hyaline ( Fig. 15GView FIGURE 15) or infuscated only around veins R 1, R 2+3, M 1 and dm-cu ( Fig. 28GView FIGURE 28), but without thickened veins; thorax brownish-yellow, brown or dark brown.............. 3

2 Thorax and abdomen dark brown ( Figs 10CView FIGURE 10, 14BView FIGURE 14); male wing with section of vein M between crossvein dm-cu and M 1 slightly curved ( Fig. 33GView FIGURE 33); apex of male cerci long and about 2/5 length of cerci in posterior view ( Fig. 41AView FIGURE 41) (North Brazil, Costa Rica, French Guiana and Venezuela).......................................................... O. crassivena  sp. nov.

- Thorax brownish-yellow, contrasting with dark brown abdomen ( Figs 10DView FIGURE 10, 14CView FIGURE 14); male wing with section of vein M between crossvein dm-cu and M 1 straight ( Fig. 34GView FIGURE 34); apex of male cerci short and about 1/3 length of cerci in posterior view ( Fig. 41BView FIGURE 41) (South and Southeast Brazil)......................................................... O. manguinhos  sp. nov.

3 Wing with strong brown infuscation around veins R 1 and R 2+3 ( Fig. 28GView FIGURE 28) and weak brown infuscation around veins M 1 and dm-cu; thorax and abdomen dark brown or brownish-yellow................................................... 4

- Wing hyaline ( O. cruzi  may have a very weak brown infuscation around veins M 1 and dm-cu, see Fig. 21GView FIGURE 21); thorax and abdomen dark brown, brown or brownish-yellow................................................................ 7

4 Thorax and abdomen dark brown; fronto-orbital plate and parafacial gray with silver pruinosity....................... 5

- Thorax and abdomen brown or brownish-yellow; fronto-orbital plate and parafacial brownish-yellow with yellow pruinosity 6

5 Male head with dorsal ommatidia larger than ocelli ( Fig. 6GView FIGURE 6); ocellar triangle very constricted, not visible in profile ( Venezuela)................................................................................ O. buoculus  sp. nov  .

- Male head with dorsal ommatidia not as large as above, about 0.6 times smaller than ocelli ( Fig. 5GView FIGURE 5); ocellar triangle constricted, visible as a tubercle in profile (North Brazil, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Panama and Peru)................................................................................................... O. morardi (Séguy) 

6 Male head with dorsal ommatidia larger than ocelli ( Fig. 6HView FIGURE 6); ocellar triangle very constricted, not visible in profile; thorax and abdomen brownish-yellow; surstylus slender, with outer posterior surface covered with weak setae in upper two-thirds ( Fig. 42CView FIGURE 42); apex of male cerci about 1/3 width of cerci in posterior view ( North Brazil)................. O. townsendi  sp. nov  .

- Male head with dorsal ommatidia not as large as above, subequal to ocelli size ( Fig. 6BView FIGURE 6); ocellar triangle constricted, but visible as a tubercle in profile; thorax brown, abdomen brownish-yellow; surstylus stout, with outer posterior surface entirely covered with strong setae ( Fig. 40CView FIGURE 40); apex of male cerci about 1/2 width of cerci in posterior view ( Bolivia and Peru)................................................................................................... O. seguyi  sp. nov.

7 Fronto-orbital plate with silver pruinosity clearly contrasting with yellow pruinosity of lower parts of head (both sexes, but more obvious in females, see Fig. 7FView FIGURE 7); thorax and abdomen brown; surstylus slender in posterior view.................. 8

- Head pruinosity entirely silver or yellow, without contrast between fronto-orbital plate and rest of head; thorax and abdomen brown, dark brown or brownish-yellow; surstylus stout in posterior view......................................... 9

8 Clypeus darker than frontoclypeal membrane ( Figs 5FView FIGURE 5, 7FView FIGURE 7); female posterior spiracle with posterior lappet shaped as an operculum; surstylus strongly inflected inward in posterior view, outer posterior surface covered with strong setae in upper two-thirds ( Fig. 39CView FIGURE 39); apex of male cerci subquadrate and abruptly constricted in posterior view (Southeast Brazil)... O. lanei Tavares 

- Clypeus of same color as frontoclypeal membrane ( Fig. 5DView FIGURE 5); female posterior spiracle with posterior lappet plume-shaped; surstylus not inflected inward as above, covered with weak setae in upper two-thirds ( Fig. 39AView FIGURE 39); apex of male cerci subquadrate and gradually constricted in posterior view (South and Southeast Brazil, Panama and Paraguay).......... O. cruzi Tavares 

9 Clypeus darker than frontoclypeal membrane ( Fig. 6EView FIGURE 6); thorax and abdomen dark brown........................... 10

