Myopsalta xerograsidia, Popple, 2017
Popple, Lindsay W., 2017, A revision of the Myopsalta crucifera (Ashton) species group (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadettini) with 14 new species from mainland Australia, Zootaxa 4340 (1), pp. 1-98 : 87-93
treatment provided by
Myopsalta xerograsidia n. sp.
Cicadetta sp. nr crucifera Fishing Reel Buzzer ; 291: Popple & Strange, 2002: 21, 22, 26, 29, Fig. 3C View FIGURE 3 , Fig. 7A View FIGURE 7 , Table 1. Cicadetta sp. H Fishing Reel Buzzer; 291: Ewart, 2009: 140–142, 150, 168, Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 , Fig. 16 View FIGURE 16 , Plate 1 View PLATE 1 . Myopsalta sp. nr crucifera ( Ewart, 1998b) : Sanborn, 2014: 584.
Myopsalta sp. nr crucifera Fishing Reel Buzzer ( Popple & Strange, 2002) : Sanborn, 2014: 584. Undesc. Genus, sp. ‘pale grass cicada’: Marshall and Hill, 2009: 4, 5, 7, 8, Table 2, Figure 6 View FIGURE 6 .
Types. Holotype: ♂ 4.3 km W. of Cloncurry River , 20°43.11'S 140°27.11'E GoogleMaps , 4.ii.1999, A. Ewart, QM Reg. No. T 239573 (QM); Paratypes: QUEENSLAND: 1♂ Charters Towers , N.Q. , 18.iii.1932, A. Marshall, K65439 View Materials (AM); 1♂ 1♀ Yellow Gin Creek, 18 km SE. of Home Hill , 19.49°S 147.29°E, 24–25.iv.1981, A. Calder; 1♂ Isaac River GoogleMaps , 62 miles NNE. of Clermont, 27.iii.1962, Chinnick & Corby; 1♂ Bowen , 13.iii.1958, T. Campbell ( ANIC); 1♂ Sybella Creek , 20°53'S 139°27'E, 400 m, 2.iii.2002, C.J. Burwell, sweeping; 1♀ 10.1 km E. of Cloncurry GoogleMaps , 20°43.33'S 140°37.47'E, 23.i.2000, A. Ewart, shrubland/grassland; 1♂ Laura River xing, S. of Laura GoogleMaps , 15.577°S 144.456°E, 37357, 85 m, 12.iii.2017, L. W. Popple, hand netting, open woodld, QM reg. no. T236514; 1♀ Bonnyglen Station GoogleMaps , from Spring Ck to Mulligan Hwy, 15.929°S 144.693°E to 16.014°S 144.810°E, 37457, 13.iii.2017, E. Leijs, truck trap, QM Reg. No. T 236573 (QM); 4♂ 2♀ Musselbrook area GoogleMaps , border waterhole, 18°36.73'S 137°59.43'E, 19.iv.1995, exotic grasses; 1♀ N. Stockyard Ck, Musselbrook GoogleMaps , 18°26'43''S 137°14'12''E, 18.ix.1995, exotic grasses; 1♂ 1 km from Plantation Creek GoogleMaps , Ayr, 19°32.11'S 147°30.06'E, 9.ii.1998; 1♂ same data as previous GoogleMaps , 11.ii.1998; 2♂ same data as previous GoogleMaps , 9.ii.1999; 1♂ Plantation Creek , near boat landing, Ayr, 19°32.11'S 147°30.04'E, 2.ii.2006, A. Ewart, grassland; 1♀ Ayr GoogleMaps , 2.i.1981, sand pit; 1♀ Groper Creek settlement, Home