Figulus sulcicollis Hope in Westwood, 1845,

Monte, Cinzia, Zilioli, Michele & Bartolozzi, Luca, 2016, Revision of the Australian species of Figulus MacLeay, 1819 (Coleoptera: Lucanidae), Zootaxa 4189 (3), pp. 447-484: 473-477

publication ID

http://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4189.3.2

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:3B503E4F-7748-4AC4-965E-B010E225255B

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03E30D10-FFBF-FFD8-FF77-FD33FCB863E9

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scientific name

Figulus sulcicollis Hope in Westwood, 1845
status

 

Figulus sulcicollis Hope in Westwood, 1845 

( Figs. 25–29View FIGURES 25‒29)

Figulus sulcicollis Hope in Westwood, 1845: 7  , 26; Thomson 1856: 8; Parry 1864b: 99; Harold 1868: 966; Parry 1875: 22; Felsche 1898: 78; Van Roon 1910: 53; Boileau 1913: 265, 266; Didier 1937: 30; Didier & Séguy 1953: 183; Benesh 1960: 29; Bomans 1986: 9 (lectotype designation); Bomans 1988: 8; Cammaerts & Bomans 1997: 12 –13, 15–19; Maes 1992: 41; Moore & Cassis 1992: 11; Araya 1998: 10; Krajcik 2001: 13; Krajcik 2003: 84; Bartolozzi et al. 2011: 46; Maes 2014; Schoolmeesters 2015.

Figulus mento Albers, 1883: 226  ; Masters 1888: 301; Boileau 1898: 432; Felsche 1898: 78; Van Roon 1910: 52; Kriesche 1922: 133 –136; Nagel 1928: 295; Didier & Séguy 1953: 182; Benesh 1960: 26; De Lisle 1964: 4; Bomans 1985: 357; Bomans 1988: 8; Maes 1992: 39; Moore & Cassis 1992: 10; Cammaerts & Bomans 1997: 13; Mizunuma 2000: 85; Krajcik 2001: 11; Krajcik 2003: 80; Fujita 2010: 386; Bartolozzi et al. 2011: 45; Maes 2014; Schoolmeesters 2015. New synonymy.

Figulus mento foveatus Kriesche, 1922: 134  ; Didier & Séguy 1953: 181; Benesh 1960: 26; Maes 1992: 39; Moore & Cassis 1992: 10; Krajcik 2001: 11; Krajcik 2003: 80; Bartolozzi et al. 2011: 45; Maes 2014; Schoolmeesters 2015. New synonymy.

Type material. Figulus sulcicollis  : lectotype (designation by Bomans 1986): “P. Ess. [= Port Essington] [handwritten]”, “Type / Hope / Cat. Lucan. / 1845 p.26 / Collection Hope Oxon. [p, handwritten]”, “TYPE COL: 328 1 / 2 / Figulus  / sulcicollis Hope  / (Westw.) / HOPE DEPT. OXFORD [printed, handwritten]”, [OUMNH]; paralectotype (1 specimen): “ sulcicollis  W [handwritten]”, “M. I. [= Melville Island] [handwritten]”, “Type / Hope / Cat. Lucan. / 1845 p.26 / Collection Hope Oxon. [printed, handwritten]”, “TYPE COL: 328 2 / 2 / Figulus  / sulcicollis Hope  / (Westw.) / HOPE DEPT. OXFORD [printed, handwritten]”, [OUMNH].

Diagnosis. Figulus sulcicollis  is similar to F. rossi  in general morphology. Figulus sulcicollis  mainly differs by the more punctate head and prothorax and the much smaller size of the punctures on the elytra, which are suboval instead of subcircular.

Redescription. Measurements: size range (n = 243): TL: 10.75–17.75 mm; PL: 2.71–5.08 mm; EL: 6.16– 9.83 mm; PW: 3.46–6.21 mm; EW: 3.50–6.29 mm.

Male ( Fig. 25View FIGURES 25‒29). Body elongate, with subparallel sides; black to dark brown or reddish brown, glossy.

