Selenops banksi Muma, 1953

Crews, Sarah C., Galvis, William & Esposito, Lauren A., 2021, Gliding canopy flatties and relatives from the Selenops banksi group (Araneae: Selenopidae), Journal of Natural History 54 (35 - 36), pp. 2343-2365: 2348-2357

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1080/00222933.2020.1844914

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lsid:zoobank.org:pub:EBB43509-9E17-4F75-920A-BE332F014705

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http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03E97817-FF98-1D70-FE42-FAD7FAB9FEF7

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scientific name

Selenops banksi Muma, 1953
status

 

Selenops banksi Muma, 1953  

( Figures 1 View Figure 1 (a–d, 2(a–i, w), 3(a–d), 4(a–o), 5(a–c) and 6(a–b, e, h–i, l), Map 1)

Selenops banksi Muma, 1953: 38   , Figs 61–63 (♂, examined).

Selenops banksi Crews, 2011: 25   , Figs 15–16 (♂).

Selenops kikay Corronca, 1996: 69   , Figs 6 View Figure 6 –9 (♂, examined; destroyed), syn. n.

Selenops kikay Corronca, 1998: 136   , Figs 27–30 (♀, examined; lost), syn. n.

Type material. Holotype. male, Barro Colorado, Canal Zone, Panama, 26.VII (no year), N. Banks ( MCZ 20436 View Materials , examined).  

Other material examined. BRAZIL: Amazonas: Manaus, Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke , 4   .I   .1993, col. H Höfer and T Gasnier, 1♂ ( MCN)   ; Bahía: Itabuna, 1♂ (type of  

S. kikay, MNRJ 1875   – destroyed, examined from photos). ECUADOR: Orellana: Reserva Etnica Waorani, Transect Ent   . 1 km S Onkone Gare Camp , 0.65713°S 76.453° W, 216.3 m, 24 GoogleMaps   . VI.1994, TL Erwin et al., Lot # 737, 1p ♀ ( USNM); same as previous, 2   .II   .1995, Lot # 1117, 1♂ ( USNM); 4   .II   .1996, Lot # 1419, 1♂ ( USNM); same as previous, 8   .II   .1995, Lot # 964, 1♂ ( USNM); same as previous, 23   . VI.1996, Lot # 1607, 1♂ ( USNM); same as previous, Lot # 1619, 1♀ ( USNM); Tiputini Biodiversity Stations near Yasuni National Park , Erwin Transect T/1 Sta   .1, 0.63194°S, 76.14416°W, 220–250 m, 21.X   .1998, TL Erwin et al., Lot # 1996, 1♂ ( USNM); same as previous, Lot # 1982, 1♂ ( USNM)   . GUYANA: Iwokrama Forest Research Station: 1 km north of Kurupukari , canopy fog of Mora   tree, 14–19   .I   .1996, W Tschinkel , 1♂ ( CASENT9058003)   . PANAMÁ: Canal Zone: Barro Colorado Island , II   .2008, R Duncan, 2 imm   . ( EMEC1140967 View Materials , 1140970 View Materials ); Juan Mina Station, II   .1945, CD Michener, 1 imm.   ( AMNH); Panama City: monsoon forest canopy fogging, 15–30.VII   .1979, E Brodhead et al., 1♂ ( USNM)   . PERU: Madre de Dios: Rio Tambopata Reserve, 30 km (air) southwest of Puerto Maldonato , 12.83333°S 69.33333°W, 290 m, Smithsonian Institute Canopy Fogging Project, 12 GoogleMaps   .VII GoogleMaps   .1984, TL Erwin et al., 1♂ ( MCZ)   .

Diagnosis. Selenops banksi   can be separated from S. micropalpus   and S. ducke   by the greenish to green, lichen-like appearance in life and the yellow and white abdomen with a foliate pattern when preserved ( Figures 1 View Figure 1 (a–d) and 2(a–i)). S. micropalpus   is greyish in life and not lichen-like, and with a darker grey-brown abdomen, rather than yellow and white, when preserved ( Figures 1 View Figure 1 (f) and 2(s–u)). S. ducke Corronca, 1996   is mahogany when preserved ( Figure 2 View Figure 2 (k–p)) (it is unknown what the animal looks like in life). S. banksi   has numerous white, flat setae on the legs both dorsally and ventrally (also present in S. curruganja   sp. nov.), whereas S. micropalpus   only has a few, and they are neither long nor dense ( Figures 1 View Figure 1 (a–d, f) and 2(d–e)). While there are differences in the epigynes and endogynes of S. banksi   and S micropalpus   , we have many female specimens of S. micropalpus   and only a single female of S. banksi   , making any sort of generalisation difficult as there is some amount of variation apparent in S. micropalpus   . The copulatory ducts of S. micropalpus   have more turns than those of S. banksi   ( Figure 6 View Figure 6 (a–c)). And in the single female specimen of S. banksi   , the lateral lobes are further apart towards the posterior, whereas they are usually very close, nearly touching, in S. micropalpus   . S. banksi   can be separated from S. curruganja   sp. nov. by the epigynal plate, which is longer than wide in S. banksi   , and about as long as wide in S. curruganja   sp. nov. ( Figure 6 View Figure 6 (a–b, d)).