Hill , 11.ii.1998; 1♂ 1♀ Flagstaff Hill, Bowen, 12.ii.1998, grass, recorded; 1♂ Flagstaff Hill, Bowen, 20°00.88'S 148°15.96'E, 26.ii.2000, A. Ewart, grass; 2♂ same data as previous GoogleMaps , 22.ii.2003; 2♂ same data as holotype GoogleMaps ; 1♂ 11 km E. of Cloncurry , 20°43.41'S 140°37.47'E GoogleMaps , 4.ii.1999, A. Ewart; 2♂ 2.2 km W. of Lynd / Mount Surprise road junction via Georgetown , 18°08.59'S 144°47.57'E, 31.i.2002, A. Ewart, grass; 2♂ Plantation Creek GoogleMaps , ~ 1 km from boat landing, Ayr, 19°32.12'S 147°30.01'E, 23.ii.2000, A. Ewart, grassland; 3♂ Macrossan Bridge, 22 km NE. of Charters Towers GoogleMaps , 20°00.35'S 146°26.33'E, 28.i.2000, A. Ewart, grass; 2♂ Noonbah homestead exit road GoogleMaps , 24°06.32'S 143°11.12'E, 7.ii.2009, A. Ewart; 1♀ Noonbah homestead GoogleMaps , 24°06.44'S 143°11.14'E, 8.ii.2009, A. Emmott & A. Ewart, gidyea; 6♂ 10.1 km E. of Cloncurry GoogleMaps , 20°43.33'S 140°37.47'E, 23.i.2000, A. Ewart, shrubland/ grassland; 2♂ Rotary Park S. of Ayr GoogleMaps , 19°53.20'S 147°24.06'E, 25.ii.2000, A. Ewart; 1♂ 1 km SW. of Alva Beach near Ayr GoogleMaps , 19°27.72'S 147°28.58'E, 25.ii.2000, A. Ewart; 1♂ 1♀ 4.2 km W. Normanton / Cloncurry rds, Cloncurry GoogleMaps , 20°43.06'S 140°27.10'E, 24.i.2000, A. Ewart; 1♂ Paradise Park, 15 km SSE. of Charters Towers GoogleMaps , 20°11.75'S 146°17.99'E, 6.ii.1999, A. Ewart, grass; 1♂ Blackall GoogleMaps , iii.1979; 2♂ 3♀ Blackall , ii.1979, after rains, buffel grass; 3♂ 1♀ Peak Downs Highway, Nebo, 10.iii.1984; 1♂ Plantation Creek , Ayr, 19°32.12'S 147°30.01'E, A. Ewart, I Rattray; 1♂ 9.3 km NW. of Blackall GoogleMaps , 24°23.29'S 145°23.59'E; 19.i.2000, A. Ewart; 1♂ Lynd Highway, 1 km N. of Hann Creek GoogleMaps , 22 km N. of Charters Towers, 19°53.42'S 146°12.50'E, 28.i.2000, A. Ewart; 1♂ 54.6 km W. of Clermont / Hughenden [ Gregory / Flinders Highway ] road junction, SW. side of Charters Towers GoogleMaps , 20°17.55'S 145°46.16'E. 4.ii.2006, A. Ewart, grassland; 4♂ Macrossan Park, Burdekin River GoogleMaps , ~ 25 km NE. of Charters Towers, 20°00.18'S 146°26.35'E, 3.ii.2002, A. Ewart, grass; 1♂ 56.5 km NW. of Hann Creek near Charters Towers GoogleMaps , 19°39.99'S 145°46.48'E, 23.ii.2003, A. Ewart, grass; 1♀ 6.7 km WNW. of Greenvale GoogleMaps , 18°59.75'S 144°55.34'E, 24.ii.2003, A. Ewart; 1♂ 44 km S. of Dajarra GoogleMaps , 20°04.29'S 139°36.67'E, 20.i.2002, A. Ewart, grass along creek; 1♂ 20 km N. of Cloncurry (Normanton