Megatyphlops mucruso (Peters)

Broadley, Donald G. & Wallach, Van, 2009, 2255, Zootaxa 2255, pp. 1-100 : 52-55

publication ID

1175­5334

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http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03E3D17B-FFCD-1247-44D4-EDE2977EF9EE

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scientific name

Megatyphlops mucruso (Peters)
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Megatyphlops mucruso (Peters)  

( Fig. 9C)

Zambezi giant blind-snake

Onychocephalus mucruso Peters, 1854   , Ber. Bekanntmach. Geeignet. Verhandl. Königl.-Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1854(11): 621. Type locality: “Macanga” [= Makanga, Mozambique], lectotype ZMB 3963 (designated by Loveridge 1933: 216), collected by W.C.H. Peters, January–June 1845; Peters, 1855: 50, 1860: 83; Günther, 1864: 307, 1866: 25; Bocage, 1873: 253; Loveridge, 1933: 216; FitzSimons, V., 1962: 73, 1966a: 39; Bauer et al., 1995: 78, 2002: 162.

Onychocephalus dinga Peters, 1854   , Ber. Bekanntmach. Geeignet. Verhandl. Königl.-Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1854(11): 620. Type locality: “Tette” [= Tete, Mozambique], lectotype ZMB 3942 (designated by Roux-Estève, 1974: 166, and type locality restricted to “ Tete ” by Broadley, 1998c: 386), collected by W.C.H. Peters, December 1844 – September 1845; Peters, 1855: 50, 1860: 82, 1882: 98, pl. 14, fig. 1, pl. 14A, fig. 3; Lichtenstein, 1856: 21; Bocage, 1873: 250; Barbour & Loveridge, 1946: 163; FitzSimons, V., 1962, 73, 1966a: 38; Bauer et al., 1995: 78, 2002: 161.

Onychocephalus mucrusa   (sic)— Lichtenstein, 1856: 21; Bauer et al., 2002: 162.

Onychocephalus schlegelii   — (not Bianconi) Peters 1860: 82.

Onychocephalus varius Peters, 1860   , Mber. Königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1860(2): 82. Type locality: “Mossambique” [= Mozambique], restricted to Sena, Mozambique by Peters, 1882: 97, holotype ZMB 3919, collected by W.C.H. Peters, June 1843 – August 1847; Peters, 1882; pl. 14, fig. 2, pl. 14A, fig. 1; FitzSimons, V., 1962: 73, 1966a: 38; Bauer et al., 1995: 78, 2002: 162.

Typhlops (Onychocephalus) riparius Peters, 1881   , S.-Ber. Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin, 1881(3): 50. Type locality: “ Chupanga an dem Zambezeflusse, Ostafrika [= Chupanga on the Zambezi River, Mozambique], holotype ZMB 3943 View Materials , collected by W.C.H. Peters, May 1845; FitzSimons, V., 1962: 73, 1966a: 38; Bauer et al., 1995: 79, 2002: 165.

Typhlops mucruso   — Peters, 1882: 95, pl. 13, fig. 3; Boulenger, 1893: 46 (var. “A” & “C”, part, Zanzibar), 1896a: 588 (part), 1897a: 800, 1902a: 17; 1907b: 9, 1910: 498 (part), 1915a: 197 (part), 1915b: 616; Bocage, 1895: 67, 1896a: 90; Boettger, 1898: 5, 1913: 348, 364; Sclater, 1898: 98; Sternfeld, 1908a: 239, 1910a: 53, 1910c: 12, fig. 8; Chubb 1909a: 595, 1909b: 35; FitzSimons, F., 1912 & 1919: 54; Hobley, 1912: 45; Peracca, 1912: 4; Hewitt & Power, 1913: 160; Werner, 1913a: 45, 1921: 318 (part); Schmidt, 1923: 33; Loveridge, 1924: 3, 1929a: 17; Essex, 1927: 924, figs. 71–74; Barbour & Loveridge, 1928: 108; Cott, 1928: 933–934, 1935: 964; Pitman, 1934: 32; Barros e Cunha, 1935: 1; Tasman, 1953: 19, pl. 1; FitzSimons, V., 1966a: 39; Fitch, 1970: 121 (part).

Typhlops varius   — Peters, 1882: 97, pl. 14, fig. 2, pl. 15A, fig. 1.

Typhlops dinga   — Peters, 1882: 98, pl. 14, fig. 1, pl. 14A, fig. 3; Boulenger, 1893: 45, 1907a: 486, 1910: 498, 1915b: 615; Bocage, 1896a: 99; Boettger, 1898: 5; Mocquard, 1899: 219; Sternfeld, 1911: 249; FitzSimons, F., 1912 & 1919: 54; Werner, 1921: 318, 1929: 177; Duerden & Essex, 1923: 179; Loveridge, 1923: 873, 1924: 3, 1929b: 14, 1933: 216; Schmidt, 1923: 33; Mahendra, 1936: 139; Smit, 1949: 117; Rose, 1950: 253, 1955: 75, 1962: 321; McDowell & Bogert, 1954: 82; Pope, 1955: 172; Staniszewski, 1990: 133.

Typhlops riparius   — Peters, 1882: 98, pl. 14A, fig. 2; Bocage, 1895: 69.

Typhlops schlegeli   — (not Bianconi) Dollo, 1886: 155; Boulenger, 1902: 17; Stevenson-Hamilton, 1929: 122; Uthmöller, 1941a: 42; McDowell & Bogert, 1954: 82; Laurent, 1956a: 50; Porter, 1972: 406; Greene, 1994: 121.