Males of S. banksi   can be differentiated from other males of the group by the palps: In S. banksi   , the tip of the palp is densely covered in chemosensory setae, like a brush, and the tip of the cymbium is pointed ( Figures 3 View Figure 3 (a–d), 4(a) and 5(a–c)). In S. micropalpus   , the

S. ducke   , holotype male, cephalothorax ( MCN 25527 View Materials ) (n) S. ducke   , holotype male, abdomen ( MCN 25527 View Materials ) (o) S. ducke   , paratype female, cephalothorax ( MCN 21487 View Materials ) (p) S. ducke   , paratype female, abdomen ( MCN21487 View Materials ) (q) S. curruganja   sp. nov., holotype female, ventral, sternum (ICN-Ar-8289) (r) S. curruganja   sp. nov., holotype female, abdomen, ventral (ICN-Ar-8289) (s) S. micropalpus   , holotype male, Laudat, Dominica (AMNH) (t) S. micropalpus   , paratype female, Laudat, Dominica (AMNH) (u) S. micropalpus   , female, Dennery, St. Lucia (CAS) (v) S. micropalpus   , male, King’s Hill Forest Reserve , St. Vincent and the Grenadines (CAS) (w) S. kikay   syn. nov., label from holotype ( MNRJ – destroyed)   .

setae at the tip of the pedipalp are not dense, and the cymbium tip is rounded ( Figures 3 View Figure 3 (e) and 5(f)). In S. ducke   , the chemosensory setae are dense but not brushlike (at least on the single specimen available) ( Figures 3 View Figure 3 (f–h) and 5(d)). Males can also be easily and reliably distinguished by the embolic complex, consisting of the embolus and an embolic sclerite. In S. banksi   , the oval embolic base is oriented diagonally, whereas it is more vertically oriented in S. micropalpus   ( Figure 5 View Figure 5 (c,f)). Additionally, the embolus of S. micropalpus   is wider than that of S. banksi   ( Figure 5 View Figure 5 (c,f)). Finally, the embolus and embolic apophysis originate from the base very near to each other and remain close distally in S. banksi   ( Figure 5 View Figure 5 (a–c)). In S. micropalpus   , the embolus and embolic apophysis are separated at the base for most of their length ( Figure 5 View Figure 5 (f)). In S. ducke   , the embolus and embolic process are not separated but connected by a thin, lightly sclerotised area ( Figure 5 View Figure 5 (d–e)).

Description. Female from ECUADOR: Orellana: Reserva Etnica Waorani, Transect Ent. 1 km S Onkone Gare Camp, 0.65713°S 76.453° W, 216.3 m, 24.VI.1994, TL Erwin et al., lot #1619 (USNM). Colour ( Figures 1 View Figure 1 (a–d) and 2(d–e)). Carapace orange-tan with white setae, especially anterolaterally in frontal view next to the PLE ( Figure 1 View Figure 1 (b)), some dark, thicker setae, many setae rubbed off preserved specimen; sternum yellow with orange-brown border; chelicerae orange-tan; maxillae yellow-brown, lightening distally; labium slightly darker than maxillae, lightening distally; abdomen, in life, green or with green areas, with dark and light setae; preserved, dorsally yellow-white for anterior 2/3, darker posteriorly with dark flecks, darker cardiac mark that terminates in a patch of white setae, darker laterally with a few speckles, yellowish ventrally; no markings on spinnerets; legs green with light and dark setae, preserved legs are orangish brown, slightly lighter than carapace, lighter ventrally with faint annulations, lots of long and short, flat, white setae on the ventral and dorsal or effectively prolateral and retrolateral parts of legs, particularly the femora, trochanters, and coxae, occurring in tufts on the distal parts of the legs.

Prosoma. 0.91 times longer than broad; clypeus 0.06 high.

Eyes. AER slightly recurved; PER recurved; PME and AME about the same size, PLE largest, ALE smallest; eye diameters, AME 0.26, ALE 0.18, PME 0.25, PLE 0.34, interdistances AME-PME 0.10, PME-ALE 0.21, ALE-PLE 0.31, PME-PME 1.42, ALE-ALE 1.87; ocular quadrangle AME-AME 0.79, PLE-PLE 2.32.

Sternum. 1.09 times as long as wide, posteriorly indented.

