Menticirrhus cuiaranensis,

Marceniuk, Alexandre Pires, Caires, Rodrigo Antunes, Rotundo, Matheus Marcos, Cerqueira, Najila Nolie Catarine Dantas, Siccha-Ramirez, Raquel, Wosiacki, Wolmar Benjamin & Oliveira, Claudio, 2020, Taxonomic revision of the Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus, 1758) and M littoralis (Holbrook, 1847) (Percomorphacea: Sciaenidae) species complexes from the western Atlantic, Zootaxa 4822 (3), pp. 301-333: 309-314

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4822.3.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:6FB762E3-57EE-4C5F-81EC-F6DF30A562AF

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4455025

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03E687FF-FFE8-7E36-BA83-1E5B95CEA922

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Menticirrhus cuiaranensis
status

sp. nov.

Menticirrhus cuiaranensis  sp. nov.

Figure 5View FIGURE 5, Tables 3, 4

Menticirrhus littoralis  (not of Holbrook 1847).— Chao 1977: 29 (in part; FAO fact sheets; description).— Chao 1978: 31 (in part; basis for classifying the western Atlantic sciaenids; description).— Menezes & Figueiredo 1980: 45 (in part; guide to the fishes from the southeastern Brazilian coast; short description).— Jardim 1988: 182 (in part; synopsis of Menticirrhus  ).— Camargo & Isaac 2001:143 (estuarine fishes of the northern Brazilian coast; listed).— Chao 2003:1627 (in part; FAO species identification guide; western Central Atlantic; description).—Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003: 87 (in part; catalog of the marine fishes of Brazil; listed).

Doubtful references to this species

Menticirrhus littoralis  (not of Holbrook 1847).— Cervigón 1992: 406 (fishes of Venezuela; list, short description).— Cervigón 1993: 282 (fishes of Venezuela; list and short description).— Marín 2000: 75 (fishes of Venezuela; listed)

Material Examined. Holotype: MPEG 38944View Materials (1, 222 mm SL), Cuiaraná , Salinópolis, Pará, Brazil  . Paratypes: MPEG 33252View Materials (1, 184 mm SL), Cuiaraná , Salinópolis, Pará, Brazil  ; MPEG 33255View Materials (12, 187– 220 mm SL), Cuiaraná , Salinópolis, Pará, Brazil  ; MPEG 35241View Materials (3, 94– 117 mm SL), Ajuruteua , Bragança, Pará, Brazil  ; MPEG 35242View Materials (9, 78– 102 mm SL), Ajuruteua , Bragança, Pará, Brazil  ; AZUSC 5030 (3, 154– 174 mm SL), Bragança , Pará, Brazil  ; LBP 28919View Materials (1, 169 mm SL), baía do Caeté, Bragança Pará  ; MZUSP 125779View Materials (1, 204 mm SL), baía do Caeté , Bragança Pará  ; MPEG 32830View Materials (1), Furo da Ostra , Bragança, Pará, Brazil  . Non-type specimens: UFPB 397View Materials (1), Praia do Forte , Paraíba, Brazil  ; UFPB 618View Materials (1), praia do Tibau , Paraíba, Brazil  ; AZUSC 5935 (7, 170– 199 mm SL), Praia da Caueira , Aracajú, Sergipe, Brazil  ; MZUSP 69826View Materials (3, 154– 184 mm SL), Vitória , Espírito Santo Brazil  ; MZUSP 7955View Materials (2, 185 mm SL), Atafona , Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  .

