Eatoniana plumipes ( L. Koch, 1856 ),

Mąkol, Joanna & Sevsay, Sevgi, 2015, Abalakeus Southcott, 1994 is a junior synonym of “ plume-footed ” Eatoniana Cambridge, 1898 (Trombidiformes, Erythraeidae) — evidence from experimental rearing, Zootaxa 3918 (1), pp. 92-112: 94-98

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Eatoniana plumipes ( L. Koch, 1856 )


Eatoniana plumipes ( L. Koch, 1856) 

Rhyncholophus plumipes L. Koch, 1856 

Eatonia scopulifera Cambridge, 1897  , synonymized by Banks (1900)

Abalakeus jahromiensis Sedghi, Saboori et Hakimitabar, 2010  , in: Sedghi, Saboori, Akrami et Hakimitabar 2010, syn. nov.

Diagnosis. Adult and deutonymph. Anterior sensillary area of crista metopica triangular in shape, posterior sensillary area rounded posteriorly. Palp tibia with modified, spine-like, smooth-sided and acuminate setae (different to conalae). Dorsal idiosomal setae uniform, short and thick (leaf-like when flattened), widest at ca half length, narrowing apically and covered with short setule-like projections on entire surface. Genital orifice in female and deutonymph shifted to anterior part of idiosomal ventrum (position of orifice in male—unknown).

Larva. Scutum with truncated or delicately concave anterior and posterior border. Intercoxalae II absent. ƒ n tFe = 5 - 5 - 5 (see also Tab. 3). ƒ sol Ge = 1 -0-0. Tarsi terminated with two feathered claws and claw-like empodium.

Distribution. Algeria, Egypt, France, Great Britain ( Jersey), Greece (Corfu), Iran, Mauritania, Spain, Tunisia and Turkey (new).

Description. Adult. Habitus (female) as in Figure 2View FIGURES 1 – 2. 1. Metric data in Table 1. Colour in life claret red.

Female (neotype) Deutonymphs

Character Character value Sample size (n) Mean Range GNATHOSOMA

Pa Tr (L) 91 3 103 92–113 Pa Fe (L) 335 4 321 297–350 Pa Ge (L) 200 4 197 185–212 Pa Ti (L) 109 4 121 114–130 Odontus (L) 67 4 59 53–69 Pa Ta (L) 119 4 115 111–121 IDIOSOMA

IL 2660 4 2551 2451–2675 IW 1848 4 1919 1655–2293 IL /IW 1.44 4 1.35 1.14–1.48 ASens – 4 114 108–123 SBa 23 3 24 20–29 PSens 146 4 132 121–140 SBp 28 4 21 18–26 AL 184 4 148 132–169 ISD 554 4 481 415–536 aO 33 4 35 30 –38 pO 32 4 28 26–30 DS 33 4 32 28 –38 VS 45 4 41 40–44 GOP (L) 348 3 322 284–343 GOP (W) 318 2 265 245–284 AOP 109 4 109 102–116 Cx I (L) 385 3 342 279–374 Tr I (L) 175 4 198 180–211 bFe I (L) 248 4 221 186–239

......continued on the next page Female (neotype) Deutonymphs

Character Character value Sample size (n) Mean Range Gnathosoma typical of Erythraeinae  . Medial ( Fig. 3View FIGURES 3 – 6) and lateral face of palp segments covered with slender, sparsely distributed, delicately barbed and apically narrowing setae. Setae with more robust stem arise along dorsal part of palp femur and palp genu. On palp tibia ca four nude, spine-like setae (different to conalae, which are typical of some members of Erythraeus  , due to the smooth sides and distinctly narrowed termination), distributed along ventral line of segment ( Fig. 3View FIGURES 3 – 6). Odontus simple. Palp tarsus covered with sensillary setae and normal setulated setae.

Anterior part of crista metopica ( Fig. 4View FIGURES 3 – 6) triangular in outline, with rounded termination. Two sensillary setae (ASens, broken in neotype) with minute barbs, surrounded by ca 11 normal setae. The latter covered with short, husk-like setules, becoming more compact towards posterior part of sensillary area. Rod of crista parallel-sided. Scutum absent. Posterior sensillary area rounded at termination, with two sensillary setae (PSens). PSens longer than ASens, also covered with minute, sparsely distributed barbs. Eyes, level with or placed just behind half length of crista ( Fig. 5View FIGURES 3 – 6), sessile, each composed of two circular lenses, anterior lens larger than posterior one.

