Netomocera nearctica Yoshimoto, 1977,

Mitroiu, Mircea-Dan, 2019, Revision of Netomocera Bouček (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae), excluding the Oriental species, European Journal of Taxonomy 568, pp. 1-87: 59-64

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Netomocera nearctica Yoshimoto, 1977


Netomocera nearctica Yoshimoto, 1977 

Figs 131–143View Figs 131–135View Figs 136–141View Figs 142–143

Netomocera nearctica Yoshimoto, 1977: 1044  (holotype (♀) in CNC, not examined).


Both sexes

Clypeal margin emarginate ( Fig. 134View Figs 131–135). Upper face and vertex with eight large setae ( Fig. 133View Figs 131–135). Occiput margin blunt ( Fig. 133View Figs 131–135). Scutellum medially longitudinally striate and laterally reticulate, with elongate cells, frenal area striate-reticulate ( Fig. 137View Figs 136–141). Propodeum ( Fig. 138View Figs 136–141) without a well-defined V-shaped area basally, with small smooth areas among carinae; nucha large, with lateral margins parallel. Visible part of petiole very short, distinctly transverse, with more or less obliterate sculpture ( Fig. 138View Figs 136–141).


Head yellowish ( Figs 132–133View Figs 131–135). Flagellum mainly brown ( Fig. 135View Figs 131–135). Macropterous ( Fig. 140View Figs 136–141) or brachypterous ( Fig. 131View Figs 131–135); fore wing with two transverse brownish bands, one behind basal part of marginal vein and second behind stigma, occasionally with a third spot between second band and apical wing margin ( Figs 139, 141View Figs 136–141). Head width equal to combined length of pedicel and flagellum. Antenna ( Fig. 135View Figs 131–135) strongly clavate, fu7 width 1.7–1.9 × length; clava length 1.6–1.7× width. Mesosoma length 1.7–2.0 × height. Mesoscutum very shallowly reticulate ( Fig. 137View Figs 136–141), width 2.5–2.9 × length. Mesepimeral sulcus inconspicuous ( Fig. 136View Figs 136–141).


Head brownish ( Fig. 142View Figs 142–143). Funicle of uniform colour or sometimes fu1 lighter ( Fig. 143View Figs 142–143). Fore wing usually with at least one brownish band behind basal part of marginal vein ( Fig. 142View Figs 142–143); apical part of basal cell mainly bare, with at most some scattered setae ( Fig. 142View Figs 142–143). Fu1 length 1.3–1.5 × width. Scutellum with at least a small shiny area with superficial sculpture on posterior third to half, usually including central part of frenal area, the latter at least laterally striate in large specimens (cf. Fig. 137View Figs 136–141). MV 4.0–4.2 × SV.

Material examined

CANADA • 1 ♀, 1 ♂; “ONT.: Chatterton , 13 mi N. Belleville. Meadow, 26.V.1976, Coll. C. D. Dondale ”; “ Netomocera nearctica Yosh.  , det Z. Bouček 1993”; BMNH  1 ♀; same data as for preceding; “Top B35. 14.VIII.1967 ”; BMNH  1 ♀; same data as for preceding; “Top E50 1.IX.1969 ”; BMNH  1 ♂; “ONT: 5 km N.W. Almonte, 22.VII.86 G. Gibson”; CNC  1 ♂; “ONT: 3 km N. Almonte , 17-24. VI.1986, Denis & Dumouchel, Malaise trap ”; CNC  2 ♀♀; “PQ. Upper Rigaud , IX.1979 PT, M. Sharkey”; BMNH  .