Diagnosis. Menticirrhus cuiaranensis  , which occurs from the northern, northeast and eastern coasts of Brazil, is distinguished from its congeners in the western Atlantic as follows: from M. americanus  , which is found in the United States and the Gulf of Mexico, by having 16–19 pectoral-fin rays (vs. 20–23, rarely 19, Table 3), pectoral fin barely reaching tip of depressed pelvic fin (vs. surpassing tip of pelvic fin, Fig. 7View FIGURE 7), body without dark bars (vs. with irregular dark bars, Fig. 7View FIGURE 7); from M. gracilis  , which is found on the southern coast of Brazil, by having 22–24 dorsal-fin rays (vs. 18–21, Table 3); from M. martinicensis  , which occurs from the Caribbean and South America, by having 16–19 pectoral-fin rays (vs. 20–24, rarely 19, Table 3), pectoral-fin tip barely reaching tip of depressed pelvic fin (vs. extending beyond tip of the pelvic fin, Fig. 7View FIGURE 7), body without irregular dark bars (vs. with irregular dark bars, Fig. 7View FIGURE 7); from M. littoralis  , which is found in the United States and the Gulf of Mexico, by having 6–11 gill rakers in the first arches (vs. 12–15, Table 3), a dusky caudal fin, without a distinctive dark spot on the dorsal lobe (vs. pale caudal fin, with a dark spot on the upper lobe, Fig. 7View FIGURE 7); and from M. saxatilis  , which is found in the United States and the Gulf of Mexico, by body without irregular dark bars (vs. with dark bars, Fig. 7View FIGURE 7), and pectoral-fin tip barely reaching tip of depressed pelvic fin (vs. surpassing tip of pelvic fin, Fig. 7View FIGURE 7).

Menticirrhus cuiaranensis  can also be distinguished from its congeners from the eastern Pacific as follows: from M. elongatus  , which occurs from the Gulf of California to Peru, by having pectoral-fin tip barely reaching tip of depressed pelvic fin (vs. surpassing tip of pelvic fin); from M. nasus  , ranging from California to Peru, by having 16–18, rarely 19, pectoral-fin rays (vs. 19–22), scales present along base of soft dorsal fin (vs. soft dorsal fin naked), pectoral-fin tip barely reaching tip of depressed pelvic fin (vs. surpassing tip of pelvic fin); from M. ophicephalus  , ranging from Ecuador to Chile, by having 49–55 scales with pores along lateral line to caudal-fin base (vs. 63–66 scales), S-shaped posterior margin of its caudal fin (vs. concave margin), scales present along base of soft dorsal fin (vs. soft dorsal fin naked); from M. paitensis  , which occurs from the Gulf of California to Chile, by having 49–55 scales with pores along lateral line to caudal-fin base (vs. 76–98 scales), 16–19 pectoral-fin rays (vs. 21–23), scales present along base of soft dorsal fin (vs. soft dorsal fin naked); from M. panamensis  , which ranging from the Gulf of California to Chile, by having 16–19 pectoral-fin rays (vs. 20–23), scales present along base of soft dorsal fin (vs. soft dorsal fin naked), pectoral-fin tip barely reaching tip of depressed pelvic fin (vs. surpassing tip of pelvic fin); and from M. undulatus  , found in California, in the United States, by scales present along base of soft dorsal fin (vs. soft dorsal fin naked), and the body without lines or dark bars (vs. with dark lines).

Description: D. X-XI+I,22–24; A. I+7; P. 16–19; C. 17; GR. 7–11; LL. 50–55; SA. 8–11; SB. 13–18 ( Tables 3, 4). Body slender in lateral view, not compressed, ventral profile flat; maximum depth at first dorsal-fin origin. Dorsal profile slightly convex, steeply ascending, from snout to eye-level, convex to first dorsal-fin origin, nearly straight on first dorsal-fin base, slightly convex, descending at second dorsal-fin base, caudal peduncle slightly concave. Ventral profile convex on snout, concave below anterior eye border, descending over head to pelvic-fin origin, straight from pelvic-fin base to vent, ascending, slightly concave along anal-fin base to caudal-fin base. Snout short, deep, blunt, slender at tip in lateral view, mouth subterminal, dorsal profile naked. Premaxilla with 4–6 rows of acicular teeth, external most 9–15 teeth large, caniniform, 3–5 rows on dentary. Eye round, shorter than snout length, not adjoining dorsal profile. Interorbital space smaller than orbital diameter, slightly convex, covered with ctenoid scales. Nostrils small, anterior one round, posterior larger, nearly on horizontal line at ventral pupil border. Head with five sensory pores on snout, forming a semicircle around mouth corner, followed by larger central pore; lower jaw with four pores, two on each side encircling mental barbel, pores otherwise absent; mental barbel short, rigid, with blunt tip, without pore. Lateral line slightly arched to second dorsal-fin origin, straight, descending to caudal peduncle, nearly horizontal elsewhere to caudal-fin tip. Preopercle margin rough, with about 10–15 very short spines. Opercle tip angled, with small, fleshy projection, vertical posteriorly, passing through pectoral-fin base. Gill rakers short, 2–3 rudimentary on upper limb. Large, ctenoid scales present on trunk, belly, opercle, preopercle, interorbital, and infraorbital, cycloid on gular region and around nostrils (absent in specimens smaller than 50 mm SL), snout tip naked. Dorsal fins with two rows of small, cycloid scales on interradial membranes, sheath of scales on base of second dorsal; anal fin scaleless; pectoral fin with a cluster of small, cycloid or ctenoid scales on base, rows of corresponding scales along rays, absent on pectoral tip; caudal fin with a cluster of large, ctenoid scales, rows of cycloid scales along three-quarters of rays-length. Spinous dorsal fin short, first spine shortest, second spine longest; second dorsal fin adjoining first one. Origin of second dorsal fin slightly behind vertical line passing through pectoral-fin tip, second dorsal soft rays much shorter than longest dorsal spines. Anal-fin origin on vertical line passing through sixth second dorsal-fin ray; first spine very slender. Pectoral fin falcate, relatively long, reaching vertical line passing through last spine of the first dorsal fin, not surpassing pelvic-fin tip, approximately equal to length of second anal-fin spine. Pelvic fin as long as pectoral fin, its origin nearly at vertical line passing through mid-pectoral fin, as long as pectoral fin. Caudal peduncle short, depth larger than orbital diameter. Caudal fin short, emarginated, central rays short.