Typhlops schlegelii   — (not Bianconi) Stejneger, 1894b: 725; Bocage, 1896a: 99; Boulenger, 1896a: 588, 1915b: 615; Peracca, 1910: 3; Loveridge, 1916: 82, 1924: 3, 1933: 216; Rose, 1950: 253, 1955: 75, 1962: 321; Sweeney, 1961: 37, fig. 6; FitzSimons, V., 1962: 75; Broadley, 1973: 20, 1978: 29; Broadley & Cock, 1975: 100, pl. 63; Dowling, 1978: 110.1; Hedges, 1983: 2; Mehrtens, 1987: 12; Mattison, 1995: 195, 2007: 198; Marais, 1997: 36, figs.; Hall, 2004: 296.

Typhlops mandensis Stejneger, 1894b   , Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., 16(970): 725. Type locality: “Wange, Island of Manda, north of Lamu, East Africa” [= Kenya] (2.000°S, 40.917E, elevation NSL), holotype USNM 20125, collected by G. Denhardt, September–November, 1892; Boulenger 1896: 587, 1915b: 615; Werner, 1921: 313, 1929: 177; Loveridge, 1923: 872, 1924: 3, 1929a: 16, 1933: 199, 216; FitzSimons, V., 1962, 75, 1966a: 39; Wallach, 2003: 240.

Typhlops mucroso   (sic) — Tornier, 1897: 66; Mocquard, 1899: 219; Gough, 1908: 1; FitzSimons, F., 1910: 26; Angel, 1925: 30; Uthmöller, 1941a: 42; Rose, 1950: 253, 1955: 75.

Typhlops bibronii   — Sternfeld, 1908c: 246.

Typhlops mucruso varius   — Chubb 1909a: 595.

Typhlops maeruso   (sic) — Chubb 1909b: 35.

Typhlops latirostris Sternfeld, 1910b   , Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 5(1): 70. Type locality: “ Tabora, Deutsch-Ostafrika ” [= Tanzania], holotype ZMB 23459 View Materials , collected by Lt. Wintgens; Sternfeld, 1910c: 12; Werner, 1921: 319; Loveridge, 1933: 216; FitzSimons, V., 1962, 75, 1966a: 39; Bauer et al., 2002: 164.

Typhlops viridiflavus Peracca, 1912   , Ann. Mus. Zool. Univ. Napoli, 3(25): 3. Type locality: “Bangueolo, Rhodesia ” [= Lake Bangweulu, Zambia] (elevation 1140–1170 m), holotype MZUN 6482 (formerly GP 580), collected by Duchess Helen of Aosta, 1908–1910; Boulenger, 1915a: 197; Werner, 1921: 314; Schmidt, 1923: 33; Witte, 1953: 142, fig. 30, 1962: 41; FitzSimons, V., 1962, 76, 1966a: 39; Maio et al., 2001: 39; Andreone & Gavetti, 2007: 94.

Typhlops mucroso varius   — Hewitt & Power, 1913: 160.

Typhlops excentricus Procter, 1922   , Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (9) 9(54): 685. Type locality: “near Kilosa, Tanganyika Territory ” [= Tanzania], holotype BMNH 1946.1.11.51 (formerly BMNH 1922.6.12.1), collected by A. Loveridge; Broadley & Howell, 1991: 21.

Typhlops mucruso humbo   —(not Peters) Loveridge, 1923: 873; Werner, 1929: 177.

Typhlops punctatus   — (not Leach) Loveridge, 1923: 872.

Typhlops exentricus   (sic) — Loveridge, 1924: 3.

Typhlops punctatus punctatus   — (not Leach) Barbour & Loveridge, 1928: 106.

Typhlops mucruso mucruso   —Loveridge in Bosch, 1931: 20; Barros e Cunha, 1935: 2.

Onychocephalus petersii   — (not Bocage) Loveridge, 1933: 216; FitzSimons, V., 1962: 75, 1966a: 39.

Typhlops hottentotus   —(not Bocage) Loveridge, 1933: 216; FitzSimons, V., 1962: 75.

Typhlops mandensis   —(not Stejneger) Loveridge, 1933: 220.

Typhlops (Onychocephalus) humbo   —(not Bocage) Loveridge, 1933: 216; FitzSimons, V., 1962: 75.

Typhlops schlegelii schlegelii   — (not Bianconi) Loveridge, 1933: 214 (part), 1953a: 245 (Tete); Bogert, 1940: 15; Barbour & Loveridge, 1946: 210; Sweeney, 1961: 35.

Typhlops schlegelii mucruso   — Loveridge, 1933: 216 (part), 1936b: 226, 1942: 253, 1951: 186, 1953a: 245, 1953b: 143, 1955: 180, 1956b: 206, 1957a: 10, 1957b: 241; Pitman, 1938: 46, pl. 1, fig. 2, 1974: 62, pl. 1, fig. 2; Witte, 1952a: 17, 1953: 145, fig. 32, pl. 15, fig. 4, pl. 16, fig. 1; Vesey-FitzGerald, 1958: 32; Broadley, 1959: 8, fig. 8, 1961: 3, 1971: 70, pl. 6, 1983 & 1990a: 47, pl. 5, 1998c: 386; Broadley & Pitman, 1960: 438; Sweeney, 1961: 40; FitzSimons, V., 1962: 75 (part), 1966a: 39 (part), 1974: 71, 1978: 61; List, 1966: 38, pls. 7–9, fig. 4, pl. 22, fig. 2; Isemonger, 1968: 82, 1983: 86; Stewart, 1969: 5; Stevens, 1974: 16; Hahn, 1977: 37; Welch, 1982: 127, 1994: 57; Tonge & Morgan, 1984: 39; Branch, 1988b: 11; Broadley & Howell, 1991: 21, fig. 56; Marais, 1992: 184; Simbotwe & Mubamba, 1993: 76.

Typhlops schlegelii excentricus   — Loveridge, 1933: 220, 1957b: 241, 1960: 267; Hahn, 1977: 36; Broadley & Howell, 1991: 21.

Typhlops mucruso petersii   —Barros e Cunha, 1935: 2.

