Evarcha longula ( Thorell, 1881 ),

Richardson, Barry J., 2016, New genera, new species and redescriptions of Australian jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae), Zootaxa 4114 (5), pp. 501-560: 525-528

publication ID

http://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4114.5.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:8F950473-E021-4704-9DA7-9AA9A259C5C3

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03E487E9-FFEB-E633-FF59-8D82E4B6FD30

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Evarcha longula ( Thorell, 1881 )
status

comb. nov.

Evarcha longula ( Thorell, 1881)  comb. nov.

Figs 87–100View FIGURES 87 – 94View FIGURES 95 – 100

Marptusa longula Thorell, 1881: 454  .

Trite longula  — Thorell 1881: 829, footnote 1; Simon 1903: 829.

Type material. Holotype: M, Somerset, Cape York, 144.31 °E, 10.73 °S, L.M. D’Albertis, 1875 ( MSNG BJR 1255).

Other material examined. PAPUA NEW GUINEA: 1 M, Motmot Island, Lake Wisdom Long Island, 147.12 °E, 5.35 °S, 18 Nov. 1985, M. Ball (AMS KS 21344); INDONESIA: 1 M, Merauke, Papua, 140.4 °E, 8.5 °S, 1956, Chrysanthus [not seen, record taken from Chrysanthus (1968)]; AUSTRALIA: QUEENSLAND: 1 F, Saibai Island, 142.67 °E, 9.38 °S, 14 Jul. 1975, H. Heatwole & E. Cameron (QM S 73058View Materials B); 1 M, Saibai Island, 142.67 °E, 9.38 °S, 18 Jul. 1975, H. Heatwole & E. Cameron (QM S 91652View Materials); Darnley, 143.77 °E, 9.58 °S); 1 F, Moa Island, Torres Strait, 142.27 °E, 10.18 °S, 25 Feb. 1975, E. Cameron (QM S 91644View Materials); 1 M, Hammond Island, Torres Strait, 142.22 °E, 10.53 °S, H. Heatwole & E. Cameron (QM S 91650View Materials); 1 M, Horn Island, 142.28 °E, 10.62 °S, 27 Jul. 1975, H. Heatwole & E. Cameron (QM S 91651View Materials); 2 F, Cairncross West, 142.92 °E, 11.25 °S); 2 F, Kowanyama, 141.73 °E, 15.48 °S, 11 Jan. 1977, D.L. Hancock (QM S 91646View Materials); Rocky Island, 145.35 °E, 15.6 °S; 1 F, Black Mountain, 145.63 °E, 16.68 °S, 1971, N. Clyde Coleman (QM S 19645View Materials); 3, Ellis Beach, Cairns, 145.62 °E, 16.72 °S, 1 Jul. 2003, B.J. Richardson ( ANIC 42 000486); 4, Ellis Beach, Cairns, 145.62 °E, 16.72 °S, 1 Jul. 2003, B.J. Richardson ( ANIC 42 000485); 2 F, Davies Creek, 145.55 °E, 16.98 °S, N. Clyde Coleman (QM S 91647View Materials); 1 M, near Atherton, 145.48 °E, 17.27 °S, 11 Oct. 1987, M. Żabka (AMS KS 44653); 1, Mission Beach, 146.08 °E, 17.90 °S, 25 Jul. 2004, B.J. Richardson ( ANIC 42 000483); Townsville, 146.82 °E, 19.27 °S, 1 May 1989, B.J. Scott ( WAM T 45325View Materials); NEW SOUTH WALES: 1 M, Brunswick Heads, 153.55 °E, 28.53 °S, 3 Aug. 1981, M.R. Gray (AMS KS 45397); NORTHERN TERRITORY: 1 M, Pungalina  Station, Karne Creek Road, 137.45 °E, 16.45 °S, 28 Jun. 2012, B.J. Richardson, N. Gunter & S. Pinzon-Navarro ( ANIC 42 001628); 1 imm., Pungalina  Station, Seven Emu Road, 137.42 °E, 16.67 °S, 30 Jun. 2012, N. Gunter ( ANIC 42 001652); 2 imm., Pungalina  Station, Homestead, 137.42 °E, 16.72 °S, 30 Jun. 2012, T. Weir ( ANIC 42 001610); 2 imm., Pungalina  Station, Safari Camp, 137.43 °E, - 16.72 °S, B.J. Richardson ( ANIC 42 001620); 2 imm., Pungalina  Station, Lake Jabiru, 137.53 °E, 16.75 °S, 29 Jun. 2012, N. Gunter ( ANIC 42 001624); WESTERN AUSTRALIA: Drysdale, 126.38 °E, 15.7 °S, 5 May 1993, A.F. Longbottom ( WAM T 45326View Materials); 1 F, Deception Range, 128.27 °E, 16.77 °S, 1 Feb. 2008, G. Byrne ( WAM T 92402View Materials); 1 imm., Millstream National Park, Fortesque River, near Ranger Headquarters, 117.05 °E, 21.57 °S, 1 May 2003, B.J. Richardson ( ANIC 42 000484); 2 M, Millstream National Park, Ranger Headquarters, 117.07 °E, 21.58 °S, 29 Apr. 2003, C. Lambkin ( ANIC 42 000481); 1 F, Millstream National Park, Ranger Headquarters, 117.40 °E, 21.60 °S, 29 Apr. 2003, B.J. Richardson ( ANIC 42 000160); 1 imm., Millstream National Park, Ranger Headquarters, 117.40 °E, 21.60 °S, 29 Apr. 2003, B.J. Richardson ( ANIC 42 000482).