Road), Tommy Creek GoogleMaps , 20°32.61'S 140°24.97'E, 25.i.2002, A. Ewart, woodland; 1♂ 18 km E. of Mount Isa GoogleMaps , 20°42.34'S 139°39.58'E. 24.i.2002, A. Ewart, grass, open woodland; 1♂ 23 km W. of Longreach GoogleMaps , 23°14.54'S 144°06.39'E, 17.i.2002, A. Ewart, grass; 2♂ Flagstaff Hill summit area, Bowen GoogleMaps , 20°00.93'S 148°15.97'E, 9.ii.2006, A. Ewart; 1♂ Torrens Creek township GoogleMaps , 20°46.20'S 145°01.12'E, 4.ii.2006; A. Ewart, grassland; 1♂ 1♀ 5.5 km S. of Mount Surprise / Lynd road junction GoogleMaps , 18°11.46'S 144°48.12'E, 25.ii.2003, A. Ewart; 1♂ 47.1 km E. of Mount Surprise GoogleMaps , 18°09.05'S 144°43.87'E, 19.i.2005, A. Ewart, grass; 1♂ 28.5 km E. of Mount Surprise GoogleMaps , 18°06.94'S 144°33.73'E, 28.ii.2003, A. Ewart, grass; 1♂ 24.8 km E. of Mount Surprise GoogleMaps , 18°21.10'S 144°45.81'E, 19.i.2005, A. Ewart, grass; 1♀ Greenvale Caravan Park GoogleMaps , 19°00.06'S 144°59.01'E, 23.ii.2003, A. Ewart; 1♂ 39.5 km WNW. of Greenvale, (11.9 km SE. of Lynd Junction ) GoogleMaps , 18°56.73'S 144°38.68'E, [no date], grass; 3♂ 1♀ 24.8 km south of Mount Surprise / Lynd road junction GoogleMaps , 18°21.10'S 144°45.81'E, 19.i.2005, A. Ewart; 1♂ 0.5 km W. of Wyseby / Rewan road junction GoogleMaps , 24°58.25'S 148°31.42'E, 16.i.2005, A. Ewart, grass; 1♂ Moranbah GoogleMaps , 21°59'S 148°01'E, ii.2014, C. Date (AE); 1♂ AU.QL.COE, 25 km E. of Camooweal GoogleMaps , 19°56.628'S 138°21.320'E, 267 m, 29.i.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds; 1♀ AU.QL.BCS, ~ 51 km S. of Belyando Crossing , 262 m , 21°55.557'S 147°2.776'E, 27.ii.2009, K. Hill, D. Marshall; 1♂ AU.QL. MOG, 28 km E. of Moonie GoogleMaps , 27°33.165'S 150°35.846'E, 338 m, 2.i.2009, Hill, Marshall, Moulds, Owen; 1♂ Selwyn Mine, 160 km SE. of Mt Isa GoogleMaps , 16.iii.1993, J. Vanbruggen, T. Woodger; 1♂ same data as previous GoogleMaps , 19.ii.1993; 1♂ AU.QL.EMX, Anakie, 44 km W. of Emerald , 23°32.846'S 147°43.882'E GoogleMaps , 28.i. 2009, 253 m, K. Hill & D. Marshall; 1♀ 18°09'S 144°37'E, 5 km SW. Hwy 1 & Undara Rd on Undara Rd GoogleMaps , 730 m, 28.i.2011, D.CF. Rentz, B. Richardson, Stop 4; 72♂ 18♀ Torrens Creek Township , 90 km E. of Hughenden, 3.ii.1981, M.S. & B.J. Moulds; 1♂ Mt Garnet , 26.ii.1993, S. Lamond; 13♂ 6♀ nr Forty Mile Scrub at Mt Surprise Road Jtn , 17.i.1986, M.S. & B.J. Moulds; 9♂ 35km E. of Mt Surprise , 17.i.1986, M.S. & B.J. Moulds; 1♂ 1♀ 60 km E. of Hughenden , 