Typhlops schlegelii mucroso   (sic) — Pitman, 1938: pl. U, fig. 3; Bogert, 1940: 16, 1942: 1; Isemonger, 1962: 93; Rose, 1962: 317, fig. 203; Bourgeois, 1964: 70; Auerbach, 1987: 146; Branch, 1988a: 48; McDowell, 2008: 584.

Typhlops schlegeli mucruso   — FitzSimons, V., 1939: 20, 1970: 71; Moreau & Pakenham, 1942: 62; Laurent, 1950: 7, 1960b: 439, fig. 1, 1964a: 90; Witte, 1962: 42, pl. 1, fig. 1; Johnsen, 1962: 116; Wilson, 1965: 151; Broadley, 1966: 30 (Whitewaters); Bourgeois, 1968: 277; Langebartel, 1968: 19, fig. 1J, fig. 9.

Onychocephalus mucroso   (sic)— Bogert, 1940: 16, 1942: 1; Auerbach, 1987: 146.

Typhlops schlegeli mucrosa   (sic) — Moreau & Pakenham, 1941: 108; Wever, 1978: 697.

Typhlops schlegeli schlegeli   — Uthmöller, 1941a: 42.

Typhlops schlegeli excentricus   — Uthmöller, 1941a: 42.

Typhlops schlegeli mucroso   (sic)— Uthmöller, 1941a: 42; Brynard & Pienaar, 1960: 28; Bourgeois, 1964: 70.

Typhlops schlegelii macruso   (sic)— Ionides, 1950: 99.

Typhlops schleglii   (sic) mucroso   (sic)— Rose, 1955: 71, fig. 29.

Typhlops schlegelii mucroso   (sic) — Isemonger, 1962: 93.

Typhlops hottentotus   — FitzSimons, V., 1966a: 39.

Typhlops schlegalli   (sic) mucruso   — Stewart, 1968: 25.

Rhinotyphlops schlegelii mucroso   (sic) — Roux-Estève, 1974: 166.

Rhinotyphlops schlegelii dinga   — Roux-Estève, 1974: 166, 169, fig. 116, 1975a: 495; Hahn, 1977: 36; Pakenham, 1983: 22; Webb et al, 2001: 560; Cundall & Irish, 2008: 599.

Rhinotyphlops schlegeli dinga   — Largen, 1978: 55; Obst et al., 1984: 370, 1988: 675; Branch, 1986: 290, fig. 2B; Coborn, 1991: 110.

Rhinotyphlops schlegeli mucroso   (sic)— Largen, 1978: 55.

Typhlops schlegelii dinga   — Poynton & Broadley, 1978: 930; Broadley & Blake, 1979: 10; Erasmus & Branch, 1983: 98.

Rhinotyphlops schlegelii mucruso   — Hahn, 1980: 34; Welch, 1982: 127, 1994: 57; Branch, 1998: 54; Broadley et al., 1998: 7; Areste & Cebrián, 2003: 43; Griffin, 2003: 86; Marais, 2004: 284, fig.; Cundall & Irish, 2008: 599.

Rhinotyphlops schlegeli   — Hughes, 1983: 354 (part); Dowling, 1986a –b: 128, 1986c–d: 136.

Onychocephalus mucroso   — Auerbach, 1987: 146.

Typhlops mucroso varius   — Auerbach, 1987: 146.

Rhinotyphlops dinga   — Meirte, 1992: 19 (part).

Rhinotyphlops mucruso   — Meirte, 1992: 19 (part); Wallach, 1998b: 337, 2003: 240; Broadley, 2000a: 296; Broadley & Wallach, 2000: 167; Haagner et al., 2000: 12; Webb et al., 2001: 559; Spawls et al., 2002: 292, 2006: 91, fig.; Broadley et al., 2003: 42, fig. 3, pls. 10–11, 2004: 328; Broadley & Cotterill, 2004: 44; Schneider et al., 2005: 116; Branch & Cunningham, 2006: 57; Malonza et al., 2006: 104; Alexander & Marais, 2007: 50.

Rhinotyphlops schlegelii   — Zug, 1993: 446; Greene, 1994: 151 (part), 1997: 150; Mattison, 1999: 147 (part); McDiarmid et al. 1999: 84 (part); Stafford, 2000: 28; Zug et al., 2001: 509; Dowling, 2002 & 2007: 205, fig.; Kley, 2003: 379; Wallach, 2003: 240 (part); Murphy, 2003: 552 (part); Largen & Parker, 2004: 37; Andreone & Gavetti, 2007: 94; Vitt & Caldwell, 2009: 556.

Rana (sic) mucruso   — Webb et al., 2001: 558.

Rhinotyphlops schlegelli   (sic)— Lee & Scanlon, 2002: 400.

Rhinotyphlops mucrosa   (sic) — Branch, 2005: 10, 2 figs.; Branch et al., 2005: 198.

Description. Snout prominent, with an obtusely angled keratinised edge on rostral (in young specimens this is absent); rostral very large, oval, but tapering to a blunt point posteriorly, length/width ratio 0.97–1.36 (mean = 1.15); frontal crescentic; supraocular transverse, its lateral apex between preocular and ocular; eye distinct near anterior edge of ocular; nasal in contact with first and second labials, nasal suture arising from first; SIP T-II or T-X (N2, P, O, O). MSR 30–40 (mean = 33.8, n = 634); MD 307–517 (mean 411.5, n = 608 [388.7 in Congo Basin, 415.7 elsewhere]); vertebrae 166–224 (mean = 194.8, n = 223); MD/V ratio 1.82–2.33 (mean = 2.03, n = 223), L/D ratio 21–58 (mean = 33.6, n = 452). There are two common colour phases. In southeastern Africa, about two-thirds of the specimens represent the lineolate phase: juveniles are blue-grey with each dorsal scale laterally edged with black, forming longitudinal lines. In large adults the dark colouration may extend to cover the entire dorsum. The venter is usually white, but may be reduced to a narrow median stripe. As they progress towards sloughing, specimens become stained brown by the soil and just before the moult they become opaque milky grey and blind. In the mottled or blotched phase, juveniles have a faint lineolate pattern with superimposed large black blotches or speckling, the lineolate pattern fades out in adults. In the Congo basin, Roux-Estève (1974) found that in the forest-savanna mosaic at low altitudes 84% of specimens were “marbrés” (= blotched), compared with 69% in the higher savannas of Katanga. In southeast Africa the percentage of blotched specimens drops to about 33%. Largest specimen (USNM 137358—Mbua, Malawi) has a total length of 950 mm.