Remarks. Davies & Żabka (1989) pointed out that the type species of Trite  , T. pennata Simon, 1885  is a fissident spider allied to Opisthoncus  , while ‘ Trite  longula  is a unident spider with quite distinct genitalia and palp morphology and is misplaced in Trite  . Prószyński & Deeleman-Reinhold (2010) conditionally transferred Trite longula  to Evarcha Simon, 1902  on the basis of the general similarity of the epigynes. This similarity refers to the heavily sclerotized double curve edges of the atria ( Figs 99, 100View FIGURES 95 – 100). Prszyński (2014) then suggested that Gangus longulus Simon, 1902  is a synonym of this species. No reasons for this were given, however, and no illustrations of the type of G. longulus  were presented. At present there is no evidence for the synonymy and, to the contrary, Simon (1902) states that G. longulus  has a laterally pointed, black, strong and sharp tibial apophysis. Evarcha longula  has a short bifurcate tibial apophysis.

The genus Evarcha  is in need of revision ( Żabka 1993; W. Maddison, pers. com.) and, as presently constituted, includes several morphologically distinct groups. Evarcha longula  resembles E. flavocincta (C.L. Koch, 1846)  and morphologically similar species, though not the group including the type species, E. falcata (Clerck, 1757)  . The only other Australian species, E. infrastriata (Keyserling, 1881)  , is similar to E. falcata  , rather than E. longula  . For the present E. longula  has been placed in this genus until it is is properly revised.

Diagnosis. The male palp ( Figs 95–97View FIGURES 95 – 100) in E. longula  , as in E. flavocincta  , has a short broad embolus placed in a round tegulum with a large proximal lobe and a medium-sized bifurcate tibial apophysis rather than the long thin embolus that wraps in a clockwise direction partially around a round tegulum and long pointed apophysis ( Żabka 1993) seen in E. falcata  and E. infrastriata (Keyserling, 1881)  . It can be distinguished from E. flavicincta  by the bifurcate rather than multi-pronged shape of the tibial apophysis. In the females, the copulatory opening is placed in a small deep atrium that faces backwards and is to the side and slightly behind the spermatheca, while the insemination duct enters the rear of the spermatheca. In E. infrastriata  the copulatory openings is anterior to the spermatheca. The cephalothorax is rounded in E. longula  with striae on the pars cephalica and with long lateral setae arising just behind the PME in both sexes. In dorsal view the species resembles female Thyene concinna  in body shape and in the presence of striae and setae (compare Fig. 87View FIGURES 87 – 94 with Davies & Żabka 1989, fig. 50). However, the palp morphology and female genitalia are entirely different (compare Figs 95–100View FIGURES 95 – 100 with fig. 50 in Davies & Żabka 1989).