Head: transverse, about 3 times wider than long, slightly depressed. Frontoclypeal region slightly concave at the anterior margin; minutely punctate, with a small, medial elevation and 2 large, glossy areas situated before the eyes. Labrum broad and short with long, golden setae. Vertex inclined anteriorly, slightly concave in the middle, with 2 oval and transversal elevations moderately developed between eyes. Two moderately developed longitudinal carinae, are present along the inner margin of eyes. Eyes large, divided into 2 parts by the canthi, the upper part smaller than the lower, with distinct facets. Canthus protruding, largely rounded laterally, evenly rounded or more angled behind; upper surface slightly depressed and almost smooth, with a few minute punctures on the lateral margin. Head surface densely punctate with small punctures, punctures larger and sparse in the middle. Mandibles slightly shorter than head, strong and asymmetrical, outer margins rounded, apices slightly acute and curved upwards; upper surface slightly elevated at base. Internal margin of the right mandible with a moderately developed basal tooth and a medial strong tooth, with blunt apex directed inwards. Internal margin of the left mandible with a moderately developed basal tooth, a well developed medial tooth, and a preapical evident angulation; surface densely and minutely punctate. Antenna with 10 antennomeres, with scape slightly shorter than the remaining antennomeres; club of last three antennomeres, which are flatter and broader than the remaining antennomeres of the funicle. Mentum subrectangular ( Fig. 26View FIGURES 25‒29), concave medially; anterior margin slightly bilobed; base coarsely punctate; sides slightly rounded and elevated at anterolateral margins, where a tubercle is present; surface punctate and rugose with long setae medially and distally.

Thorax: pronotum slightly wider than long with subparallel sides; anterior margin feebly convex slightly or moderately elevate, with a small, blunt, median tubercle; posterior margin slightly bisinuate; anterior angles produced and slightly acute; posterior angles rounded with slightly crenulated rim. Deep longitudinal medial groove on pronotal disc, with dense, large, circular punctures. Pronotal surface glossy, with dense, small punctures, larger, deeper, and denser at sides and with patch of large, close punctures at the anterolateral margin, each puncture with a short, erect, golden seta in the middle. Scutellum long, wedge-shaped, moderately narrow; surface smooth and glossy. Elytra about twice as long as pronotum. Base concave, subparallel sides, apex regularly rounded. Humeral angles acute, with a small, acute tubercle. Elytral surface glossy, with 9 visible subparallel striae, the dorsal striae deeper than the lateral striae; each stria formed by a row of small suboval punctures well separated from each other, except for stria 1, where the punctures are confluent. Stria 1 is the only stria reaching apex; on the declivity, stria 2 curves outwards and deepens, sometimes converging with stria 9; striae 3‒4 and 5‒6 converge at the beginning of the declivity; stria 6 starts just after base; striae 7 and 8 narrow, formed by a row of suboval punctures smaller than those of the other striae. Dorsal interstriae slightly convex, much broader than the lateral interstriae, densely and finely punctate; interstria 2 slightly larger at declivity, where it is strongly punctate. Elytral lateral margins strongly punctate, with short, erect, red setae; elytral apex strongly punctate. Wings present. Legs: thin and straight. Protibiae with strong, elongate apical fork, and a long, strong spur internally at apex; lateral margin with 3‒4 small teeth, first 3 teeth subequal. Mesotibiae with 4 long, acute, apical teeth, and 2 apical spurs, 1 larger than the other; lateral margin with strong, submedial tooth, preceded by 2‒3 smaller teeth. Metatibiae with 4 acute apical teeth, and 2 long apical spurs, 1 larger than the other; lateral margin with strong submedial tooth, preceded by a smaller tooth. Prosternum subpentagonal in shape behind the coxae; surface with large and deep punctures at anterior edge and with smaller punctures medially and at posterior edge. Metasternum smooth on disc, with a long medial groove, deep at posterior edge, strongly punctate at sides.

Abdomen: first abdominal ventrite with some horse-shoe shaped, superficial hollows each with a short, golden seta. Ventrites 2‒4 with some small and elongate punctures along the anterior margin and some circular punctures at sides, punctures much finer and denser medially. Last ventrite with 2 feebly depressions at sides near the posterior margin; surface with some punctures.