Discussion. McDiarmid et al. (1999:86) stated that Bocage (1873) recognised Onychocephalus mucruso   as a distinct species and placed O. dinga   in the synonymy of O. schlegelii   , therefore becoming first revisor. However, Bocage was simply following Peters (1860), who subsequently (1882) reinstated O. dinga   . The situation was confused by Loveridge (1933), who regarded the Zambezi as the dividing line between Typhlops s. mucruso   to the north and T. s. schlegelii   to the south (with dinga   , varius   and riparius   as synonyms). Broadley (1959) placed all these Peters’ names in the synonymy of T. s. mucruso   and suggested that typical T. schlegelii   did not occur north of the Limpopo. See McDiarmid et al., 1999: 86 and Bauer et al., 2002: 161–162 for discussion of type specimens.

Habitat. Savannas and forest-savanna mosaic.

Distribution. East Africa from coastal Kenya south to central Mozambique, Zimbabwe and the Northern Province of South Africa, extending west into the southern Congo basin and northeastern Angola, 0–1740 m ( Figs. 15–17).

Localities. KENYA. Gedi CAS 184290; Gongoni MCZ 40069 View Materials ; Mkonumbi MCZ 40062 View Materials –63; Ngatana MCZ 40066 View Materials –68; Peccatoni MCZ 40061 View Materials ; Wange USNM 2123–25; Witu MCZ 40064 View Materials –65; ZFMK 33569. TANZANIA. Dar es Salaam NMZB 6497, 7031, 7881, 8088, 9912, 9950, 12314; Dodoma NMZB 9336;

