Mnioes Townes, 1946

Alvarado, Mabel, 2020, Ten new species of parasitoid wasps Mnioes Townes, 1946 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Banchinae) described from Peru, Zootaxa 4743 (2), pp. 181-199 : 182

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Mnioes Townes, 1946


Mnioes Townes, 1946  

Mnioes Townes, 1946: 58   . Type-species Lampronota jacunda Cresson, 1874   , by original designation.

Diagnosis. Mnioes   can be distinguished from all other genera of Atrophini   by the combination of the following characters: (1) sculpture of the body, usually, granulate and matte; (2) outer surface of mandible, close to the base of upper tooth, convex and polished ( Fig. 5B View FIGURE 5 ); (3) clypeus basally convex, apically weakly sclerotized and, at least medially, concave ( Figs 1C View FIGURE 1 , 2C View FIGURE 2 ); (4) clypeal margin truncate to concave medially ( Fig. 2B View FIGURE 2 ); (5) frons weakly biconcave, granulate, without ornamentations; (6) flagellum, usually (except Mnioes iskay   sp. nov.), centrally white- or yellow-banded; (7) scape apically truncated, about 60–75 o from transverse ( Fig. 2C View FIGURE 2 ); (8) submetapleural carina narrow, only slightly and evenly broadened anteriorly ( Fig. 2D View FIGURE 2 ); (9) propodeum ( Fig. 1D View FIGURE 1 ) without anterior transverse, lateral, and lateromedian longitudinal carinae, posterior transverse carina usually discernible as a vestige at middle (rarely more extensively developed), and pleural carina from absent to strong; (10) fore wing with veins 3rs-m entirely absent, with 2rs-m more than 2.0 times as long as abscissa of M between 2rs-m and 2m-cu, 2m-cu usually with two bullae, bullae separated by a short length vein which often bears a stub of a spurious vein (rarely without this abscissa of 2m-cu thus with a single long bulla); (11) hind wing with length of abscissa of Cu1 between M and Cu-a 0.7–0.9 times as long as the combined lengths this vain and cu-a; (12) tergite I without lateromedian longitudinal carinae ( Figs 1D View FIGURE 1 and 3C View FIGURE 3 ); and (13) ovipositor sheath 1.6–3.1 times as long as hind tibia.

Comments. No other South American country has records of Mnioes   . The genus ranges from sea-level up to about 3000 meters, with the exception of Mnioes iskay   sp. nov. recorded at about 4000 meters. The peak of diversity occurs between 700 and 1500 meters as found in Costa Rica ( Ugalde-Gómez and Gauld 2002).

Several species are widely distributed and commonly collected; although no hosts are known. Banchinae   with known host associations are koinobiont endoparasitoids of Lepidoptera larvae ( Quicke 2015; Broad et al. 2018,), and this is also expected to be the case for Mnioes   .

Sexual dimorphism is mostly evident in the coloration, males in several species are chromatically quite distinct from females, e.g., M. attenboroughi   sp. nov. and M. tawa   sp. nov. In species with similar coloration in both sexes, males generally present the white band starting more apically and covering fewer articles than in females. Additionally, males are usually much smaller than their respective females ( Figs 1 View FIGURE 1 , 7 View FIGURE 7 , 8 View FIGURE 8 ). This was also noticed for the Central American species ( Ugalde-Gómez and Gauld 2002).