Ciocalapata minuspiculifera, Lage & Carvalho & Menegola, 2013

Lage, Anaíra, Carvalho, Mariana De S. & Menegola, Carla, 2013, Two new species of Halichondrida (Demospongiae) and the first record of Phycopsis and Ciocalapata for Brazil, Zootaxa 3734 (2), pp. 292-300 : 297-298

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Ciocalapata minuspiculifera

sp. nov.

Ciocalapata minuspiculifera sp. nov.

Figure 3 A–F View FIGURE 3 ; Table 2.

Holotype: UFBA 3118 -POR, Brazil, Maraú , off Camamu Bay, # RN4, 13º45’27”S / 38º53’02”W, 14–16 m, 05.x.2009, coll. L. Freitas. GoogleMaps

Paratypes: UFBA 4210 -POR, Brazil, Maraú , off Camamu Bay, # RN4, 13º45’27”S / 38º53’02”W, 14–16 m, 24.x.2012, coll. C. Castello-Branco & A. Lage GoogleMaps ; UFBA 4217 -POR, Brazil, Maraú , off Camamu Bay, # Anguara de Terra, 14º03.104’S / 38º54.917’W, 19–20 m, 25.x.2012, coll. C. Castello-Branco & M. Filgueiras. GoogleMaps

Diagnosis. Ciocalapata with massive, globose shaped, depressions formed by a porous mesh surface, rosy color with white spots alive, and two categories of oxeas (oxeas I: 500–1060 / 20–50 µm and oxeas II: 146.3–417.6 / 5.3–10.6 µm) and one of styles (205.2–913.1 / 20.5–41 µm).

Description. Specimens are irregular, massive or globose. The holotype (UFBA 3118-POR) measures about 70 mm length and 20 mm high. Surface irregular, microhispid, slightly velvety, covered with sediment. Small depressions formed by a porous mesh and grooves near the oscules are observed. Consistency is firm, incompressible and easy to cut. Oscules, when observed, dispersed with 2–6 mm in diameter. Color in situ is purple with white spots on the outer surface and beige inside, being cream-yellowish in spirit ( Figure 3A View FIGURE 3 and 2B View FIGURE 2 ).

Spicules. Megascleres: two categories of oxeas and one category of styles (see Table 2 for dimensions). Microscleres absent.

Oxea I ( Figure 3C View FIGURE 3 ) abundant, stout, straight and curved, smooth with hastate ends: 500–788.8–1060 /20–34.6– 50 µm (length/ thickness).

Oxea II ( Figure 3D View FIGURE 3 ) smooth, slender, straight to slightly curved with acerate ends: 146.3–267.5–417.6 / 5.3– 8.1–10.6 µm (length/ thickness).

Styles ( Figure 3E View FIGURE 3 ) less abundant than oxeas, smooth, straight, with regular blunt and pointed ends: 205.2– 587.7–913.1 / 20.5–30.5–41 µm (length/ thickness).

Skeleton. Ectosomal skeleton detachable with a thin impregnation of spongin and sediment. Smaller oxeas (oxeas II) are disposed in bundles directed toward the surface and supported by the larger choanosomal ones (Oxeas I). Choanosomal skeleton confused with no distinction of bundles or reticules ( Figure 3F View FIGURE 3 ).

Ecology. Ciocalapata minuspiculifera sp. nov. is typical of rocky or coral bottoms between 14 and 20 m in depth. Most found specimens were covered by sediment and encrusting erect colonies of bryozoans ( Celleporaria mordax ( Marcus, 1937) and Scrupocellaria sp. , respectively), some ascidians and ophiuroids.

Etymology. The name minuspiculifera refers to all categories of spicules that are smaller than those of the unique congeneric species Ciocalapata amorphosa .

Distribution. Provisionally endemic off Camamu Bay (13º45’27”– 14º03’10.1”S / 38º53’02”– 38º54’.52.2” W), Maraú, Bahia, Brazil 14–20 m depth (NE Brazil)

Remarks. The genus Ciocalapata de Laubenfels, 1936 is characterized by a detachable ectosomal skeleton, a choanosome with bundles of spicules surrounding choanosomal spaces ( Erpenbeck & Van Soest 2002) and a set of spicules composed of oxeas and true styles. Van Soest et al. (1990) considered Ciocalapata a junior synonym of Halichondria Fleming, 1828 due to the characteristics of its skeleton, such as the detachable ectosomal skeleton. However, the presence of large true styles in Ciocalapata distinguishes it species from the species of Halichondria , where this type of megascleres is not found ( Erpenbeck & Van Soest 2002).

The presence of styles (> 800 µm) in the spicular set of Ciocalapata makes the genus more similar to Amorphinopsis Carter, 1887 . However, Amorphinopsis has smaller styles (200–400 µm). Currently, Ciocalapata comprises a single valid species, Ciocalapata amorphosa ( Ridley & Dendy, 1886) , described from the coast of Argentina.

Ciocalapata minuspiculifera sp. nov. differs from C. amorphosa by the presence of smaller categories of oxeas and styles: oxeas 500–788.8–1060 / 20–34.6–50 µm and 146.3–267.5–417.6 / 5.3–8.1–10.6 µm and styles 205.2– 587.7–913.1 / 20.5–30.5–41 µm. While C. amorphosa has oxeas about 900–1500 / 18–25 µm and 515–680/ 8–10 µm and styles with 940–1150 / 30 µm.

The choanosomal skeleton of the two species also differs. Ciocalapata amorphosa has choanosome with bundles of 200–300µm forming a trabecular system surrounding choanosomal spaces, with some loose megascleres. Meanwhile Ciocalapata minuspiculifera sp. nov. displays a confused choanosomal skeleton without distinct reticulation or bundles. That skeletal characteristic is more similar to genus Amorphinopsis . Meanwhile, the smaller ectosomal styles and its measures are distinctive on either genera.

In addition to these skeletal differences, Ciocalapata minuspiculifera sp. nov. presents a globular shape, with microhispid surface, depressions forming a porous mesh and a firm consistency instead of the amorphous and alveolate shape, spongy consistency and a dermal membranous surface seen in C. amorphosa . The bathymetric variation between the two species is also quite significant: C. amorphosa is found in deep waters, with depths equal to or exceeding 1000 meters, while the new species is found in shallow waters up to 20 m. deep.

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