Kafukola NMZB 3542; Katisunga TMP 38069 View Materials ; Kigwambimbi MSNG —; Kilombero valley KMH 17669 View Materials –70; NMZB 7903; Kilosa TMP 16536 View Materials ; Kigwembimbe, Iringa NMZB 17145; Kiwengoma Forest Res. NMZB 9915; Kondoa MNHN 1883.207–09, 1885.426; Lindi NMZB 131; Liwale NMZB 132, 178; Malya NMK 764; Mangola NMZB 8806; Mazimbu ZMB 48246 View Materials –48, 46250–53; Mikindani ZMB 22070 View Materials , 27640; Mikumi National Park NMZB 7441; Morogoro BMNH 1920.5.4.37; USNM 62891–92; ZMB 24039 View Materials ; Muse NMZB 3540; Mwaya MCZ 30050 View Materials –57; MRAC 11221; Naliendele NMZB 7875; “Pays Masai” MNHN 1922.32; Rukwa valley IRSNB 3227, 3232; Tabora ( Sternfeld, 1911); Tanga ZMB 51411 View Materials ; Tatanda NMZB 7033; Tegemeo Farm NMZB 11581–82; Tukuyu MCZ 30061 View Materials ; Uluguru Mts NMK 1130; Zanzibar ( Pakenham, 1983). MOZAMBIQUE. No locality BMNH 68.2.28.5–6, 68.2.29.135–36; ZMB 1153–54; Beira BMNH 1907.4.29.42; NMZB-UM 7515, 21937; Charre BMNH 1934.4.6.1–2; Chemezi NMZB-UM 1541; Chibabava NMZB 27772; Chifumbazi ZMB 27622 View Materials (2); Chupanga ZMB 3943; Cóbuè CZL —; Inhamitanga NMZB-UM 21847, 25 km SSW NMZB-UM 7378, 21916; Kasumbabedza MCZ 44457 View Materials , 51036–37; Lumbo TMP 26492 View Materials ; Macanga ZMB 3963; Maforga NMZB-UM 7100–01, 8272; Mese River BMNH 1906.11.22.10–11; Metuchira NMZB-UM 7173; Moebase TMP 80984 View Materials , 80992; Nhamacala NMZB-UM 28435, 29124; Pungwe valley MNHN 1906.49; Ribaue TMP 21050 View Materials ; Sena ZMB 3919, 3946–47; Tec Tec NMZB-UM 29126–27; Tete ZMB 3918, 3942, 3945; Vila Machado NMZB-UM 7386; Xiluvo NMZB-UM 7163, 7169, 7174, 7181, 7246, 31274; Zambezi mouth BMNH 59.2.9.2. MALAWI. Blantyre AJL 1299; MCZ 51034 View Materials –35; NMZB-UM 1903– 04; Cape Maclear CM 61111; NMZB-UM 4161; USNM 248633; Lifupa Camp, Kasungu National Park NMZB-UM 24869–70; Lilongwe NMZB 3035; Lujeri Tea Estate NMZB-UM 4544; Mbua USNM 137358; Misuku Hills MCZ 51032 View Materials ; Mtimbuka MZC 51033 View Materials ; Mzuzu NMZB-UM 6608; Namadzi ZMUC 52188–89; Nkhata Bay NMZB-UM 24815; Rumpi NMZB-UM 6614; Zomba NMZB-UM 4136. ZAMBIA. Bangueolo MZUN 6482 (holotype of Typhlops viridiflavus Peracca   ); Chibitubutu NMZB 3559; Chikowa NMZB-UM 2874; Chilanga NMZB 31, 4312; Chingola to Solwezi ZMUC 5211; Chipangali NMZB-UM 3070, 17212, 17219–25 + duplicates; Chipata NMZB 1840–43, 1845–46, NMZB-UM 5983–85, 17205 + duplicates; Chiwaya NMZB-UM 17210; Chongwe NMZB-UM 4502; Chunga NMZB-UM 30034–35, 30047; Fwambo BMNH 94.12.20.6; Kabompo NMZB 800, 3320, 3402, 4309–11, 4453, 4457, 4969–70; Kadende NMZB-UM 17208–09; Kafue River USNM 63536; Kalichero NMZB 1847; NMZB-UM 2867–73, 2875–76 + duplicates; Kalomo NMZB 1939, 3753; Kasama NMZB 55; Kasempa NMZB 35–37, 2999; Kasusu NMZB 25545–45; Kawambwa ZMUC —; Kitwe NMZB 19; Lealui MNHN 1893.68, 1894.10, 1895.297–99; Livingstone NMZB-UM 533; Lundazi NMZB 1844; NMZB-UM 2864, 3080 + duplicates; Lupande—Nyamozi Concluence NMZB-UM 17206–07; Lusaka PM 60; Mambwe IRSNB 15333; Mbala IRSNB 3233, 4002–04; NMZB 3541–58, 3560–65; Mfuwe NMZB-UM 17226, 20079–81, 31345; Mkanda NMZB-UM 17216–18; Msoro NMZB-UM 2866 + duplicates; near Muchinji (Malawi border) NMZB-UM 2865; Mumbwa NMZB 814; Ndola NMZB 1325–26; ZMUC —; Ngoma Camp, Kafue National Park NMZB-UM 19900, 23390; Petauke Old Boma NMZB-UM 17214–15; Sayiri NMZB-UM 17213; Sioma Falls TMP 81409 View Materials ; Solwezi NMZB 1047–49. ZIMBABWE. Anglesea Farm NMZB 13133; Beatrice NMZB-UM 5185; Bikita NMZB- UM 20477; Birchenough Bridge NMZB-UM 1445, 2520; Bulawayo NMZB 233, 780, 787–89, 791–92, 811, 982, 1031, 1253, 1955, 5826, 5828, 13925; NMZB-UM 1710, 21621, 31546, 31854, 32225, 32527, 32623; TMP 12719 View Materials ; Bushtick NMZB 786, 796; Chinhoyi NMZB 3993; Chipinda Pools NMZB-UM 19677, 31620; Chipinge NMZB-UM 6485; Chiredzi NMZB-UM 13401, 17827, 25609–12; Chirinda Forest NMZB 815; Chishawasha NMZB-QVM 58; Condo NMZB-UM 758; Darwendale TMP 24075 View Materials ; Dete NMZB-UM 1215, 18024, 18035; Dorowa NMZB-QVM 436; Dwala Ranch NMZB 12466; Eastlands, Mutare NMZB-UM 8649–50; Esigodini NMZB 467, 730, 12112; TMP 22970 View Materials ; Ewanrigg NMZB-UM 23361, 28369; Fatima Mission NMZB 11218; Fern Valley, Mutare NMZB-UM 1242; Glen Clova NMZB-UM 2509; Glenochy NMZB 797; Gwanda NMZB 5928; Great Zimbabwe NMZB-UM 28653; TMP 34468 View Materials ; Gwai River NMZB 3693; Gweru NMZB 20276, 23971–72, 27427, 31273; Harare NMZB 237–38, 7495, 12116; NMZB-QVM 1–2, 55, 337, 432–33, 444, 562, 617–22, 639; NMZB-UM 1728, 18202, 20602, 21594–96, 24277, 26612, 32061, 32629, 33281–85; Haroni-Rusitu Conflunce NMZB-UM 10197–98; Helvetia NMZB 5402; Hippo Valley NMZB-UM 30290; Humani Ranch NMZB-UM 23934; Hwange NMZB-UM 31520; Hwange National Park: Main Camp NMZB 12602; Ngweshla Pan NMZB 15573; Robins Camp NMZB-UM 27486; Shapi Pan NMZB-UM 29189; Imbizo NMZB-UM 20316; Inkomo NMZB-UM 32131; Inyokene NMZB 9718, 9776, 13754, 14497–98; Irisvale NMZB 1412–14; Jersey Tea Estate NMZB-UM 5397; Kadoma NMZB 794–95, 816; Kamativi NMZB-UM 551; Kapami NMZB-UM 334, 477, 486, 15 km SE NMZB-UM 422; Kariba NMZB-UM 4937, 11279, 17917, 25548, 26780; Karoi NMZB-UM 19925; Katiyo Tea Estate NMZB-UM 14347–48; Katombora Rapids NMZB 13609; Kazuma Forest Reserve NMZB 9115; Kemavanga Camp, Mvuradonha Mts. NMZB 9901; Kwekwe NMZB-UM 32065–66; TMP 25580 View Materials ; Kyle National Park NMZB- UM 12399, 18180; Legion Mine NMZB 798; Macheke NMZB 1743; Majoda NMZB 9702; Makoholi Research Station NMZB-UM 29213; Makore Farm, Mutare NMZB-UM 18413; Malimbasimbi NMZB-UM 12610; Malonga Bridge, Hwange NMZB-UM 433, 547; Maleme Dam, Matobo Nat. Park NMZB-UM 26864, 26926, 32365; Mana Pools NMZB 7690; Manyera NMZB-UM 23487; Marhumbeni NMZB-UM 17664; Marivalle Ranch, Kwekwe NMZB 16423, 16439–40, 16435–36, 16473; Marondera MMK — (2); NMZB 258; NMZB-QVM 665; NMZB-UM 28084; Marudzi Bridge, Guruve NMZB 15284; Matinedza NMZB-UM 19962; Mazowe NMZB 11776–77; Mberengwa NMZB 799, 4025; Mondoro NMZB-UM 29506; Mount Selinda AMNH 51949; MCZ 44456 View Materials ; TMP 16222 View Materials , 18562, 26058; Mpudzi Bridge NMZB-UM 10454; Mutare NMZB 1948; NMZB-QVM 3; NMZB-UM 1, 952, 7005, 7007, 7328, 8352, 8623, 9628–29, 9695, 10563, 10728–29, 11949, 12419, 12899, 12975, 13021, 13148, 17882, 18010, 18045, 20031, 20044, 22132, 23334, 27931, 29136, 29146, 29349, 30021, 30027, 32158, 32935, 33162–63; Ngoma Kurriwa NMZB-UM 26928; Norton NMZB-UM 31328; Nyafuta Mtn, Darwin NMZB 11158; Nyamaropa NMZB-UM 31267–68; Nyamucheche Farm NMZB 7165–66; Nyasi, Nyanga NMZB-UM 18520; Nyazura NMZB 812–13; NMZB-UM 10700, 29465; Odzani NMZB 805, 15443; Odzi NMZB 424; Penhalonga NMZB-UM 9822; Redbank NMZB-UM 8922; Rifa Camp, Chirundu NMZB 14143; Rugare, Nyanga NMZB-UM 30393; Rukute Farm NMZB-UM 12558; Runde Communal Land NMZB-UM 26703–05; Rusape NMZB 8634; NMZB-UM 6505; Ruwa NMZB-UM 32639; Saffron Walden NMZB 4447; St. Mary’s Mission, Nyanga NMZB-UM 12445–46, 12836–38, 17910, 17992, 20737–39, 31394; Salatar Farm, Mhangura NMZB 15826; Selborne NMZB-UM 12432; Sengwa Wildlife Research Area NMZB-UM 19686, 22781; Shurugwe MNHN 1933.29; NMZB 962, 1775; Silverstreams NMZB-UM 18370; Stapleford NMZB-UM 10634, 11922; Syringa NMZB 790; The Corner, Chimanimani NMZB-UM 16769; Thorn Park NMZB-UM 23373; Trelawney TMP 21050 View Materials , 21617–25; Triangle NMZB 8349, 8850, 9470, 10814; Turk Mine NMZB 439; Victoria Falls NMZB-UM 23199, 23223; Warren Hills NMZB-QVM 404; Westacre NMZB 236; Westwood Ranch NMZB 12842; Zambezi-Sebungwe Confluence NMZB 483. BOTSWANA. Francistown MMK 719; NMZB-UM 12976, 17489; TMP 52547 View Materials . SOUTH AFRICA. Beit Bridge NMZB 7161; Dover 44MT ( Jacobsen, 1989); Kruger National Park: Mala Mala Spruit NKW/Serp. 319; Lake Fundusi TMP 13950 View Materials ; Messina to Tshipise ( Jacobsen, 1989); Mietjesfontein 220MR ( Jacobsen, 1989); Umzinto 36MR TMP 16191 View Materials .