4.ii.1981, M.S. & B.J. Moulds; 17♂ 4♀ Bee Ck, 25 km S.W. of Nebo , 6.ii.1981, M.S. & B.J. Moulds; 30♂ 18♀ 60 km NE. of Clermont , 7.ii.1981, M.S. & B.J. Moulds; 22♂ 7 ♀ 70 km NE. of Clermont , 2.iii.1982, M.S. & B.J. Moulds; 1♂ 1♀ 20 km N. of Capella , 19.iii.1982, M.S. & B.J. Moulds; 1♂ Disney Stn, near Belyando R. S. of Charters Towers , 21.xii.1983, M.S. & B.J. Moulds; 3♂ St Margaret’s Ck, approx. 20 mi S. Townville , 1.ii.1973, A. & M. Walford-Huggins; 1♀ Townsville Qld , 10.ii.1980, S.J. Johnson 1♂ 1♀ Mount Surprise , 10.iii.1993, S. Lamond; 1♂ Waverley Rest Area nr St Lawrence , 26.xii.1993, M.S. & B.J. Moulds; 1♀ 1 km W. of Mourangee Hsd nr Edungalba , on tree trunk , 17.xi.1984, E.E. Adams; 4♀ Richmond , xii.2000, T. Woodger; 4♂ AU.QL.POL, Porcupine Gorge lookout, N. of Hughenden , 20°24.635'S 144°26.166'E, 8.ii.2010, K. Hill & D. Marshall ( MSM); NORTHERN TERRITORY: 1♂ 22.5 km E. of Alice Springs, Ross Highway, near Jessie Gap Nature Reserve GoogleMaps , 23°46.24'S 134°03.66'E, 17.xii.2005, A. Ewart (QM); 1♂ ~ 8 km W. of Alice Springs, Larapinta Drive, 23°41.91'S 133°48.04'E, 16.xii.2005, A. Ewart; 6 km W. Tanami Des. Rd, Stuart Hwy jct., (20 km N. of Alice Springs ) GoogleMaps , 23°33.16'S 133°48.81'E (AE); 1♂ AU.NT. STC, 60 km S. of Tennant Creek GoogleMaps , 20°10.932'S 134°13.125'E, 388 m, 31.i.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds; 1♂ AU.NT.AIR, 9.4 km NNW. of Larrimah GoogleMaps , 15°29.585'S 133°11.371'E, 194 m, 2.ii.2006, Hill, Marshall, Moulds; 1♂ AU.NT. ASE,~ 20 km E. of Alice Springs GoogleMaps , 23°45.183'S 134°01.776'E, 28.i. 2010, 526 m, Hill, Marshall, Moulds; 1♂ AU.NT.RSB, Ross Hwy, ~ 60 km E. of Alice Springs GoogleMaps , 23°37.831'S 134°17.718'E, 29.i.2010, Hill, Marshall, Moulds; 1♂ Alice Springs GoogleMaps , 24.i.1984, M.S. & B.J. Moulds; 1♀ Tilmouth Well, Napperby Creek , 22°48'40''S 132°35'40''E GoogleMaps , 31.i.2001, M.S. & B. J. Moulds ( MSM); WESTERN AUSTRALIA:; 1♂ 19km NNW. of Kununurra W.A., nr Buttons Gap , 15.37°S 128.41°E, 8.v.1983, D.CF. Rentz, & J. Balderson ( ANIC); 1♂ AU.WA.GPG, 90 km WNW. of Fitzroy Crossing GoogleMaps , 7.ii.2006, 17°57.276'S 124°49.365'S, Hill Marshall, Moulds; 1♀ AU.WA.HCC, Duncan Rd, 12 km S. of Halls Creek , 6.ii. 2006, 380 m, 18°15.019'S 127°45.135'E, Hill, Marshall, Moulds; 1♂ AU.WA. GRS, 45 km S. of Gascoyne River GoogleMaps , ~ 146 km NNE. of Meekatharra, 25°35.579'S 119°14.173'E, 18.ii. 2009, 545 m, K. Hill & D. Marshall (MSM).