Color in alcohol. Upper half of body straw-beige, lower half whitish; head darker from dorsal margin to eye, lighter below, with yellowish hue below eye and on ventral opercle margin; caudal fin yellow, with subtle black hue on tip; fins otherwise hyaline ( Fig. 5AView FIGURE 5).

Color of fresh material. Background color light gray on dorsum and flanks, silvery ventrally on snout, below eye, near anal fin and belly. Sides of body with slender oblique dark lines accompanying center of scales. First dorsal-fin anterior membrane dirty yellow, dusky on posterior interradial membranes, tip of longest spines blackened. Second dorsal and anal fins light gray, dusky along rays; pectoral fin dirty yellowish, with dark hue on upper anterior third, increasing near tip of upper pectoral rays; pelvic fin yellow to cream beige, with darkened line along spine. Caudal fin dusky, darker along rays; margins of upper and lower caudal-fin lobes irregularly darkened along its length ( Fig. 5BView FIGURE 5).

Distribution and habitat. Western South Atlantic along Brazilian coast, from Pará state to northern Rio de Janeiro state ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4), but probably also present in the area of influenced by Amazon-Orinoco plume. It is often found in shallow coastal waters at depths of up to 10 meters, over soft bottoms, mainly in estuarine areas and the surf zone ( Fig. 5CView FIGURE 5).

Fishing. Sometimes targeted by recreational anglers and artisanal fishers using cast-nets and fishing weir.

Etymology. Menticirrhus cuiaranensis  is named in reference to the artisanal fishermen village of Cuiaraná, at Salinópolis, Pará state, Brazil, where the holotype specimen was collected ( Fig. 5CView FIGURE 5).

Remarks. Menticirrhus cuiaranensis  is closer to M. gracilis  and M. littoralis  , but it can be distinguished from these species through a set of morphological features, in addition to the genetic evidence ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5, Table 3). The new species differs from M. gracilis  by having more rays in the second dorsal fin (22–24 dorsal-fin rays vs. 18–21), and from M. littoralis  by having fewer rakers in the first gill arch (7–11 vs. 12–15). Live and fresh specimens of M. littoralis  also have a dark spot on the upper caudal lobe ( Figs. 2B, CView FIGURE 2), which is absent in all specimens of M. cuiaranensis  ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5) and M. gracilis  ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6).

TABLE 4. (Continue d)

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Actinopterygii

Order

Perciformes

Family

Sciaenidae

Genus

Menticirrhus

Loc

Menticirrhus cuiaranensis

Marceniuk, Alexandre Pires, Caires, Rodrigo Antunes, Rotundo, Matheus Marcos, Cerqueira, Najila Nolie Catarine Dantas, Siccha-Ramirez, Raquel, Wosiacki, Wolmar Benjamin & Oliveira, Claudio 2020
2020
Loc

Menticirrhus littoralis

Marin, G. 2000: 75
Cervigon, F. 1993: 282
Cervigon, F. 1992: 406
1992