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Reptilia

Order

Squamata

Family

Typhlopidae

Genus

Megatyphlops

Loc

Megatyphlops mucruso (Peters)

Broadley, Donald G. & Wallach, Van 2009
2009
Loc

Rhinotyphlops schlegelli

Lee, M. S. Y. & Scanlon, J. D. 2002: 400
2002
Loc

Rana (sic) mucruso

Webb, J. K. & Branch, W. R. & Shine, R. 2001: 558
2001
Loc

Rhinotyphlops schlegelii

Vitt, L. J. & Caldwell, J. P. 2009: 556
Dowling, H. G. 2007: 205
Andreone, F. & Gavetti, E. 2007: 94
Largen, M. J. & Parker, A. R. 2004: 37
Kley, N. J. 2003: 379
Wallach, V. 2003: 240
Murphy, J. B. 2003: 552
Zug, G. R. & Vitt, L. J. & Caldwell, J. P. 2001: 509
Stafford, P. 2000: 28
Mattison, C. 1999: 147
McDiarmid, R. W. & Campbell, J. A. & Toure, T. A. 1999: 84
Greene, H. W. 1994: 151
Zug, G. R. 1993: 446
1993
Loc

Rhinotyphlops dinga

Meirte, D. 1992: 19
1992
Loc

Rhinotyphlops mucruso

Alexander, G. J. & Marais, J. 2007: 50
Spawls, S. & Howell, K. M. & Drewes, R. C. 2006: 91
Branch, W. R. & Cunningham, M. 2006: 57
Malonza, P. K. & Wasonga, V. D. & Muchal, V. & Rotich, D. & Bwong, B. A. & Bauer, A. M. 2006: 104
Schneider, M. F. & Buramuge, V. A. & Aliasse, L. & Serfontein, F. 2005: 116
Broadley, D. G. & Cotterill, F. P. D. 2004: 44
Wallach, V. 2003: 240
Broadley, D. G. & Doria, C. T. & Wigge, J. 2003: 42
Spawls, S. & Howell, K. M. & Drewes, R. C. & Ashe, J. 2002: 292
Webb, J. K. & Branch, W. R. & Shine, R. 2001: 559
Broadley, D. G. 2000: 296
Broadley, D. G. & Wallach, V. 2000: 167
Haagner, G. V. & Branch, W. R. & Haagner, A. J. F. 2000: 12
Wallach, V. 1998: 337
Meirte, D. 1992: 19
1992
Loc

Typhlops excentricus

Broadley, D. G. & Howell, K. M. 1991: 21
1991
Loc

Onychocephalus mucroso

Auerbach, R. D. 1987: 146
1987
Loc

Typhlops mucroso varius

Auerbach, R. D. 1987: 146
1987
Loc

Rhinotyphlops schlegeli

Hughes, B. 1983: 354
1983
Loc

Rhinotyphlops schlegelii mucruso

Cundall, D. & Irish, F. 2008: 599
Marais, J. 2004: 284
Areste, M. & Cebrian, R. 2003: 43
Griffin, M. 2003: 86
Branch, W. R. 1998: 54
Broadley, D. G. & Chidavaenzi, R. L. & Rasmussen, G. S. A. & Broadley, S. 1998: 7
Welch, K. R. G. 1994: 57
Welch, K. R. G. 1982: 127
Hahn, D. E. 1980: 34
1980
Loc