Etymology. A feminine, Latinised, compound adjective composed of the Greek words xeros, meaning ‘dry’, and grasídi, meaning ‘grass’, referring to the dry grassland habitat that this species occupies.
Head: Postclypeus predominantly black, brown to dark brown surrounding lateral and ventral margins, with a brown to dark brown spot medially, sometimes extending on to median dorsal area; supra-antennal plates black, brown to dark brown on margins; genae black; mandibular plates black, diffuse dull brown to dark brown centrally, with silver pubescence; vertex and frons variably pale brown to almost completely black, often pale brown to brown laterally, especially adjacent to compound eyes; ocelli pink; compound eyes brown; anteclypeus pale brown to black; rostrum brown, dark brown apically, extending to posterior margins of mid coxae; antennae brown to dark brown.
Thorax: Pronotum brown to pale brown, sometimes with mottled dark brown to black colouration surrounding paramedian and lateral fissures and on lateral margins; central fascia brown to pale brown, surrounded with black colouration, which broadens conspicuously towards anterior pronotal margin; pronotal collar mostly brown to pale brown, sometimes tending dark brown to black anteriorly, and typically dark brown to black on lateral angles; metanotum dark brown; mesonotum brown or pale brown; submedian sigilla black, or occasionally dark brown; lateral sigilla dark brown to black with diffuse reddish-brown or pale brown areas; cruciform elevation and wing grooves pale brown, sometimes dark brown anteriorly; posterior third of mesonotum with dense fine and sparse long silver pubescence.
Wings: Fore wings hyaline; basal cells predominantly light grey to grey, occasionally with yellow-brown intrusions; pterostigmata pale brown to diffuse orange-red; costal veins pale brown; other veins pale brown to brown, darker distally. Hind wing plagas and jugal folds translucent, cream to grey, hyaline apically; veins pale brown throughout.
Legs: Fore coxae entirely pale brown, or with anterior outer sides brown and posterior sides pale brown with dark brown longitudinal markings; mid and hind coxae pale brown, sometimes with dark brown markings on anterior and posterior sides; meracantha spikes pale brown to brown, often dark brown basally, overlapping opercula; fore femora pale brown with brown to dark brown longitudinal markings on outer anterior and sometimes posterior sides; mid and hind femora pale brown to brown, with brown to dark brown longitudinal markings on dorsal sides, pale brown apically; fore tibiae brown with pale brown areas, or entirely dark brown; mid and hind tibiae pale brown, sometimes with narrow brown to dark brown longitudinal markings; fore tarsi brown; mid and hind tarsi pale brown; pretarsi brown to dark brown; claws pale brown, darker apically.
Opercula ( Fig. 1P View FIGURE 1 ): Broadly rounded; pale brown; plates undulating with medial areas slightly depressed.
Timbals ( Fig. 21H View FIGURE 21 ): Anterior rib 5 vestigial; rib 4 abbreviated, with a prominent isolated remnant extension ventrally; ribs 1 and 2 joined ventrally and fused dorsally to basal spur; anterior termination of basal spur fused with ribs 3–4, with rib unattached; prominent intercalary short ribs in medial areas between ribs 1 and 2, 2 and 3, and 3 and 4 (three in total).
Abdomen: Tergite 1 dark brown; tergite 2 wider along dorsal midline than tergites 3 to 7; tergite 2 entirely dark brown, or dark brown with brown to pale brown dorso-lateral areas extending to the posterior margin; tergites 3 to 7 entirely dark brown or brown to pale brown with dark brown medial areas, narrowing and becoming diffuse towards posterior margins; tergite 8 entirely dark brown, or dark brown with brown to pale brown dorso-lateral areas extending to the posterior margin; tergites 2 to 8 with dense short silver pubescence on dorso-lateral sides and with extensive long and short silver pubescence on lateral sides; intersegmental membranes pale yellow-brown; epipleurites pale brown to brown, often darker anteriorly, with sparse silver pubescence; sternite II black laterally, tending pale brown ventro-laterally, with a dark brown area medially; sternites III to VI pale brown with variable brown to dark brown areas medially, sometimes diffuse; sternite VII dark brown, typically with pale brown to brown lateral and posterior margins; sternite VIII dark brown, paler apically; anterior sternites visible in lateral view.