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA – Arizona • 1 ♀; “USA: AZ, Cochise Co., 12 km S Sierra Vista Ramsey Cyn , 1700m, 17.V.1987, B.V. Brown, MT ”; CNC. – California  1 ♀; “ Ca : Tulare Co., Ash. Mtn. Pwr. Sta, 10-VII-1983, J.A. Halstead ”; CNC  1 ♀; “ CA: Tulare Co., Ash. Mtn. 10.VII.83 flume, J.A. Halstead ”; BMNH  3 ♂♂; “CAL. Riverside Co., Menifee Vly (hills on W end) 33°9′ N. 117°13′ W. 1800’ el., 17-22-X-1981, John D. Pinto ”; CNCGoogleMaps  1 ♀; “ Cal. San Bernardino Co., 29 Palms 8.v.84, J. Huber ”, “ Netomocera Det. Z Bouček 1991  ”; CNC  1 ♀; “ Calif , Los Angeles Co., Frazier park near Gorman ”; “ 18-VI-1981, J.B. Wulley ”; “ Netomocera Det. Z Bouček 1991  ”; CNC. – Louisiana  1 ♂; “LA, Iberville Parish , 4.X.1980, 8020, Masner & Bowen”; “Drying pools along Atchafalaya River ”; “ ♂ Netomocera nearctica Yosh.  det. Z Bouček 1993”; CNC. – Florida  1 ♀; “FL: Levy Co., 5 km SW Archer , 1.V-13.VIII.1987; FIT, Turkey oak shrubs, BRC Hym. team”; CNC. – Georgia  1 ♀; “USA: GA, McIntosh Co., Sapelo Island , 18.VII-11.IX.1987, BRC Hym. team, FIT, live oak forest”; CNC  1 ♂; “GA. Forsyth , 5.V-14.V.1971, Malaise Trap, F.T. Naumann ”; “ Lelaps  det. C.M. Yoshimoto ”; “ Netomocera  ”; CNC  1 ♂; same data as for preceding; “ 5-10. VI.1971 ”; “ Netomocera nearctica Yshm Det. C.M. Yoshimoto  ”; CNC  3 ♂♂; “GA: Mcintosh Co., Sapelo Island , 18.VII.1987, Live Oak Forest, BRC Hym. team”; CNC. – Mississippi  1 ♂; “MS, Issaquena Co., 2.X.1980, 8019, Masner & Bowen”; CNC. – Missouri  12 ♂♂; “USA: MO, Wayne Co., Williamsville , 10-26.xi.1987, J. Becker MT ”; CNC  2 ♀♀; same data as for preceding; “ VII.1987 ”; CNC  1 ♂; same data as for preceding; “ X.1987 ”; CNC. – Nebraska  1 ♂; “ Nebraska , Chadron, 14.VIII.80, J. Pinto ”; CNC. – Pennsylvania  1 ♂; “Pittsburg Pa”; “ Aug. 11 1937 ”; “Carn. Mus. Acc./2032”; “Coll. [...] 34, Wallace”; “ Netomocera det.  Burks ”; BMNH. – South Carolina   2 ♂♂; “SC: Oconee Co., Clemson 250m, 20.V-5. VI.1987; FIT, Oak woodland-shore, BRC Hym. team”; CNC. – Texas  1 ♀; “USA Texas Jeff Davis Co., Davis Mtns. St. Pk. , Limpia Crk. 4800’, 18.VII.82 G.A.P. Gibson ”; CNC  1 ♂; “TX, Big Bend N.P., 19.VII.1977, lowland desert spring, L. Masner”; “ ♂ Netomocera nearctica Yoshim. Det. Z. Bouček 1991  ”; BMNH  1 ♂; “TEX. Brewster Co., Big Bend Natl. Pk , Cotton wood Cpga 2300’ 13-14.VIII.1982 G. Gibson ”; “ ♂ Netomocera Det. Z Bouček 1989  ”; CNC  2 ♀♀; “USA Texas Brewster Co , Big Bend National Park, 5.3 mi. W Panther Jct., 3900’ 10-14.VII.82, G.A.P. Gibson ”; “ Netomocera  sp. det. C. Desjardins ”; CNC  1 ♂; “USA: TX: Cameron Co., Ranch Viejo (Omito), 11 mi N Brownsville, 20-28.V.1995, Denis Gumz YPT ”; “ Netomocera det.  R.A. Burks 2004”; CNC. – Virginia  1 ♂; “VA: Shenandoah N.P., Big Meadow 1300m, 5.V-5. VI.1987, MT, Natural meadow, BRC Hym. team”; CNC  .