Description. Male: Cephalothorax ( Figs 87, 89View FIGURES 87 – 94) mid to dark orange with scattered pennate grey hairs over anterior dorsal surface and sides and with striae consisting of thick black hairs on the pars thoracica. A tuft of long lateral setae arising just behind and below the PME. Surrounds of ALE, PME and PLE, black with scattered grey hairs. Clypeus narrow, without a fringe of hairs. Chelicerae ( Fig. 88View FIGURES 87 – 94) straight, tan distally, grading to black proximally. Two promarginal teeth and one medium-sized, unident retromarginal tooth. Endites and labium brown grading to yellow distally. Sternum yellow with randomly placed large black patches. Dorsal abdomen ( Fig. 87View FIGURES 87 – 94) yellow with a pair of longitudinal black stripes and a faint midline stripe. Spinnerets yellow with black patches. Ventral abdomen black. Legs brown with black patches and strong spines, L 1 more robust and larger than other legs, with black fringe on patella and tibia. Palp ( Figs 95–97View FIGURES 95 – 100): light brown, tegulum mid brown, tibia with single short blunt apophysis, bifurcate at the tip. The short broad embolus with a proximal origin is placed in a round tegulum that has a large proximal lobe. Dimensions: CL 2.84 + 0.13 (5) 2.54–3.16, EFL 1.08 + 0.05 (5) 0.93–1.18, CW 1.92 + 0.13 (5) 2.54–2.84, AEW 1.49 + 0.05 (5) 1.36–1.61, AMEW 1.04 + 0.04 (5) 0.93–1.11, PEW 1.54 + 0.05 (5) 1.42–1.67, AL 3.56 + 0.28 (4) 2.97–3.90, P 1 +T 1 2.58 +0 16 (5) 2.11–2.97, L 1 7.00 (2.11 + 1.11 + 1.86 + 1.36 + 0.56), L 2 5.76 (2.11 + 0.93 + 1.24 + 0.93 + 0.56), L 3 5.08 (1.86 + 0.93 + 0.99 + 0.87 + 0.43), L 4 5.63 (1.80 + 0.74 + 1.24 + 1.11 + 0.74).

Female: Cephalothorax ( Figs 90, 91View FIGURES 87 – 94) yellow, pars thoracica with dark striae highlighted with black hairs. Surrounds of ALE, PME and PLE black. A tuft of long lateral setae arising just behind and below the PME. Clypeus ( Fig. 93View FIGURES 87 – 94) yellow, narrow, with white fringe of scattered hairs. Chelicerae rounded, yellow, with two promarginal teeth and a single, medium sized, fissident, retromarginal tooth. Endites and sternum ( Fig. 92View FIGURES 87 – 94) yellow. Abdomen long and narrow. Dorsal abdomen yellow with variable V-shaped brown pattern ( Fig. 90View FIGURES 87 – 94). Spinnerets dark brown. Ventral abdomen same colour as dorsal surface. Palps yellow. L 1, L 2, L 3 and L 4 similar sizes but grading in robustness. Legs yellow with patterns of black hairs. Epigyne ( Figs 98–100View FIGURES 95 – 100): consisting of pairs of atria and coupling pockets with heavily sclerotised margins. Copulatory openings indistinct. Insemination ducts pass laterally across the posterior edges of the spermathecae barely reaching the posterior edges of the atria. Spermatheca convoluted and multichambered lying behind and between the atria. Fertilization ducts anterior, indistinguishable externally. Dimensions: CL 2.43 + 0.06 (5) 2.23–2.60, EFL 0.95 + 0.03 (5) 0.93–0.99, CW 1.62 + 0.08 (5) 1.55–1.73, AEW 1.33 + 0.06 (5) 1.24–1.36, AMEW 0.94 + 0.01 (5) 0.93–0.99, PEW 1.37 + 0.01 (5) 1.36–1.42, AL 3.68 + 0.16 (5) 3.41–4.27, P 1 +T 1 1.75 + 0.09 (5) 1.55–2.04, L 1 3.65 (1.05 + 0.74 + 0.80 + 0.62 + 0.43), L 2 3.34 (0.99 + 0.74 + 0.56 + 0.50 + 0.56), L 3 3.96 (1.24 + 0.68 + 0.74 + 0.68 + 0.62), L 4 3.90 (1.30 + 0.62 + 0.74 + 0.68 + 0.56).

Distribution and biology. Found across northern Australia and in New Guinea in a wide range of habitats ( Fig. 94View FIGURES 87 – 94) on grass and other foliage. As a consequence, likely IUCN Red List Category LC.

MSNG

Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova 'Giacomo Doria'

NEW

University of Newcastle

ANIC

Australian National Insect Collection

WAM

Western Australian Museum

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Salticidae

Genus

Evarcha

Loc

Evarcha longula ( Thorell, 1881 )

Richardson, Barry J. 2016
2016
Loc

Marptusa longula

Thorell 1881: 454
1881
Loc

Trite longula

Simon 1903: 829
Thorell 1881: 829
1881