Genitalia ( Figs 22O, P View FIGURE 22 ): Pygofer dark brown to black; upper lobes in ventral view relatively linear, with terminals directed dorsally and apically acute; basal lobes mildly swollen anteriorly and laterally; median lobe of uncus rounded, protruding gradually; claspers in ventral view conspicuous, diverging from point of downward deflection, with sharply developed apices; pseudoparameres projecting further (ventrally) than endotheca and ventral support; ventral support acute, projecting slightly beyond endotheca; endotheca fleshy.
Female ( Plate 16D View PLATE 16 ). Head matches description of male.
Thorax: Pronotum pale brown; central fascia pale brown, surrounded with a narrow area of dark brown to black colouration, which broadens towards anterior pronotal margin; pronotal collar mostly pale brown, tending dark brown on margins of lateral angles; metanotum dark brown; mesonotum pale brown; submedian sigilla brown to black, sometimes pale brown over posterior half; lateral sigilla pale brown to dark brown, typically with diffuse pale brown areas throughout; cruciform elevation and wing grooves pale brown; posterior third of mesonotum with dense fine and sparse long silver pubescence.
Wings: Fore wings hyaline; basal cells light grey, rarely with a scattering of orange; pterostigmata pale greybrown with diffuse orange intrusions; veins, including costal vein, pale brown, tending brown distally. Hind wing plagas and jugal folds translucent, cream, hyaline apically; veins pale brown throughout.
Legs: Fore coxae pale brown; mid and hind coxae pale brown, sometimes with brown markings on anterior sides; meracantha spikes pale brown to brown, often dark brown basally, overlapping opercula; fore femora pale brown with brown to dark brown longitudinal markings on inner and sometimes outer anterior sides; mid and hind femora pale brown to brown, with brown to dark brown longitudinal markings on anterior sides, pale brown apically; fore tibiae brown with pale brown areas; mid and hind tibiae pale brown; fore tarsi pale brown to brown; mid and hind tarsi pale brown; pretarsi brown to dark brown; claws pale brown, darker apically.
Abdomen: Tergite 1 brown to dark brown; tergites 2 to 8 pale brown, with brown to dark brown areas medially, broader on anterior half and tending reddish-brown on posterior half, narrowing towards posterior margin; auditory capsules dark brown to black; abdominal segment 9 pale brown, with dark brown dorso-lateral longitudinal markings; dorsal beak dark brown, sharply defined; sternite II pale brown; epipleurites pale brown; sternites III to VI pale brown with narrow brown to dark brown areas medially, broadening posteriorly; sternite VII pale brown; ovipositor sheath extends approximately 2.7–4.5 mm beyond termination of abdominal segment 9.
Measurements. N= 15♂ 15♀. Ranges and means (in parentheses), mm; BL: ♂ 12.1–14.9 (13.6); ♀ 17.5–21.1 (19.0). FWL: ♂ 13.2–16.9 (15.4); ♀ 16.3–20.6 (17.9). HW: ♂ 3.5–4.3 (4.0); ♀ 4.0–4.5 (4.2). PW: ♂ 3.5–4.4 (4.0); ♀ 4.1–4.9 (4.4). AW: ♂ 4.0–4.8 (4.5); ♀ 4.0–5.0 (4.6). FWL/W: ♂ 2.49–2.89 (2.70); ♀ 2.55–3.08 (2.80). OL: ♀ 8.4–10.9 (9.8).
