Ormiophasia cruzi Tavares, 1964,

Gudin, Filipe M. & Nihei, Silvio S., 2019, Taxonomic revision of the Neotropical genus Ormiophasia Townsend, 1919 (Diptera: Tachinidae), with the description of eight new species, Zootaxa 4643 (1), pp. 1-74: 32-35

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Ormiophasia cruzi Tavares, 1964


Ormiophasia cruzi Tavares, 1964 

( Figs 5DView FIGURE 5, 7DView FIGURE 7, 9DView FIGURE 9, 11DView FIGURE 11, 13DView FIGURE 13, 21–22View FIGURE 21View FIGURE 22, 39AView FIGURE 39)

Ormiophasia cruzi Tavares, 1964: 47  (description of male). Holotype male (CEIOC), examined. Type locality: Brazil, Guanabara [state of Rio de Janeiro], Rio de Janeiro, Gávea [neighborhood of the municipality of Rio de Janeiro].

Ormiophasia cruzi: Tavares (1964: 39  , key to species; 48, illustrations of head, abdomen, wing and terminalia); Guimarães (1971: 22; catalog).

Type material examined. HOLOTYPE ♂ ( Fig. 22View FIGURE 22): “Prov. Gavea [neighborhood of the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, handwriting]/ L.T. [Lauro Travassos] col., 9–933 [1933.09]”/ “ Ormiophasia cruzi  / O. Tavares det.”/ “Holotipo” [red label]/ “N. 13.191/ DIPTERA  / Inst. Oswaldo Cruz” ( CEIOC). 

Additional material examined. Argentina: 1 ♀, Misiones , v.1937, O. Staudinger & Bang-Haas leg. ( CEIOC)  . Brazil: 1 ♀, Bahia, Ituberá , 1.vii.2003, Vieira R. leg. ( UEFS)  ; 1 ♀, Espírito Santo, Itaunas , Engano Stream, 1944, Travasso & N. Santos leg. ( CEIOC)  ; 1 ♀, Pará, Serra Norte , 22.x.1984 [no collector], MPEG DIP 12183743 ( MPEG)  ; 1 ♀, Paraná, Foz do Iguaçú , 7.xii.1966, D. Zoo. U.F.P. leg., DZUP 201397 ( DZUP)  ; 1 ♀, Paraná, Morretes , IAPAR, 28.vi.1985, C.I.I.F. leg., DZUP 201363 ( DZUP)  ; 1 ♀, Paraná, Morretes , IAPAR, 21–27.viii.1984, C.I.I.F. leg., DZUP 201366 ( DZUP)  ; 1 ♀, Paraná, São José dos Pinhais, BR 277 [highway] Km 54, 6.iv.1985, C.I.I.F. leg., DZUP 201374 ( DZUP)  ; 2 ♀♀, Rio de Janeiro, Angra dos Reis, xii.1932, L.T. leg. ( CEIOC)  ; 1 ♀ [photographed] ( Figs 7DView FIGURE 7, 13DView FIGURE 13, 21B, D, FView FIGURE 21), Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Corcovado, Paineiras , x.1933, L.T. leg. ( CEIOC)  ; 1 ♀, Santa Catarina, Rio das Antas, i.1953, Camargo Andr. leg. ( CEIOC)  ; 1 ♀, São Paulo, Tamoio [highway], xii.1944, M.P. Barreto leg. ( MZSP)  ; 1 ♂ [dissected and photographed] ( Figs 5DView FIGURE 5, 9DView FIGURE 9, 11DView FIGURE 11, 21A, C, E, GView FIGURE 21), São Paulo, Salesópolis, Estação Biológica de Boraceia , 23º38’29”S 45º51’22”W, 21.iv.2012, Gudin et al. leg. ( MZSP)GoogleMaps  . Panama: 2 ♂♂ [one dissected]  , 1 ♀, Coclé, El Valle, 6.i.1954, F.S. Blanton leg. ( USNM)  . Paraguay: 1 ♀, Coclé, Pastoreo , 3–6.i.1972 [no collector] ( MZSP)  .