Female (habitus: Figs 131View Figs 131–135, 140View Figs 136–141)

COLOUR. Head ( Figs 132–133View Figs 131–135) yellowish-brown to orange brown. Mandibles as head, except reddishbrown teeth. Antenna ( Fig. 135View Figs 131–135) with scape and pedicel as head; flagellum as pedicel or slightly darker basally, progressively getting brown to dark brown towards clava. Mesosoma ( Figs 136–138View Figs 136–141) yellowishbrown to orange brown, sutures occasionally darker, with small black spot near each fore wing base. Legs with fore and hind coxae whitish to yellowish-brown, occasionally darker basally, mid coxa as mesosoma; trochanters whitish to yellowish-brown; femora, tibiae and tarsi yellowish-brown, pretarsi dark brown. Fore wing ( Figs 139, 141View Figs 136–141) with brownish spots: macropterous form with two brownish bands, one behind basal part of marginal vein and second behind stigma converging towards first, plus a somewhat paler roundish spot between second band and apical margin of wing ( Fig. 141View Figs 136–141); brachypterous form with two bands broadly joined posteriorly, third spot absent when wing very short ( Fig. 139View Figs 136–141); setation brown. Hind wing hyaline. Metasoma with petiole ( Fig. 138View Figs 136–141) and gaster ( Fig. 131View Figs 131–135) mainly yellowish-brown to orange-brown, with cercal region, tip of ovipositor sheaths and usually part of several tergites darker. Body setation whitish except large, symmetrically arranged, black setae.

BODY LENGTH. 1.2–2.0 mm.

HEAD. Clypeus finely coriaceous; apical margin slightly emarginate ( Fig. 134View Figs 131–135). Lower face shallowly reticulate. Upper face reticulate, with reticulation becoming denser towards vertex ( Fig. 133View Figs 131–135). Scrobes densely reticulate ( Fig. 132View Figs 131–135). Occiput mainly finely coriaceous to alutaceous; margin blunt ( Fig. 133View Figs 131–135). Toruli with lower margins below lower margins of eyes ( Fig. 132View Figs 131–135). Antenna with flagellum strongly clavate; clava conspicuously asymmetric ( Fig. 135View Figs 131–135). Upper face and vertex with eight large setae ( Fig. 133View Figs 131–135). Head in dorsal view with width 2.0–2.1 × length and in frontal view 1.2–1.3 × height. POL 2.10–2.75 × OOL. Eye height 1.3–1.4 × length, 1.85–2.00× malar space and about equal to scape length. Head width equal to length of pedicel plus flagellum. Fu1 length 1.0–1.2× width; fu7 width 1.7–1.9 × length; clava length 1.6–1.7× width.

MESOSOMA. Pronotal collar narrower than mesoscutum, with six large setae ( Fig. 137View Figs 136–141). Mesonotum moderately setose ( Fig. 137View Figs 136–141). Dorsal side of mesoscutum and axillae very shallowly reticulate, shiny ( Fig. 137View Figs 136–141). Scutellar disc medially longitudinally striate and laterally reticulate, with elongate cells; frenal area striate ( Figs 137–138View Figs 136–141). Mesepisternum coriaceous ( Fig. 136View Figs 136–141). Mesepimeron transversally striate; mesepimeral sulcus virtually absent ( Fig. 136View Figs 136–141). Propodeum strongly reticulate, except for almost smooth callus and small area anteriorly; nucha large, with lateral margins parallel ( Fig. 138View Figs 136–141). Macropterous ( Fig. 140View Figs 136–141) or brachypterous ( Fig. 131View Figs 131–135). Macropterous form with fore wing extensively bare on basal half; basal cell with a few scattered setae on apical third; bare region behind marginal vein large ( Fig. 141View Figs 136–141). Brachypterous form with fore and hind wings reduced and represented by stumps; fore wing with rounded or truncate apex well surpassing posterior margin of propodeum, with basal cell bare, large bare region behind marginal vein, and complete submarginal vein, reduced marginal vein and very short postmarginal and stigmal veins ( Fig. 139View Figs 136–141). Mesosoma length 1.4–1.5 × width and 1.7–2.0 × height. Pronotal collar 0.25–0.30× as long as mesoscutum and 0.8–0.9× as wide as mesoscutum. Mesoscutum width 2.5–2.9 × length. Scutellum length 0.9–1.0 × width. Propodeum length about 0.6 × scutellum length. Fore wing length of macropterous form 2.9–3.0 × width; MV 4–5 × SV; PV slightly shorter than SV. Fore wing length of brachypterous form about 3.6 ×width.

