Apricia, Richardson, Barry J., 2016

Richardson, Barry J., 2016, New genera, new species and redescriptions of Australian jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae), Zootaxa 4114 (5), pp. 501-560: 507-508

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gen. nov.

Apricia  gen. nov.

Type species: Marptusa jovialis L. Koch, 1879  .

Etymology. The name reflects the Latin ‘ apricus ’—lying open to the sun, and refers to the type species’ habit of basking on sunny walls. It is to be treated as feminine in gender.

Remarks. It has been known for some time that ‘ Breda  jovialis ( L. Koch, 1879)  and ‘ Menemerus  bracteatus ( L. Koch, 1879)  are placed in the wrong genera ( Davies & Żabka 1989). Members of the American genus Breda Peckham & Peckham, 1894  differ from B. jovialis  in having a long tibial apophysis and a long embolus arising posteriorly ( Davies & Żabka 1989; Ruiz & Brescovit 2013), unlike this Australian species. The latter authors transferred this species to the, more nearly related, Australian genus, Ocrisiona Simon, 1901  , pending proper revision, while Maddison & Hedin (2003) placed it, on molecular evidence, near the Australian genus Holoplatys Simon, 1885  .

Diagnosis. In Apricia  , individuals are medium to large in size with low but not compressed profiles, as found in Ocrisiona  and Holoplatys  . In each species there is a distinctive bright yellow pattern on an otherwise dark abdomen. There are no lighter striae on the posterior face of the cephalothorax, unlike Pungalina  .

Apricia  can be differentiated from Holoplatys  and Ocrisiona  in several ways. It is not as specialized for life in crevices or under bark; for example, in not being so flattened in form. Tibial spines are absent in Holoplatys  , while relictual spines are present on T 1 and T 2 in Ocrisiona  and on T 1, T 2 and T 3 in Apricia  . There is a general similarity in the structure of the female genitalia in the three genera, for example in the presence of well-developed diverticula arising from the lateral edges of the spermatheca in all three genera. The epigyne in Apricia  , however, has a somewhat different pattern to either of the other genera. The copulatory openings open distally onto the surface without clear guides or a well-developed atrium ( Fig. 29View FIGURES 25 – 31). In Holoplatys  ( Żabka 1991 a, figs 25, 43, 50) there is a single atrium (sometimes partially subdivided) that varies in size from species to species. In Ocrisiona  ( Żabka 1990, fig. 3) there are two atria meeting in the midline and tapering anteriorly. The copulatory openings are placed at the distal apex of these. In Apricia  the spermathecae approach both the midline and the epigastric fold whilst in Ocrisiona  and Holoplatys  they are placed distally and laterally on the outer edges of the atria. In male Ocrisiona  and Holoplatys  the broad base leading to the embolus folds behind the seminal reservoir, with the embolus being on the anterior side of the midline ( Holoplatys: Żabka 1991 a  , fig. 2; Ocrisiona: Żabka 1990  , figs 2, 6). In Apricia  ( Figs 26View FIGURES 25 – 31, 41View FIGURES 40 – 49, 59View FIGURES 58 – 66) the base and the embolus move in a distal direction, do not pass behind the seminal reservoir, and remain on the posterior side of the midline. In both Holoplatys  and Ocrisiona  the tegulum is as wide as, or wider than, its length and there is no proximal lobe while the opposite is true in the similarly sized Apricia  .

Apricia  can be distinguished from Clynotis  by the reduction or loss of spines, for example on the femora, and the lower profile of the cephalothorax (compare Fig. 18View FIGURES 17 – 24 with Fig. 78View FIGURES 77 – 86). The morphology of the female genital tracts is different. Female genitalia include a diverticulum extending from the lateral side of each spermatheca in Apricia  ( Fig. 46View FIGURES 40 – 49) while instead there is a long thin diverticulum with a bulbous end arising from the median side of each insemination duct in Clynotis  ( Fig. 83View FIGURES 77 – 86). There is a second, short diverticulum on the anterior surface of each spermatheca in Apricia  that leads from the spermathecae to the fertilization ducts. These open towards the median line. In Clynotis  , a second very large diverticulum with a large bulbous end arises from the posterior edge of the spermatheca. The overall morphology of the palps in Clynotis severus  are generally similar to that in Apricia  , though the proximal lobe of the tegulum is smaller and on the posterior side in Clynotis  ( Fig. 81View FIGURES 77 – 86) and larger and on the anterior side in Apricia  ( Fig. 43View FIGURES 40 – 49).

Differences in the female genitalia also differentiate Apricia  from Pungalina  , in which there are no lateral diverticula, and the fertilization ducts arise directly, or through short diverticula, from the lower median edges of the spermathecae close to the epigastic fold (eg Fig. 130View FIGURES 125 – 133).

Maddison et al. (2008), on molecular evidence, placed Apricia jovialis  near Holoplatys  , while Clynotis  was placed in a separate clade with Sandalodes  . However, the latter molecular association with Sandalodes  is now considered doubtful (W. Maddison, pers. com.).

Apricia bracteata  is presently placed in Menemerus  , but differs from M. semilimbatus  , the type of that genus, and the pantropical species M. bivittatus  in, for example, the complex structure of the insemination duct that includes a diverticulum and the distinct male conductors not seen in A. bracteata  (compare Figs 40–48View FIGURES 40 – 49 with fig. 55 in Davies & Żabka 1989).













Richardson, Barry J. 2016

Holoplatys: Żabka 1991 a

Zabka 1991

Ocrisiona: Żabka 1990

Zabka 1990