Anaudia felderi Wallengren, 1863

Bartsch, Daniel, 2013, Revisionary checklist of the Southern African Sesiini (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) with description of new species, Zootaxa 3741 (1), pp. 1-54 : 14-15

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Anaudia felderi Wallengren, 1863


Anaudia felderi Wallengren, 1863

Figs 28–32, 75–78, 86, 94, 101, 113, 124–125.

Literature. Wallengren 1863: 138; Hampson 1919: 112; Dalla Torre & Strand 1925: 175; Gaede 1929: 535; Heppner & Duckworth 1981: 42; Vári, Kroon & Krüger 2002: 67; Pühringer & Kallies 2004: 43.

Specimens examined. Syntype: 1 ♀ (fig. 31) “In territorio lacus N'Gami [ Lake N'Gami , Botswana] legit Wahlberg ” (gen. prep. Bartsch 2007–25, Fig. 124; wing venation, Fig. 86) ( NRMS) .

Additional specimens: 27 ♂ ( Figs 28–30, 89), 31 ♀ ( Fig. 32, 75) South Africa, Northern Cape, Kalahari, ca. 50 km E Hotazel, Tswalu Resort , 1180 m, 27°15'27"S, 22°28'42"E, ex larva 21.–23.Feb.2010, imagines emerged Apr. – May and Aug.–Sep.2010, ex Sutherlandia frutescens , leg. D. Bartsch & J. Berg (♂ gen. prep. Bartsch 2010– 13; ♀ 2010–20; ♂ 2010–21, Fig. 113; ♀ 2010–22, Fig. 125; ♂ antennae, Figs 94, 101) GoogleMaps ; 8 ♂, 4 ♀, South Africa, Northern Cape, 15 km S Olifantshoek , 1280 m, 28°04'20.9"S, 22°42'15.5"E, ex larva 6.II.2012, imagines emerged II.2012 – IV.2013, ex Sutherlandia frutescens , leg. D. Bartsch & J. Berg ( NRMS, TMPS, SMNS) GoogleMaps .

No clear information to the number of types was given in the original description of Anaudia felderi . Only one female has been found in the NRMS, which is a syntype according to ICZN Recommendation 73F. The designation of a lectotype seems not necessary because it was the only known specimen for nearly 150 years. It has a wingspan of 20.5 mm, forewing length of 9.2 mm, and antennal length of 5.5 mm. The specimen is partly rubbed off and damaged. The two pale longitudinal lines of the abdomen, which are mentioned by Gaede (1929), are merely descaled parts. Terminal palpomeres are broken off, both hindwings are somewhat damaged by needle holes in the position of the crossvein, legs are missing except for the left fore- and hind leg; the latter is glued to the wrong side of the thorax. The abdomen of the specimen contained 85 eggs.

Description of the male ( Figs 28–30). Small to medium sized, robust with wingspan 14–25 mm, forewing length 6–12 mm, antenna 4–7 mm, and body 8–15 mm. Head with labial palpus almost white, ventro-laterally interspersed with some black, bristle-like scales, second and third palpomere with black lateral stripe; antenna clavate, without clearly visible ciliae, black, flagellum distally and ventrally with some light brown scales, scapus ventrally white; frons white, medially somewhat grey; vertex covered with an admixture of white, black and reddish-brown, hair-like scales; pericephalic scales dorsally mixed black and white, laterally white. Thorax black, interspersed with white and some reddish-brown scales and mixed with short, white, hair-like scales; mesothorax medially and sublaterally with indistinct black line; tegula narrow, bordered white; forewing base with white scapular spot. Abdomen black; tergites 1–3 mottled with white and reddish-brown, partially short, hair-like scales; tergites 4–7 interspersed with brownish-grey, medio-dorsally with indistinct, brownish-grey line; tergites 4 and 7 with narrow, pure white posterior margin; sternites densely mottled with brownish-grey; anal tuft black, basally white. Fore leg white, heavily interspersed with black and sparsely with reddish-brown; mid- and hind leg black, densely mixed with white, partially hair-like scales; tarsomeres of all legs distally and mesally white; hind tibia medially white, except for black mesal side; distal half of first hind tarsomere white. Forewing black, densely mottled with grey scales, except for discal cell, a round area distal of the discal spot and distal margin. Hindwing hyaline, margins broad, highly variable in width, wing base, veins and discal spot black. Fringes greyish brown, at hindwing dorsum interspersed with white.