Male genitalia: penis tubular, shorter than parameres, completely covered by a dorsal, translucid, membranous extension of the basal piece; slightly curved in lateral view, strongly bent at base close to articulation with basal piece ( Figs. 27–29View FIGURES 25‒29). Permanently everted internal sac drawn out into a long and broad, colorless or yellow flagellum tapering towards apex, the latter slightly trilobate ( Fig. 29View FIGURES 25‒29), the median lobe longer; edge of flagellum serrulate towards apex. Parameres about as long as basal piece, broad and spatulate in dorsal view, with marginal fringe of setae entirely enclosed in the cuticle (not represented in figure). Basal piece in dorsal view with sides slightly converging toward apex, ventrally largely membranous, dorsally sclerotized; with a narrow, elongate sclerotic area along midline. Two long, slender struts run along basal piece from penis articulation, almost reaching the base of basal piece ( Figs. 27–28View FIGURES 25‒29).

Female. All external morphological characters as in male.

Female genitalia: hemisternites elongate, apically with long, golden setae surrounding the styli; moderately broad, narrower apically; outer edge almost straight or slightly concave medially; medial edge moderately convex; styli slender with apex oblique directed outwards, slightly longer than wide. Bursa copulatrix represented by a slight expansion of the wall of spermathecal duct near junction with the median oviduct. Spermathecal duct short, ending in a bulbous, pear-shaped expansion that is pigmented distally.

Intraspecific variation. The examined specimens do not show significant morphological variability. For the body size see the “Measurements” section.