METASOMA. Petiole very short, transverse, with a few longitudinal costulae ( Fig. 138View Figs 136–141). Gaster ovate, about 1.3–1.7 × width ( Fig. 131View Figs 131–135); gt1 longest, width 1.2–1.3 × length, with hind margin produced; gt2–6 short; syntergum acutely pointed. Ovipositor sheaths slightly protruding beyond apex of gaster. Cercal setae surpassing apex of gaster.

Male (habitus: Fig. 142View Figs 142–143)

Differs from female mainly as follows. Body length: 1.0– 1.5 mm. Body orange brown (rarely) to blackish-brown, pronotum and propodeum usually lighter ( Fig. 142View Figs 142–143). Scape and pedicel orange-brown to brown, flagellum brown to blackish, sometimes lighter ventrally ( Fig. 143View Figs 142–143). Scutellum with at least a small shiny area with superficial sculpture on posterior third to half, usually including central part of frenal area, the latter at least laterally striate in large specimens. Fore wing with second infuscate band reduced to a small spot behind stigma, third spot absent ( Fig. 142View Figs 142–143) and rarely all markings inconspicuous. Fu1 length 1.3–1.5 × width; length of pedicel plus flagellum 1.7–2.1 × as long as head width. Fore wing length 2.4–2.8× width, row of admarginal setae sometimes longer. MV 4.0–4.2 × as long as SV and 6.0–6.3 × PV. Gaster (inflated) length about 1.6–1.8 × width, gt1 occupying about half or slightly less than half of gaster length.


Canada; USA (new record).


The species was described by Yoshimoto (1977) based on a brachypterous female from Canada. Analyzing the Nearctic material above, it was found that a macropterous form ( Fig. 140View Figs 136–141) also occurs, which apparently is more frequent than the brachypterous form because the ratio of brachypterous to macropterous females examined was 4:13. The shortened wings can vary in length, with the apical part being rounded or truncate ( Fig. 139View Figs 136–141) and the apical-most, third spot being visible or absent. Yoshimoto (1977: 1044) stated “[vertex] with six prominent black setae and 2 others on each side of upper margin of eyes”. This seems to be true for all examined females, except a brachypterous one from Florida, which has one additional seta near the inner margin of each eye, as in N. meridionalis  sp. nov. Regarding the setae on the pronotum, in a few cases an additional seta was observed, the total number of setae being seven instead of six. For additional differences between N. nearctica  and N. meridionalis  sp. nov., see the latter species.

I also examined one female from Missouri, USA and one from Ontario, Canada (CNC) that are brachypterous and have the head black, as well as several males from North America that are darker than the usual males of N. nearctica  . These specimens may represent a distinct species, but more are necessary before a decision can be made.


Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes


Mykotektet, National Veterinary Institute


Mus. Tinro, Vladyvostok


Chicago Academy of Sciences














Netomocera nearctica Yoshimoto, 1977

Mitroiu, Mircea-Dan 2019

Netomocera nearctica

Yoshimoto C. M. 1977: 1044