Male genitalia ( Fig. 113). As stated in the genus description. Uncus relative compact; ventro-lateral rows of thorn-like setae exceed half of its total length, saccus shorter than processes vinculi; coecum penis slightly tapered, distally rounded.

Redescription of the female ( Figs 31–32, 75). Most parts of body, legs and wings deep black. Head with labial palpus white, ventro-laterally with black, bristle-like scales; frons white, medially some black scales; vertex medially mixed with black, white and some fuscous scales. Thorax dorsally brownish-grey with three longitudinal black lines; patagia mottled with white; scapular spot small, white. Abdominal tergite 4 with fine, glossy white posterior margin; 1 and 2 sparsely mottled with white; other tergites medially with indistinct brownish-grey spot; anal tuft dorso-medially white. Legs with fore coxa proximally and laterally narrow white; fore tibia white, dorsal edge black; hind tibia medially with broad, white ring; each segment of tarsus distally with narrow white ring; first hind tarsomere medially and distally white. Forewing with costal- and dorsal margins, veins, discal spot and subapically between veins marked with some brownish-black. The abdomens of the two dissected, freshly emerged specimens contained 145 and 206 eggs, respectively.

Female genitalia ( Figs 124–125). See genus description.

Variation. Both sexes vary in density and extent of the whitish colouration. Males show further individual differences in width of the hindwing margins, which are often connected with the discal spot. Some females have a very narrow, linear transparent area of the hindwing located between median stem and vein 1A.

Diagnosis. A. felderi and A. thyranthrena are superficially somewhat similar to several species of Thyranthrene ( Paranthrenini ), in particular those that have broad margins of the hindwing. However, Thyranthrene spp. are readily distinguished by the lack of a common stalk of the hindwing veins M3/CuA1. A close relationship of A. felderi and A. thyranthrena is evidenced by their external appearance as well as by their male genital structures. Males of both species can be distinguished by the shape of the antenna, which has no ciliae or rami in A. felderi ( Fig. 94 101) and two rows of short and broad rami in A. thyranthrena . The female is somewhat similar to that of the rare dark forms of Austrosetia semirufa , which is typically easy to differentiate by the orange-red colouration of its hindwing. Diagnostic is the coloration of the abdomen, which has the posterior border of tergites 4 and 6 and the anal tuft dorso-basally white in A. felderi , but only tergite 4 with white border and black anal tuft in A. semirufa . The female of A. thyranthrena is unknown. The male genitalia of A. felderi ( Fig. 113) and A. thyranthrena ( Fig. 114) are very similar and differences are mainly seen in lateral view. The former has a more compact tegumen, an uncus with more thorn-like setae, a saccus that is shorter than the processes vinculi (of equal length in A. thyranthrena ), and a less strongly tapered coecum penis.

Bionomics and habitat ( Figs 75–78). The newly discovered specimens of A. felderi were reared from larvae found in the root of the well known “Cancer-bush” Sutherlandia frutescens ( Fabaceae ) ( Fig 78), a small, redflower and soft wooded shrub, 0.5 to 1 m in height, and frequently found on sandy soil along roadsides. Often several larvae bore jointly in the upper part of the root. Some of the strongly infested plants were dry, but the majority showed only marginal debilitation. When fully grown, the larva constructs a long, robust exit tube with silk, sawdust and sand from the feeding tunnel in the root up to the soil surface ( Fig. 76–77). Pupation takes place within this tunnel without a cocoon. Adults hatch during morning hours, in culture from March to May and from August to November. The fully grown larva can outlast more than one year, before pupation. The moth has a very typical resting position with an erect tip of the abdomen and laterally depressed wings, which, combined with its monotonous colouration, results in perfect camouflage ( Fig. 75). Despite the presence of fresh exuviae, no adults were observed in the field.


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