Additional material examined. Australia [state unknown]: 7 specimens  , Australia Orient., v. Müller 2-96, Muséum Paris (MNHN); 2 specimens  , North Australia, K 293240 and K 293241 (AMS)  . NORTHERN TERRITORY: 1 specimen, Adelaide River , 91-49, 820, BMNH (E) # 607430 ( NHM)  ; 4 specimens, Adelaide River , J.J. Walker, Muséum Paris 1952 Collection R. Oberthür (MNHN)  ; 1 specimen, Adelaide River , I.1942, J.Farr, COL-85929 ( NMVM)  ; 1Ƌ, 1♀, 16 specimens, Alligator Inn , 12°40'S, 132°30'E, 7–9.VI.1979, rainforest, G.B.Monteith & D.Cook ( QMB)GoogleMaps  ; 1 specimen, Alyangula , 13°51'S, 136°25'E, 20–24.II.2005, 20 m, woodland, D.Cook, 11759 ( QMB)GoogleMaps  ; 1 specimen, Black Mountain Rd Kuranda, 8.IV.1988, J.Hasenpusch, Graeme Krake Collection, donated Feb. 2007, COL-86869 ( NMVM)  ; 4 specimens, Coburg Peninsula, Black Point , 11°09'S, 132°09'E, 15–23. II.1977, ex light water trap, T.A.Weir ( ANIC)GoogleMaps  ; 1 specimen, Coburg Peninsula, Smith Point , 11°07'S, 132°08'E, 17–18. II.1977, R.Lewis ( ANIC)GoogleMaps  ; 1 specimen, Elcho Island, 16.III.1976, M.E.Farr ( ANIC)  ; 2 specimens, Escarpment, W Arnhem Land, E Alligator Road, 23.VII.1974, F.Morris, COL-85961 and COL-85962 (NMVM); 1 specimen, Darwin , 18.VI.1913, F.E.Wilson Collection COL-85861 ( NMVM)  ; 1 specimen, Darwin , 26.I.1989, Graeme Krake Collection, donated Feb. 2007, COL-86868 ( NMVM)  ; 1 specimen, Darwin , 31.III.1913, G.F.Hill 1914-441, BMNH (E) # 607436 ( NHM)  ; 1 specimen, Darwin, R.I.Sc.N.B. I.G. 18.674, Collection et det. A.Janssens (IRSNB); 1♀, Darwin, Lee Point , 23.V.1992, S.K.Smith, R.deKeyzer Insect Collection, K 293251 (AMS)  ; 1 specimen, 10 km S of Darwin, Holmes Jungle Forest Resort , 12°26'S, 130°56'E, 23.X.1972, E.B.Britton ( ANIC)GoogleMaps  ; 1 specimen, King River , 25.XII.1915, P.Cahill, COL-85172 ( NMVM)  ; 7 specimens, North Point Kapalga , 12°25'S, 132°22'E, 19.VI.1979, G.B. Monteith & D.Cook ( QMB)GoogleMaps  ; 6 specimens Rimbija Island, Wessel Island Ranges, 11°01'S, 136°45'E, 21.I.–31. II.1977, ex light water trap, Farrow & Dowse ( ANIC)GoogleMaps  . QUEENSLAND: 1Ƌ, 1 specimen, N Queensland, No. 154 and No. 155, 99:286 Ƌ, R.G.Wind, S.G. Watkins Collection, donated 2001 ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen, Queensland, Muséum Paris 1952 Collection R. Oberthür (MNHN)  ; 1Ƌ, N Queensland, Lyons Lookout , 10-12.VIII.1988, ex Larva, G. Minet, 12 0 28 ( NHM)  ; 1 specimen, Airlie , 4–6.VIII.1988, G.Minet 12027 H.E.Bomans, BMNH (E) 1999-248, 412027 (handwritten) ( NHM)  ; 1 specimen, 8 km W by N of Bald Hill McIllwraith Range , 13°45'S, 143°22'E, 27.VI –12.VII. 1989, 500 m, mango tree site, ex rotten log closed forest, T.A.Weir ( ANIC)GoogleMaps  ; 1 specimen, Binna Burra, 6.38, C.E.Clark, C.E.Clark Collection B.M. 1957-24, BMNH(E) # 607751 (NHM); 1 specimen, Cairns, S.M.Parlett, F.E.Wilson Collection, COL-85163 (NMVM); 1♀, Cairns , 20.XI.1982, Graeme Krake Collection, donated Feb. 2007, COL-86870 ( NMVM)  ; 1Ƌ, Cairns , XII.1970, 2045 ( MSNM)  ; 1Ƌ, Cairns, Mount Whitfield , 7.VII.1984, R.deKeyzer Insect Collection, K 293260 (AMS); 1 specimen, Cape Tribulation area, 16°03'- 16°05'S, 145°28'E, under bark in rotten logs, J.F.Lawrence ( ANIC)GoogleMaps  ; 4 specimens, Cape Tribulation area, 16°03'- 16°05'S, 145°28'E, 21–28.III.1984, A.Calder & T.Weir ( ANIC)GoogleMaps  ; 1 specimen, Cape Tribulation, Emmagen Creek , 8–9.VII.1987, R.deKeyzer, R.deKeyzer Insect Collection K 293250 (AMS)  ; 2 specimens, Cape York, Lockerbie Area , 13–27.IV.1973, G.B.Monteith ( QMB)  ; 9 specimens, 3 km E of Lockerbie , Cape York, 16-20.IX.1974, rainforest, G.B.Monteith ( QMB)  ; 1 specimen, 