Mouthparts. Chelicerae extend anteriorly somewhat, with lots of setae, darker setae proximally and proximolaterally, lighter setae distally; maxillae longer than broad with setal tuft distally; labium truncate with rounded edges anteriorly.

Palp. Fm, spination 0-1-4; claw with 8 teeth increasing in size distally.

S. kikay   syn. nov., holotype male, palpal tibia and RTA, ventral, image has been flipped horizontally (MNRJ – destroyed) (j) S. banksi   , ex- S. kikay   syn. nov. male, palpal tibia and RTA, ventral, image has been flipped horizontally ( MCN 25526 View Materials ) (k) S. banksi   , ex- S. kikay   syn. nov. male, palpal tibia and RTA, ventral ( MCN 25526 View Materials ) (l) S. banksi   , palpal tibia and RTA, retrolateral, Orellana, Ecuador (NMNH) (m) S. banksi   , palpal tibia and RTA, retrolateral, Orellana, Ecuador (NMNH) (n) S. banksi   , palpal tibia and RTA, retrolateral, Peru, image has been flipped horizontally (MCZ) (o) S. banksi   , palpal tibia and RTA, retrolateral, Guyana (CAS).

Epigyne ( Figure 6 View Figure 6 (a–b, l)). Plate longer than broad, LLs closer medially than posteriorly, with EPs located medially, then LLs slightly separate again posteriorly; ML narrows abruptly anteriorly, COs at juncture between LLs and ML.

Endogyne ( Figure 6 View Figure 6 (a–b, l)). COs mostly obscured by strongly sclerotised CDs with several turns, CDs wide, with PS located posteriorly, FDs arise from the bottom of PS, PF absent.

Opisthosoma. With terminal setal tufts, more easily seen on live specimens ( Figure 1 View Figure 1 (a–d))

Legs. Leg formula 2314; scopulae present on ta and mt of legs I and II; ta I–IV with strong claw tufts; prolateral claws I–IV with ~11 teeth increasing in length distally; spination: Leg I, Fm d 1-1-1, pr 1-1-0, Ti v 2-2-2, Mt v 2-2; Leg II, Fm d 1-1-1, pr 0, Ti v 2-2-2 Mt v 2-2; Leg III, Fm d 1-1-1, pr 0, Ti v 1-1, Mt v 2-1; Leg IV, Fm d 1-1-1, pr 0, Ti v 1-1, Mt v 1-0.

Measurements. Total length 9.93. Carapace length 4.47. Carapace width 4.93. Sternum length 2.32. Sternum width 2.14. Abdomen length 5.46. Abdomen width 4.04. Pedipalp: Fm 1.51, Pt 0.77, Ti 0.99, Ta 1.42, total 4.70. Leg I Fm 5.41, Pt 2.09, Ti 4.59, Mt 3.80, Ta 1.67, total 17.53; Leg II Fm 6.42, Pt 1.98, Ti 4.93, Mt 3.94, Ta 1.64, total 18.81; Leg III Fm 6.03, Pt 1.77, Ti 4.53, Mt 4.01, Ta 1.72, total 18.07; Leg IV Fm 5.77, Pt 1.61, Ti 3.97, Mt 3.88, Ta 1.71, total 16.94.

Distribution. Brazil, Ecuador, Guyana, Panama, Peru (Map 1).

Life history and habitat preferences. This species has almost always been collected via canopy fogging; however, photographs and a few collections of juveniles indicate that indeed they do venture down the tree trunks and even make their eggsacs there, out in the open, 100–180 cm high ( Figure 1 View Figure 1 (a)). As in many other selenopids, the female guards the eggsac, but rather than a smooth, white eggsac, the eggsac of S. banksi   has dark flecks that look like crosshatching ( Figure 1 View Figure 1 (a), inset). Only a single female has been collected, and this was from canopy fogging, but the species does not seem uncommon given the amount of observations made. This phenomenon of being common, yet poorly represented in collections, is typical for the family. The species tends to be found on mossy trees or trees with lichen, and the animal very much resembles lichen in both the colouration and the setal covering that provides texture. They are one of a few known green spiders, and one of the only green selenopids. Given the extent of the distribution, their ability to glide ( Yanoviak et al. 2015), and the fact that all collections are from canopy fogs, it is possible that they disperse via the canopy; thus, forests that remain intact would be most conducive to this lifestyle, and a lack of connectivity due to forest fragmentation would have conservation implications.