Rhinotyphlops schlegeli dinga

Coborn, J. 1991: 110
Branch, W. R. 1986: 290
Largen, M. J. 1978: 55
1978
Loc

Rhinotyphlops schlegeli mucroso

Largen, M. J. 1978: 55
1978
Loc

Typhlops schlegelii dinga

Erasmus, H. & Branch, W. R. 1983: 98
Broadley, D. G. & Blake, D. K. 1979: 10
Poynton, J. C. & Broadley, D. G. 1978: 930
1978
Loc

Onychocephalus dinga

Broadley, D. G. 1998: 386
Bauer, A. M. & Gunther, R. & Klipfel, M. 1995: 78
Roux-Esteve, R. 1974: 166
Barbour, T. & Loveridge, A. 1946: 163
Peters, W. C. H. 1882: 98
Bocage, J. V. 1873: 250
Peters, W. C. H. 1860: 82
Lichtenstein, H. 1856: 21
Peters, W. C. H. 1855: 50
1974
Loc

Rhinotyphlops schlegelii mucroso

Roux-Esteve, R. 1974: 166
1974
Loc

Rhinotyphlops schlegelii dinga

Cundall, D. & Irish, F. 2008: 599
Webb, J. K. & Branch, W. R. & Shine, R. 2001: 560
Pakenham, R. H. W. 1983: 22
Hahn, D. E. 1977: 36
Roux-Esteve, R. 1974: 166
1974
Loc

Typhlops schlegalli

Stewart, M. M. 1968: 25
1968
Loc

Typhlops schlegelii mucroso

Isemonger, R. M. 1962: 93
1962
Loc

Typhlops schleglii

Rose, W. 1955: 71
1955
Loc

Typhlops schlegelii macruso

Ionides, C. J. P. 1950: 99
1950
Loc

Typhlops schlegeli mucruso

Bourgeois, M. 1968: 277
Langebartel, D. A. 1968: 19
Broadley, D. G. 1966: 30
Wilson, V. J. 1965: 151
Witte, G. - F. de 1962: 42
Johnsen, P. 1962: 116
Laurent, R. F. 1960: 439
Laurent, R. F. 1950: 7
Moreau, R. E. & Pakenham, R. H. W. 1942: 62
1942
Loc

Typhlops schlegeli mucrosa

Wever, E. G. 1978: 697
Moreau, R. E. & Pakenham, R. H. W. 1941: 108
1941
Loc

Typhlops schlegeli schlegeli

Uthmoller, W. 1941: 42
1941
Loc

Typhlops schlegeli excentricus

Uthmoller, W. 1941: 42
1941
Loc

Typhlops schlegeli mucroso

Bourgeois, M. 1964: 70
Brynard, A. M. & Pienaar, U. de V. 1960: 28
Uthmoller, W. 1941: 42
1941
Loc

Typhlops schlegelii mucroso

McDowell, S. B., Jr. 2008: 584
Branch, W. R. 1988: 48
Auerbach, R. D. 1987: 146
Bourgeois, M. 1964: 70
Isemonger, R. M. 1962: 93
Rose, W. 1962: 317
Bogert, C. M. 1942: 1
Bogert, C. M. 1940: 16
1940
Loc

Onychocephalus mucroso

Auerbach, R. D. 1987: 146
Bogert, C. M. 1942: 1
Bogert, C. M. 1940: 16
1940
Loc

Typhlops mucruso petersii

Cunha, J. G. de 1935: 2
1935
Loc

Onychocephalus mucruso

Bauer, A. M. & Gunther, R. & Klipfel, M. 1995: 78
Loveridge, A. 1933: 216
Loveridge, A. 1933: 216
Bocage, J. V. 1873: 253
Gunther, A. C. L. G. 1866: 25
Gunther, A. C. L. G. 1864: 307
Peters, W. C. H. 1860: 83
Peters, W. C. H. 1855: 50
1933
Loc

Onychocephalus petersii

Loveridge, A. 1933: 216
1933
Loc

Typhlops hottentotus

Loveridge, A. 1933: 216
1933
Loc

Typhlops mandensis

Loveridge, A. 1933: 220
1933
Loc

Typhlops (Onychocephalus) humbo

Loveridge, A. 1933: 216
1933
Loc

Typhlops schlegelii schlegelii

Sweeney, R. C. H. 1961: 35
Barbour, T. & Loveridge, A. 1946: 210
Bogert, C. M. 1940: 15
Loveridge, A. 1933: 214
1933
Loc

Typhlops schlegelii mucruso

Welch, K. R. G. 1994: 57
Simbotwe, M. P. M. & Mubamba, R. 1993: 76
Marais, J. 1992: 184
Broadley, D. G. & Howell, K. M. 1991: 21
Branch, W. R. 1988: 11
Tonge, S. & Morgan, D. 1984: 39
Isemonger, R. M. 1983: 86
Welch, K. R. G. 1982: 127
Hahn, D. E. 1977: 37
Stevens, R. A. 1974: 16
Stewart, M. M. 1969: 5
Isemonger, R. M. 1968: 82
List, J. C. 1966: 38
Sweeney, R. C. H. 1961: 40
Broadley, D. G. & Pitman, C. R. S. 1960: 438
Broadley, D. G. 1959: 8
Vesey-Fitzgerald, D. F. 1958: 32
Witte, G. - F. de 1953: 145
Witte, G. - F. de 1952: 17
Pitman, C. R. S. 1938: 46
Loveridge, A. 1933: 216
1933
Loc