3 km E of Lockerbie , Cape York, 13– 27.III.1987, Pyrethrum  on logs, RF, G.B.Monteith ( QMB)  ; 4 specimens, 3 km E of Lockerbie , Cape York, 19– 23.III.1987, rainforest pitfall traps, G.B.Monteith ( QMB)  ; 4 specimens, Cape York, 4 km E of Lockerbie , 30.I – 4.II.1975, rainforest, G.B.Monteith ( QMB)  ; 1 specimen, Cardstone , 7–9.I.1962, Carne & Britton ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen Cardstone , 20.I.1967, K.Hyde ( ANIC)  ; 1♀, 1 specimen, Carrol Creek , 4 km NW of Hopevale, 11.VII.1976, G.B. & S.R Monteith ( QMB)  ; 1 specimen, Coen, COL-86042 (NMVM); 6 specimens, 30 km NE of Coen, Leo Creek Road, McIlwraith Range , 29.VI –4.VII.1976, approximately 500 m, G.B. & S.R. Monteith ( QMB)  ; 2 specimens, Clump Point , 21.IX.1951 and 25.X.1951, J.O.Campbell, F.E.Wilson Collection, COL-85168 and COL-85167 ( NMVM)  ; 1 specimen Cooktown , 27.VI.1961, C.Oke, COL-85917 ( NMVM)  ; 1 specimen, Cooktown, ex Möllenkamp (MNHN)  ; 2 specimens, Cooktown , VIII.1994, Meek, Muséum Paris 1 952 Collection R. Oberthür (MNHN)  ; 1 specimen Dunk’s Island, Elgner 1910 ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen, Edmonton , VII.1945, A.Johnson, COL-85900 ( NMVM)  ; 1 specimen, Endeavour River , 6.I.08, Nat. Mus. Victoria C.French’s Collection, COL-86048 ( NMVM)  . 1 specimen, Gap Creek , 5 km ESE Mount Finnigan, 15°50'S, 145°20'E, 13–16.V.1981, A.Calder ( ANIC)GoogleMaps  ; 1 specimen, Garradunga, Polly Creek , 15.VI.2001, J.Hasenpusch, R.deKeyzer Insect Collection, K 293255 (AMS)  ; 1 specimen, Garradunga, Polly Creek , 16.I.2008, mv light, J.Hasenpusch, R.deKeyzer Insect Collection, K 293254 (AMS)  ; 1 specimen, Gordonvale , 26.II.1970, mv light, R.Hardie ( ANIC)  ; 2 specimens, Gordonvale , 28.XI.1970, mv light, R.Hardie, University of New England Collection, donated 1983 ( ANIC)  ; 2 specimens, Green Island, 8–15.VIII.1982, under bark and in rotten wood, J. & N.Lawrence ( ANIC)  ; 2 specimens, Hammond Island, 1 km W of village, 10°34'S, 148°13'E, 20.V.2003, G.B.Monteith & M.Ero, hand collected, 11324 ( QMB)GoogleMaps  ; 1 specimen, Hinchinbrook Island, Gayundah Creek , 7–15.XI.1984, 10 m, Monteith, Cook, & Thompson ( QMB)  ; 1 specimen, 14 km W by N of Hope Vale Mission, 15°16'S, 144°59'E, 8–10.XII.1980, T.Weir. ( ANIC)GoogleMaps  ; 2 specimens, Innisfail , 18.XII.1995, J.Hasenpusch, R.deKeyzer Insect Collection, K 293256 and K 293257 (AMS)  ; 3 specimens, Iron Range, W Claudie Range, 3–10.XII.1985, 50 m, rainforest, G.B.Monteith & D.Cook (QMB); 1 specimen, Iron Range , 28.X.1991, J.Hasenpusch, R.deKeyzer Insect Collection, K 293263 (AMS)  ; 1 specimen, Iron Range, Gordon’s Mine Area , 12–18.II.1976, rainforest, G.B.Monteith ( QMB)  ; 1♀, Kuranda , 10.XI.1972, Collection H. Bomans, H.E. Bomans BMNH (E) 6527, 406527 (handwritten) ( NHM)  ; 1 specimen, Kuranda , 20.I.1995, J.Hasenpusch, R.deKeyzer Insect Collection, K 293258 (AMS)  ; 2 specimens, Kuranda, 335 m top of the range 19 Butler Drive , 16°48'S, 145°38'E, 1–15.I.2007 and 1–15.I.2008, D.C.F.Renz ( ANIC)GoogleMaps  ; 2 specimens, Kuranda , 20–21.III.1952, C.Oke, COL-8 5919 and COL-85925 ( NMVM)  ; 1 specimen, 10 m W of Kuranda, Parmentier Creek, Mareeba Road. , 26.II.1970, mv light, R.Hardie, University of New England Collection, donated 1983 ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen, 13 km W Kuranda , 7.XII.1982, J.T.Doyen ( ANIC)  ; 1Ƌ, Lions Lookout , 10– 12.VIII.1988, G.Minet, ex larva Paris, 12028, H.E.Bomans, BMNH (E) 1 999-248, 412028 (handwritten) ( NHM)  ; 1♀, Little Mulgrave Valley , 16. II.1969, R.Parrott ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen, Mulgrave Road, Goldsborough Valley , 4.IX.1994, M.