Morphological distinguishing features. Myopsalta xerograsidia n. sp. can be distinguished from all other species in the genus apart from M. atrata , M. binotata , M. chrysopedia n. sp., M. coolahensis , M. gordoni n. sp., M. lactea , M. libritor , M. parvula n. sp. and M. waterhousei by the colour of the basal membranes of the fore wings, which is mainly white to pale grey (cf. pale brown or pale orange). It can be distinguished from M. binotata , M. coolahensis , M. lactea , M. libritor and M. waterhousei by having completely hyaline fore wings (including the basal cells). Males and females can be separated from M. chrysopedia n. sp. by having a head width <4.6 mm. Males can be separated from M. atrata by the colouration of the posterior margins of the tergites and also the lateral edges of the sternites, which is pale brown rather than orange. They can be differentiated from the superficially similar M. gordoni n. sp. by the colour of sternite VII, which is dark brown centrally with contrasting pale brown margins (cf. uniform dark brown to black in M. gordoni n. sp.). They can be separated from M. parvula n. sp. by the colouration on the lateral halves of sternites III–V, which is predominantly pale brown rather than almost exclusively dark brown. Females can be separated from M. atrata and M. parvula n. sp. by the long ovipositor sheath, which extends 3.0– 4.5 mm beyond the termination of abdominal segment 9 (cf. <0.5 mm in M. atrata ). They can be distinguished from the similar M. gordoni n. sp. by the colouration of the lateral edges of the sternites, which is pale brown rather than reddish-brown.
Distribution, habitat and behaviour ( Fig. 28 View FIGURE 28 ). Myopsalta xerograsidia is the most widespread species in the genus, being found from southern Queensland ( Surat) north to drier coastal and subhumid inland areas to Cape York and west to through much of the Northern Territory (though avoiding the humid Top End and the arid far south) to the Kimberley region, with an isolated population in the Pilbara of Western Australia. Populations occur in open grassland, grassy woodland, roadsides and river channels where the adults are typically found on low vegetation, particularly in grass. Adults have been encountered between September and May.
Calling song ( Figs 34 View FIGURE 34 , 35 View FIGURE 35 ). This species exhibits a high-pitched, ‘reeling’ song, with a distinct build-up and variable phrase duration. Each phrase is composed of an introductory syllable or syllable sequence followed by a series of 2–10 subphrases (all statistics, n =62 recordings). On infrequent occasions only a single subphrase is produced. The introductory syllable sequence contains a series of 1–10 (rarely up to 18) syllables (0.005– 0.011 s duration) separated by successively decreasing gaps (0.005– 0.057 s duration), with a total duration of 0.014– 0.354 s. In some instances, the introductory syllable sequence is omitted and the phrase commences abruptly the first subphrase. Each subphrase comprises a long echeme (0.043– 0.152 s) followed by a long syllable sequence with gaps of 0.004– 0.017 s between each syllable and a total duration of 0.080– 0.695 s. The final subphrase of each phrase typically exhibits a more condensed syllable sequence, with gaps between each syllable of 0.002– 0.020 s and an extended total duration of 0.096– 2.559 s. This is followed by a gap of 0.012– 0.041 s, a short echeme of 0.019– 0.052 s and a longer gap of 0.023– 0.161 s duration. It is expected that the female would respond during the long gap following the short echeme; however this interactions has not yet been recorded in this species. Occasionally, the gap at the end of the final subphrase is interrupted by an additional syllable.
The calling song is produced with a persistent level of amplitude throughout. It also maintains an even frequency distribution, without apparent modulation, exhibiting a high amplitude plateau within the bounds of 11.6 and 17.8 kHz, typically 12.1–16.2 kHz.
The song recordings of this species show remarkably consistent structure considering the widespread distribution of this cicada, a phenomenon noted for some other arid zone cicadas including Arenopsaltria nubivena (Walker) ( Ewart et al., 2015a) and Simona erema Ewart, Popple and Marshall (Ewart et al., 2015b) . The most notable anomaly is present in the recordings from near Alice Springs, which differ in that the syllable sequences within each subphrase exhibit successively decreasing gaps between each syllable. This trait is not present in the recordings from populations further to the east.
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