Variation. S. banksi   , male, N = 10; Size: 6.6–8.0; S. micropalpus   , female, N = 19, 6.6–13.5; S. micropalpus   , male, N = 7; 6.5–10.5. The dRTA is the only variable part of the male palp based on the specimens of S. banksi   available to us. The specimens from Ecuador are similar to one another, with the dRTA slightly longer and more curved ventrally than in specimens from other localities, although there is also variation among the individuals collected in Ecuador ( Figure 4 View Figure 4 (a–o)). The dRTA of the holotype appears to differ from ex- S. kikay   syn. nov. in being longer and appearing more ridged than toothed; however, we were unable to control for the position of the palp during the imaging of S. kikay   syn. nov. ( Figure 4 View Figure 4 (a–o)). The dRTA of the Guyana specimen differs from the holotype by being shorter and curving less ( Figure 4 View Figure 4 (e, g, o)). In the specimen from Peru, the dRTA is not as long as in the holotype and is only slightly curved ( Figure 4 View Figure 4 (e–f, n)).

Notes. We assign this female to S. banksi   because it was collected with several males of the species. S. lavillai Corronca, 1996   is superficially similar to S. banksi   , and the female is also undescribed. This species is lichen-like, yellow and white with a foliate pattern when preserved, and found in the canopy and on tree trunks, collected from canopy fogs simultaneously with S. banksi   ; however, the male genitalia are very different from those of the banksi   group. Additionally, we have specimens of the female of S. lavillai   that were collected with the male of that species which will be described in a subsequent publication. Corronca (1996) described S. kikay   syn. nov. based on a male and female from Itabuna, Bahía, Brazil. Although S. banksi   and S. micropalpus   were already described at the time ( Muma 1953), their similarity to S. kikay   syn. nov. went unmentioned. The holotype of the male of S. kikay   syn. nov. was examined via digital image; the female paratype could not be located. Both were indicated to be in MNRJ; however, the majority of specimens from that institution were unfortunately lost in a fire ( Kury et al. 2018). Corronca (1996) differentiates the male of S. kikay   syn. nov. from others by having ‘grooves in the retrolateral tibial apophysis and a large keel ending in three teeth, and by a spatulate prolateral tibial apophysis with rounded lateral projection.’ S. banksi   has a spatulate prolateral keel, as do other species of selenopids, including S. micropalpus   ( Figures 3 View Figure 3 (a,e), 4(h–k) and 5(f)). Additionally, after examination of multiple males of S. banksi   , some specimens have a toothed dRTA and some do not, and some of these teeth are more pronounced in some specimens (3a, c–d, 4a–o). For the diagnosis of the female of S. kikay   , syn. nov., Corronca (1996) provided no characters exclusive to this species.

The holotype of S. kikay   syn. nov. was purportedly collected in Itabuna, Brazil; however, there was no other information regarding collector, year, etc. ( Figure 2 View Figure 2 (w)). Given the distance from any other collection of S. banksi   group species, it is possible that this is an erroneous locality, but the rarity of collections of these spiders also hints to its validity. Additionally, there is a hypothesised corridor between the Mata Atlântica and the Amazon that has existed since the uplift of the Andes ( Ledo and Colli 2017). According to molecular clock data ( Crews and Esposito 2020), the banksi   group has been around for at least 20 my, or around the time of the beginning of the uplift of the Andes, and the group members appear to have no trouble dispersing. Thus, they have had ample time and have ample means to disperse throughout the rainforests of Central America, the Amazon, and Mata Atlântica. It is possible the Itabuna locality is on the edge of the group’s range in the Mata Atlântica. Additional efforts should be made to confirm the presence of species there.

In general, S. banksi   is smaller than S. micropalpus   and S. curruganja   sp. nov.; this mostly applies to males of S. banksi   and S. micropalpus   , because males of S. curruganja   sp. nov. are unknown, and there is only a single female specimen of S. banksi   . Males of S. banksi   range from 6.6 to 8.0, with the holotype at 7.55, the holotype of S. kikay   syn. nov. at 7.2 (N = 11), and S. ducke   at 6.5 ( Corronca 1996). S. micropalpus   females range from 6.9 to approximately 13.45 (the specimen is damaged) (N = 18). The holotype and the second-largest female are both from Dominica. Females from St. Lucia, Martinique, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines tend to be smaller. The males of S. micropalpus   are more similar in size to males of S. banksi   , ranging from 6.65 to 10.61 (N = 7). The female of S. curruganja   sp. nov. is large (12.2) compared to the single female specimens of S. banksi   , S. ducke   (9.0), and ex- S. kikay   syn. nov. (7.55 – ( Corronca 1996)), and many of the S. micropalpus   females.

MCZ

Museum of Comparative Zoology

T

Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics

MCN

McNeese State University

VI

Mykotektet, National Veterinary Institute

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History

MNRJ

Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Selenopidae

Genus

Selenops

Loc

Selenops banksi Muma, 1953

Crews, Sarah C., Galvis, William & Esposito, Lauren A. 2021
2021
Loc

Selenops banksi

Crews SC 2011: 25
2011
Loc

Selenops kikay

Corronca JA 1998: 136
1998
Loc

Selenops kikay

Corronca JA 1996: 69
1996
Loc

Selenops banksi

Muma MH 1953: 38
1953