- Clypeus of same color as frontoclypeal membrane ( Fig. 5AView FIGURE 5); thorax and abdomen brown or brownish-yellow ( O. guimaraesi  sp. nov. has a dark brown scutum, but the rest of the thorax is brown, see Figs 10AView FIGURE 10, 12AView FIGURE 12)........................... 12

10 Thorax and abdomen entirely dark brown ( Figs 10EView FIGURE 10, 14DView FIGURE 14); anteroventral epandrial process extending well beyond ventral epandrial margin ( Fig. 41CView FIGURE 41); dorsal surface of epandrium with posterior margin at same level as anterior margin ( Fig. 41CView FIGURE 41, lateral view); apex of male cerci about 1/2 width of cerci in posterior view, abruptly constricted ( Fig. 41CView FIGURE 41) ( Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama and Venezuela)................................................................. O. tavaresi  sp. nov.

- Thorax and abdomen dark brown, with postpronotal lobe brown ( Figs 9BView FIGURE 9, 13BView FIGURE 13); anteroventral epandrial process continuous with ventral epandrial margin ( Fig. 42AView FIGURE 42); dorsal surface of epandrium with posterior margin higher than anterior margin ( Fig. 42AView FIGURE 42, lateral view); apex of male cerci 1/3 ( Fig. 38BView FIGURE 38) or more than 1/2 width of cerci in posterior view ( Fig. 42AView FIGURE 42), gradually constricted.......................................................................................... 11

11 Arista weakly plumose ( Fig. 17View FIGURE 17 A–B); apex of male cerci narrow, 1/3 width of cerci and rounded in posterior view ( Fig. 38BView FIGURE 38) (North Brazil, Guyana, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago and Venezuela)............................... O. causeyi Tavares 

- Arista bare ( Fig. 36View FIGURE 36 A–B); apex of male cerci broad, more than 1/2 width of cerci and subquadrate in posterior view ( Fig. 42AView FIGURE 42) ( Costa Rica and Mexico)............................................................... O. chapulini  sp. nov.

12 Thorax with scutum dark brown and lateral surface brown ( Figs 10AView FIGURE 10, 12AView FIGURE 12); apex of male cerci broad, subrectangular in posterior view ( Fig. 40BView FIGURE 40); surstylus stout in posterior view, with outer posterior surface densely covered with strong setae and inner posterior surface covered with short setae medially ( Colombia and Costa Rica)................... O. guimaraesi  sp. nov.

- Thorax entirely brown or brownish-yellow; apex of male cerci broad or narrow, rounded in posterior view; surstylus not as stout as above ( Figs 38A, 38CView FIGURE 38, 39BView FIGURE 39), with inner posterior surface bare.............................................. 13

13 Thorax and abdomen entirely brown..................................................................... 14

- Thorax and abdomen entirely brownish-yellow............................................................. 15

14 Ocellar triangle bare, without setulae ( Fig. 15View FIGURE 15 C–D); head yellow-pruinose ( Figs 5AView FIGURE 5, 7AView FIGURE 7) ( Panama).... O. busckii Townsend 

- Ocellar triangle setulose ( Fig. 30AView FIGURE 30); head silver-pruinose ( Fig. 5HView FIGURE 5) ( Argentina)..................... O. obscura (Séguy) 

15 Female head subtrapezoidal in frontal view, with gena about 0.15 times length of head ( Figs 7EView FIGURE 7, 23BView FIGURE 23); apex of male cerci broad ( Fig. 39BView FIGURE 39), 3/5 width of cerci and rounded in posterior view, and gradually constricted ( North Brazil, French Guiana, Trinidad and Tobago and Venezuela)............................................................... O. inflata (Séguy)   

- Female head elliptic in frontal view, with gena about 0.12 times length of head ( Figs 7CView FIGURE 7, 19BView FIGURE 19); apex of male cerci narrow ( Fig. 38CView FIGURE 38), 1/3 width of cerci and rounded in posterior view, and abruptly constricted (North Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela)......................................................... O. costalimai Tavares 

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Diptera

Family

Tachinidae

Loc

Ormiophasia Townsend, 1919

Gudin, Filipe M. & Nihei, Silvio S. 2019
2019
Loc

Pseudormia Séguy, 1927b: 262

Tavares, O. 1964: 38
Sabrosky, C. W. 1953: 181
Townsend, C. H. T. 1931: 82
Seguy, E. 1927: 262
Seguy, E. 1927: 424
Seguy, E. 1926: 5
Seguy, E. 1926: 20
Seguy, E. 1925: 375
1927
Loc

Ormiophasia

Seguy, E. 1926: 19
Seguy, E. 1926: 20
Townsend, C. H. T. 1919: 164
1919