Dorsal idiosomal setae ( Fig. 6View FIGURES 3 – 6) uniform, relatively robust (cactus-shaped but leaf-like when flattened), widest at ca half length, acuminate apically and covered with short setule-like projections on entire surface. Ventral setae arising medially on podosoma, slender, covered with short setules, become most similar to dorsal setae towards lateral margins of idiosoma and towards opisthosomal termination. Coxae I –II and III –IV contiguous. Genital orifice ( Fig. 7View FIGURES 7 – 8) shifted anteriorly to gnathosoma border and extended posteriorly beyond the level of coxae I –II, surrounded by membraneous centrovalves and moderately sclerotized epivalves. Both valves covered with acuminate, delicately barbed setae, slightly longer at epivalves. Two pairs of acetabula present at genital orifice. Anal valves ( Fig. 8View FIGURES 7 – 8) sclerotized, each covered with a row of setae similar to those covering genital sclerites.

Legs. Legs IV distinctly longer than remaining legs. Serratalae absent. Normal setae with thickened stem covered with short splinters; setae more robust at basal leg segments, become more slender towards leg termination ( Figs 9, 10View FIGURES 9 – 18). Setae longer than other normal setae arise at distal part of Ge IV ( Fig. 11View FIGURES 9 – 18); distinctly elongate, plumelike setation present on Ti IV ( Figs 11, 12View FIGURES 9 – 18). Specialized setae on leg I: bFe I—one needle-like seta (distal position) ( Fig. 13View FIGURES 9 – 18), longer than normal setae; one backward curved seta (distal position) with dense cover of minute setules ( Fig. 14View FIGURES 9 – 18); tFe I— ca three backward curved setae (dorsal position, proximal part of segment; ventral position, distal part of segment; dorsal position, distal part of segment); Ge I— ca four backward curved setae; one nude, spiniform seta (spinala, Fig. 15View FIGURES 9 – 18), located at ca half length of segment, with stem slightly bent towards distal part of segment; Ti I— ca nine backward curved setae; ca seven spinalae, one short club-shaped seta ( Fig. 16View FIGURES 9 – 18); Ta I—solenidia, short, spine-like ones ( Fig. 17View FIGURES 9 – 18) and more slender ones ( Fig. 18View FIGURES 9 – 18), esp. numerous in distal half of segment; one short, club-shaped seta; numerous backward curved setae arranged along ventral line of segment. Specialized setae on leg II: bFe II—one needle-like seta; tFe II and Ge II— ca four backward curved setae on each of two segments; Ti II— ca six backward curved setae; four spinalae; one short, club-shaped seta; Ta II—numerous, backward curved setae, shorter than other setae of same type, arranged along ventral line of segment; numerous spinalae located dorso-distally; few short, spine-like setae in distal position. Specialized setae on leg III: tFe III and Ge III— ca 3–4 backward curved setae on each of two segments; Ti III— ca five backward curved setae; one spinala; one short, club-shaped seta; Ta III—numerous, backward curved setae, shorter than other setae of same type, arranged along ventral line of segment. Specialized setae on leg IV: tFe IV – two backward curved setae; Ge IV – four backward curved setae; Ta IV – several backward curved setae, shorter than other setae of same type, less numerous than on tarsi I –III. All tarsi terminated with two relatively robust claws, each claw covered with fimbriae.

Deutonymph. Metric data in Table 1. Colour in life not recorded.

Similar to adult, but somewhat smaller, less sclerotized and with sparser setation on idiosoma and legs. Ca four spine-like setae present on ventral side of palp tibia, medially ( Fig. 19View FIGURES 19 – 22). Anterior sensillary area of crista metopica with ca six normal setae ( Fig. 20View FIGURES 19 – 22). Genital orifice (urvulva of Southcott (1961 )) shifted to anterior part of idiosoma ventrum, bordering gnathosoma.

Larva. Metric data in Table 2. Colour in life light red.

Gnathosoma. A pair of smooth adoral setae cs located anteriorly. Mouth surrounded by a ring composed of digit-like protrusions passing into fringe-like terminations ( Fig. 21View FIGURES 19 – 22). Cheliceral claw without subterminal hook. Palps robust ( Fig. 22View FIGURES 19 – 22). Pedipalp formula: 0-B-B-BBN 2 -BNNNωζCp. Odontus divided at ca 1 / 3 – 1 / 2 of its length, distally, with uneven terminations ( Fig. 22View FIGURES 19 – 22). On ventral side of gnathosoma ( Fig. 24View FIGURES 23 – 24) a pair of short, smooth setae (as) and a pair of longer, also smooth subcapitular setae bs. Club-shaped supracoxal setae (elcp) located dorsally, at gnathosomal base ( Fig. 23View FIGURES 23 – 24).