Distribution. Argentina (province of Misiones), Brazil (states of Bahia, Espírito Santo, Pará, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina e São Paulo), Panamá (region of Coclé) and Paraguay (region of Caazapá).

Diagnosis. Ormiophasia cruzi  can be distinguished from other species of Ormiophasia  by fronto-orbital plate with silver pruinosity, clearly contrasting with yellow pruinosity of lower parts of head ( Figs 5DView FIGURE 5, 7DView FIGURE 7); clypeus of same color as frontoclypeal membrane; wing with weak brown infuscation around veins M 1 and dm-cu ( Fig. 21GView FIGURE 21); surstylus slender, with posterior outer surface covered with weak setae in upper two-thirds ( Fig. 39AView FIGURE 39); and apex of male cerci about 1/3 length of cerci, subquadrate in posterior view and more than 1/2 width of cerci, gradually constricted. Ormiophasia lanei  also shares with O. cruzi  the shape and color of the head and contrast of pruinosity ( Figs 5FView FIGURE 5, 7FView FIGURE 7). However, the former differs from the latter by clypeus darker than frontoclypeal membrane, wing hyaline ( Fig. 26EView FIGURE 26), surstylus strongly inflected ( Fig. 39CView FIGURE 39), and apex of male cerci 1/3 width of cerci in posterior view, abruptly constricted.

Redescription of male. Body length 5.33–6.91 mm (mean = 6.05 mm); wing length 5.87–7.13 mm (6.49 mm) (n = 3).

Coloration. Head yellow or silver-pruinose ( Fig. 5DView FIGURE 5). Frontal vitta brown. Ocellar triangle dark brown. Frontoorbital plate brownish-yellow to light brown. Lunule brownish-yellow. Antenna yellowish-orange to brownish-orange. Parafacial, gena, facial ridge, face and mouthparts brownish-yellow to light brown. Occiput brown in upper area, becoming brownish-yellow in lower area. Thorax silver-pruinose ( Figs 9DView FIGURE 9, 11DView FIGURE 11). Scutum brown; presutural scutum with three silver-pruinose stripes merged posteriorly after suture. Postpronotal lobe and lateral surface of thorax brownish-yellow to light brown. Scutellum and subscutellum brown. Wing with weak brown infuscation around veins M 1 and dm-cu ( Fig. 21GView FIGURE 21). Tegula, basicosta, veins, halter and calypteres brownish-yellow to light brown. Legs brownish-yellow to light brown. Abdomen entirely brownish-yellow or light brown with silver pruinosity.

Head ( Figs 5DView FIGURE 5, 21A, CView FIGURE 21). Elliptic in frontal view; ratio of head height/head width 0.70. Ocelli twice the diameter of dorsal ommatidia. Postocellar setae 2. Frontal vitta entirely obliterated. Frontal setae 7–8, convergent, posterior ones shorter and weaker. Arista bare. First flagellomere twice length of pedicel. Face 1.6 times wider than facial ridge. Facial ridge 2.5 times wider than parafacial.

Thorax. Basisternum 0.82 times as high as wide ( Fig. 21EView FIGURE 21); median upper margin rounded and long, subrectangular. Prosternal tympanal membrane 0.69 times as high as wide. Proepimeral setae 2–3, upcurved. Anterodorsal corner of anepisternum with 1 weak seta, about 1/2 length of first notopleural seta; posterior row with 7–8 setae. Meral setae 6–8. Wing. Subequal to body length, three times longer than wide. Basicosta subequal in width to tegula. Base of vein R 4+5 with 3 dorsal and 4 ventral setae. Section of vein M between crossvein dm-cu and M 1 straight. Legs. Fore femur with row of 8–9 dorsal setae from base to apex and row of 11–12 posteroventral setae from base to apex. Fore tibia with row of 2–3 equally-spaced anterodorsal setae and 1 preapical seta. Mid femur with 2–3 posteroventral basal setae. Hind femur with row of 11–12 anterodorsal setae from base to apex and 3–4 anteroventral basal setae. Hind tibia with 1–2 posterodorsal median setae and 1 preapical seta.