Typhlops schlegelii excentricus

Broadley, D. G. & Howell, K. M. 1991: 21
Hahn, D. E. 1977: 36
Loveridge, A. 1960: 267
Loveridge, A. 1957: 241
Loveridge, A. 1933: 220
1933
Loc

Typhlops mucruso mucruso

Cunha, J. G. de 1935: 2
Bosch, P. F. 1931: 20
1931
Loc

Typhlops punctatus punctatus

Barbour, T. & Loveridge, A. 1928: 106
1928
Loc

Typhlops exentricus

Loveridge, A. 1924: 3
1924
Loc

Typhlops mucruso humbo

Werner, F. 1929: 177
Loveridge, A. 1923: 873
1923
Loc

Typhlops punctatus

Loveridge, A. 1923: 872
1923
Loc

Typhlops mandensis

Wallach, V. 2003: 240
Loveridge, A. 1933: 199
Werner, F. 1929: 177
Loveridge, A. 1929: 16
Loveridge, A. 1924: 3
Loveridge, A. 1923: 872
Werner, F. 1921: 313
1921
Loc

Typhlops viridiflavus

Andreone, F. & Gavetti, E. 2007: 94
Maio, N. & Eboli, M. & Picariello, O. 2001: 39
Witte, G. - F. de 1953: 142
Schmidt, K. P. 1923: 33
Werner, F. 1921: 314
Boulenger, G. A. 1915: 197
1915
Loc

Typhlops mucroso varius

Hewitt, J. & Power, J. H. 1913: 160
1913
Loc

Typhlops latirostris

Loveridge, A. 1933: 216
Werner, F. 1921: 319
Sternfeld, R. 1910: 12
1910
Loc

Typhlops mucruso varius

Chubb, E. C. 1909: 595
1909
Loc

Typhlops maeruso

Chubb, E. C. 1909: 35
1909
Loc

Typhlops bibronii

Sternfeld, R. 1908: 246
1908
Loc

Typhlops mucroso

Rose, W. 1955: 75
Rose, W. 1950: 253
Uthmoller, W. 1941: 42
Angel, F. 1925: 30
Gough, L. H. 1908: 1
Mocquard, F. 1899: 219
Tornier, G. 1897: 66
1897
Loc

Typhlops schlegelii

Mattison, C. 2007: 198
Hall, D. 2004: 296
Marais, J. 1997: 36
Mattison, C. 1995: 195
Mehrtens, J. M. 1987: 12
Hedges, N. G. 1983: 2
Broadley, D. G. & Cock, E. V. 1975: 100
Broadley, D. G. 1973: 20
Rose, W. 1962: 321
Sweeney, R. C. H. 1961: 37
Rose, W. 1955: 75
Rose, W. 1950: 253
Loveridge, A. 1933: 216
Loveridge, A. 1924: 3
Loveridge, A. 1916: 82
Boulenger, G. A. 1915: 615
Peracca, M. G. 1910: 3
Bocage, J. V. 1896: 99
Boulenger, G. A. 1896: 588
Stejneger, L. 1894: 725
1894
Loc

Typhlops schlegeli

Greene, H. W. 1994: 121
Porter, K. R. 1972: 406
Laurent, R. F. 1956: 50
McDowell, S. B., Jr. & Bogert, C. M. 1954: 82
Uthmoller, W. 1941: 42
Stevenson-Hamilton, J. 1929: 122
Dollo, M. L. 1886: 155
1886
Loc

Typhlops mucruso

Fitch, H. S. 1970: 121
Tasman, K. 1953: 19
Cott, H. B. 1935: 964
Cunha, J. G. de 1935: 1
Pitman, C. R. S. 1934: 32
Loveridge, A. 1929: 17
Barbour, T. & Loveridge, A. 1928: 108
Cott, H. B. 1928: 933
Essex, R. 1927: 924
Loveridge, A. 1924: 3
Schmidt, K. P. 1923: 33
Werner, F. 1921: 318
Boettger, O. 1913: 348
Hewitt, J. & Power, J. H. 1913: 160
Werner, F. 1913: 45
Hobley, C. W. 1912: 45
Peracca, M. G. 1912: 4
Sternfeld, R. 1910: 53
Sternfeld, R. 1910: 12
Chubb, E. C. 1909: 595
Chubb, E. C. 1909: 35
Sternfeld, R. 1908: 239
Boettger, O. 1898: 5
Sclater, W. L. 1898: 98
Bocage, J. V. 1896: 90
Bocage, J. V. 1895: 67
Boulenger, G. A. 1893: 46
Peters, W. C. H. 1882: 95
1882
Loc

Typhlops varius

Peters, W. C. H. 1882: 97
1882
Loc

Typhlops dinga

Staniszewski, M. 1990: 133
Rose, W. 1962: 321
Rose, W. 1955: 75
Pope, C. H. 1955: 172
McDowell, S. B., Jr. & Bogert, C. M. 1954: 82
Rose, W. 1950: 253
Smit, A. L. 1949: 117
Mahendra, B. C. 1936: 139
Loveridge, A. 1933: 216
Werner, F. 1929: 177
Loveridge, A. 1929: 14
Loveridge, A. 1924: 3
Duerden, J. E. & Essex, R. 1923: 179
Loveridge, A. 1923: 873
Schmidt, K. P. 1923: 33
Werner, F. 1921: 318
Boulenger, G. A. 1915: 615
Sternfeld, R. 1911: 249
Boulenger, G. A. 1910: 498
Boulenger, G. A. 1907: 486
Mocquard, F. 1899: 219
Boettger, O. 1898: 5
Bocage, J. V. 1896: 99
Boulenger, G. A. 1893: 45
Peters, W. C. H. 1882: 98
1882
Loc

Typhlops riparius

Bocage, J. V. 1895: 69
Peters, W. C. H. 1882: 98
1882
Loc

Onychocephalus schlegelii

Peters, W. C. H. 1860: 82
1860
Loc

Onychocephalus mucrusa

Lichtenstein, H. 1856: 21
1856