Dorsal side of idiosoma ( Fig. 23View FIGURES 23 – 24). Scutum oval in outline, truncated or slightly concave anteriorly and posteriorly, widest at level of PL. Anterior trichobothria (ASens) almost level with non-sensillary setae AL. Posterior trichobothria (PSens) placed close to posterior margin of scutum. Setae PL markedly shorter than AL. ASens distinctly shorter than PSens, both covered with minute setules distributed along stem. Eyes, each composed of a double lens placed on weakly sclerotized common plate.

Dorsal setae with ca four serrated rims extending between setal base and termination. Each serration gradually passes into short but not sharp setula. ƒD = 29–33.

Ventral side of idiosoma ( Fig. 24View FIGURES 23 – 24). Seta 1 a located medially, between coxae I. Setae 2 a absent. Two setae 3 a, ca half length of 3 b, located medially between coxae III. Posterior to coxae III, 9–12 setae arranged in rows. Ventral setae more slender than dorsal ones. ƒV = 9–12. Total number of setae in NDV formula = 41–43.

Legs ( Figs 25–28View FIGURES 25 – 28). Leg segmentation formula: 7 - 7 - 7. Leg III> I> II; leg I: Cx 1 n+ elc I, Tr 1 n, bFe 1–2 n, tFe 5–6 n, Ge 8 n+ 1 σ+ 1 κ, Ti 14 n+ 2 φ+ 1 Cp+ 1 κ, Ta 24–26 n+ 2 ζ+ 1 Cp+ 1 ω+ 1 ε; leg II: Cx 1 n, Tr 1 n, bFe 1–2 n, tFe 5–6 n, Ge 7–8 n+ 1 κ, Ti 15 n+ 2 φ, Ta 21–23 n+ 2 ζ+ 1 Cp+ 1 ω+ 1 ε; leg III: Cx 1 n, Tr 1 n, bFe 0–1 n, tFe 5–6 n, Ge 8 n, Ti 15 n+ 1 φ, Ta 22–24 n+ 1 ζ.

Supracoxala elc I club-shaped, located on dorsal side of coxa. One of two setae on basifemora I –II very thin, similar to trichobothrium, however with base typical of normal setae. Tectal eupathidia (ζ) on tarsi I and II with companion seta Cp. Subterminal eupathidia on tarsi I –III with several tiny barbs. Position of famulus on tarsus I in relation to solenidion may vary – either level with or placed distally to solenidion.

Type material. Neotype (ID: TUR/ 26 / 2014), female, mounted on one slide, is deposited in the Bavarian State Collection of Zoology (Zoologische Staatssammlung Munchen), Munich, Germany.

Other material. In the authors’ collection (Department of Invertebrate Systematics and Ecology, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences; Department of Biology, Science and Literature Faculty, Erzincan University).

Biology. Laboratory data. The eggs, red in colour, were laid by two females transferred to the rearing vials, on the day of collection (14 th of July, 2012). Each clutch contained several small batches, of those some were laid on a semi-transparent lid of the rearing vial. The colour of egg shells did not change during development. The appearance of prelarvae (time not recorded) was followed by the emergence of larvae, between the 21 st and the 30 th of January of the following year. The total time between the egg laying and the onset of the larval instar varied between 191 and 200 days. The time of larvae emergence ( Fig. 35View FIGURES 35 A –D) varied between 24 and 26 hours. Altogether 76 larvae (52 and 24) were obtained from two females.

Character Mean Range Holotype of Abalakeus  Abalakeus jahromiensis  ,

(n = 8) jahromiensis  , syn. nov. syn. nov. (n = 6, (after Sedghi et al. 2010) min –max.) (after Sedghi et al. 2010) GNATHOSOMA


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Eatoniana plumipes ( L. Koch, 1856 )

Mąkol, Joanna & Sevsay, Sevgi 2015

Abalakeus jahromiensis

Sedghi, Saboori et Hakimitabar 2010

Eatonia scopulifera

Cambridge 1897

Rhyncholophus plumipes

L. Koch 1856