Terminalia ( Fig. 39AView FIGURE 39). Sternite 5 subtriagular; lateral distal lobes weakly pronounced. Anteroventral epandrial process continuous with ventral epandrial margin. Dorsal surface of epandrium short, posterior margin at same level as anterior margin; lateral ventral margin slightly curved; posterior area articulated to surstylus with open, rounded arch. Surstylus slender, less thick than apex of cerci in lateral view; posterior outer surface covered with weak setae in upper two-thirds. Cerci: basal margin with distinct median projection; apex about 1/3 length of cerci, subquadrate in posterior view, thick and tapered in lateral view; apex more than 1/2 width of cerci in posterior view, gradually constricted; apex with anterior surface U-shaped. Postgonite slightly curved, apex rounded in lateral view.

Description of female. Differs from male as follows. Body length 5.94–7.47 mm (mean = 6.81 mm); wing length 6.27–8.55 mm (mean = 7.69 mm) (n = 10). Head ( Figs 7DView FIGURE 7, 21B, DView FIGURE 21). Frontal vitta twice width of fronto-orbital plate. Fronto-orbital plate with silver pruinosity, clearly contrasting with yellow pruinosity on lower parts of head. Frontal setae 8–9, from lunule to posterior orbital proclinate seta; second or third anteriormost frontal seta stronger and subequal to subvibrissal setae. First flagellomere 2.5 times as long as pedicel. Thorax. Basisternum 0.54 times as high as wide ( Fig. 21FView FIGURE 21); median upper margin rounded and long, subtriangular, with broad base. Prosternal tympanal membrane elliptic, 0.79 times as high as wide. Wing 2.8 times longer than wide.

Remarks. The females were associated with the males through body color and head pruinosity. The female of O. cruzi  is described for the first time in the present study. In his key, Tavares assigned to O. cruzi  a strong infuscation around veins R 2+3, M 1 and dm-cu ( Tavares 1964: 39), which is also present in the illustrations ( Tavares 1964: 48) and mentioned in the original description ( Tavares 1964: 49). This pattern of infuscation could cause some confusion in the identification of O. cruzi  , because it is also present in O. morardi  , O. seguyi  sp. nov., O. buoculus  sp. nov. and O. townsendi  sp. nov. ( Figs 28GView FIGURE 28, 32GView FIGURE 32, 37View FIGURE 37 G–H). However, this strong infuscation is not present in the holotype of O. cruzi  or in any of the additional material examined. Ormiophasia cruzi  has only a slight infuscation around veins M 1 and dm-cu ( Fig. 21GView FIGURE 21). Furthermore, Tavares (1964) also used the number of proepimeral setae in his key, but this character shows intraspecific variation. Regarding the distribution of O. cruzi  , there is a huge gap between southeast South America and Panama. Although there is only one record from the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, in Pará, it is likely that O. cruzi  could have a continuous distribution from the Atlantic Forest to Panama. The male terminalia of specimens from both extremes are very similar, but the series from Panama is small. The specimens from Central America are usually darker than those from South America. This gap could indicate a mere lack of collecting or the existence of different isolated species with a similar morphology, which is the case of O. morardi  / O. buoculus  sp. nov. and O. crassivena  sp. nov. / O. manguinhos  sp. nov. Additional material, especially from Central America and northern South America, is required to clarify this question.


Laboratorio de Ictiologia


Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi


Universidade Federal do Parana, Colecao de Entomologia Pe. Jesus Santiago Moure


Sao Paulo, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History














Ormiophasia cruzi Tavares, 1964

Gudin, Filipe M. & Nihei, Silvio S. 2019

Ormiophasia cruzi Tavares, 1964: 47

Tavares, O. 1964: 47

Ormiophasia cruzi: Tavares (1964: 39

Guimaraes, J. H. 1971: 22
Tavares, O. 1964: 39