BRISINGIDA, Fisher, 1928

Mah, Christopher & Foltz, David, 2011, Molecular phylogeny of the Forcipulatacea (Asteroidea: Echinodermata): systematics and biogeography, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 162 (3), pp. 646-660 : 653

publication ID 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2010.00688.x

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Our results ( Figs 2 View Figure 2 , 3 View Figure 3 ) recover the Freyellidae ( Freyella and Freyastera ) as the sister group to more archetypical brisingidans, such as Hymenodiscus and Astrostephane . The greater taxon sampling in Figure 2 View Figure 2 supports the former Freyellidae and Brisingidae as the sister group to Odinella , Brisingaster , and Novodinia . The latter two genera emerge as the sister group to Odinella . This result is similar to the morphology-based phylogenetic trees developed by Mah (1998, 1999), who supported those brisingidans, occurring in shallower depths, with widely abundant papulae present on the abactinal surface ( Odinella , Novodinia , and Brisingaster ), as the sister group to the other, more derived brisingidans.

Mah (1998, 1999) considered Odinella , Novodinia , and Brisingaster as having an intermediate brisingid morphology relative to an asteriid or labidiasterid sister taxon. This was especially the case for Odinella , which has the distinct, wing-like ambulacral ossicles present in asteriids rather than the vertebrae-like ambulacrals present in other brisingidan genera. This perspective is consistent with Mah’s (1998) hypothesis of a bathymetric shift between the shallower-water members of this clade and the deeper-water Freyellidae and Brisingidae .

It should be noted that, although a new classification has not been finalized, our placement of the brisingidans as a derived sister branch to the Asteriidae disagrees with the ordinal-level ranking that places it on a parallel with the Forcipulatida .

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