&G. DeBaar ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen, Mackay , 5–20.V.1971, W.Vestjens ( ANIC)  ; 2 specimens, Moses Creek, 4 km N by E of Mount Finnigan , 15°47'S, 145°17'E, 14–16.X.1980, T.Weir ( ANIC)GoogleMaps  ; 1 specimen, Portland Roads, via Iron Range , 3–10.XII.1986, rainforest, Monteith, Cook, & Yeates ( QMB)  ; 1 specimen, Shiptons Flat , 15°47'S, 145°14'E, 16–18.V.1981, A.Calder ( ANIC)GoogleMaps  ; 4 specimens, Shiptons Flat , 15°47'S, 145°14'E, 17– 19.X.1980, T.Weir ( ANIC)GoogleMaps  ; 4 specimens, Shiptons Flat , 35 km S of Cooktown, 22.IV. 1982, 250 m, Monteith, Yeates, & Cook ( QMB)  ; 1 specimen, Shiptons Flat, via Helenvale , 20–27.VI.1974, rainforest, G.B.Monteith, & D.Cook ( QMB)  ; 4 specimens, Somerset, L.M.D’Albertis 1875 Muséum Paris 1952, Collection R. Oberthür ( MNHN)  ; 2♀♀, Somerset, I.1875, L.M.D’Albertis ( MSNG)  ; 2 specimens, Mount Tamborine , I.1950, COL-85967 and XII.1950, COL-85966, C.Oke ( NMVM)  ; 1 specimen, Thorton Ranges , 11km E of Daintree, 16°16'S, 145°25'E, 21.XI.1981, J.Balderson ( ANIC)GoogleMaps  ; 1 specimen, Thursday Island, Green Hill , 10°35'S, 142°13'E, 21.V.2003, Pyrethrum  trees & logs, G.B.Monteith, 11334 ( QMB)GoogleMaps  ; 2 specimens, Torres Strait , Badu Island, 16– 22.XII.1976, H.Heatwole, K 293238 and K 293239 (AMS); 2ƋƋ, Torres Strait  , Cape York, 11.81, Dr. O. Finsch (MFN); 1 specimen, Torres Strait , Darnley Island, 14.VII.1974, H.Heatwole, K 293236 (AMS)  ; 2 specimens Torres Strait, Eet Hill vicinity, Moa Island (= Banks Island ) 9–13.VI.1977, G.B.Monteith & D.Cook ( QMB)  ; 2 specimens, Torres Strait , Mabuiag Island, VIII.1924, C.T.MacNamara, ex Collection Australian Museum ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen, same locality and data, ( IRSNB)  ; 1 specimen, Torres Strait , Murray Island, 20.VII.1974, sweep of strand vegeta, H.Heatwole & E.Cameron, K 293237 (AMS)  ; 1 specimen, Torres Strait , Murray Island, VII –VIII.1974, H.Heatwole, K 293232 (AMS)  ; 1 specimen, Torres Strait, Prince of Wales Island, 6–11.II.1995, under logs, 12, H.Heatwole, K 293233 (AMS)  ; 10 specimens, Torres Strait, Prince of Wales Island, 10°42.3'S, 142°13.5'E, 3– 7.I.2008, camp., 10 m, G.Monteith & KGoogleMaps  . Aland, 15460 ( QMB)  ; 1 specimen, Torres Strait , Sue Island, 11.VII.1974, H.Heatwole, K 293234 (AMS)  ; 5 specimens, Torres Strait, Tawan Island, D’Albertis 1876, Muséum Paris 1952, Collection R. Oberthür (MNHN)  ; 1♀, 3 specimens, Torres Strait , Tawan Island, XI.1876, D’Albertis ( MSNG)  ; 1 specimen, Torres Strait, York Island, 13.VII.1974, H.Heatwole & E.Cameron, K 293236 (AMS); Mount Tozer , 12°43'S, 143°17'E, 5–10.VII.1986, rotten log, T.Weir & A.Calder ( ANIC)GoogleMaps  ; 2 specimens, 11 km ENE of Mount Tozer , 12°43'S, 143°18'E, 11–16.VII.1986, T.Weir & A.Calder ( ANIC)GoogleMaps  ; 8 specimens, Warraber (Sue) Island, 10°12'S, 145°49'E, 4–6.XII.1977, E.D.Edwards ( ANIC)GoogleMaps  ; 3 specimens, Warraber (Sue) Island, 10°12'S, 145°49'E, 19–25.I.1978, R.Lewis ( ANIC)GoogleMaps  ; 1 specimen, Warraber (Sue) Island, 10°25'S, 142°49'E, 6.XII.1977, R.Lewis ( ANIC)GoogleMaps  ; 2 specimens, Mount Webb National Park , 15°04'S, 145°07'E, 28–30. IX.1980, T.Weir ( ANIC)GoogleMaps  ; 2 specimens, Mount Webb National Park , 50 km N of Cooktown, 11–14.VII.1976, G.B. & R.S. Monteith ( QMB)  ; 1 specimen, Weipa , 3–6.II.1976, G.B.Monteith ( QMB)  ; 1 specimen, Weipa, Hibberd Point , 3–5.II.1976, rainforest, G.B.Monteith ( QMB)  ; 1 specimen Mount Welsh, near Biggenden , 17.X.1975, approximately 1000 m, H.Frauca ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen, Yeppoon , 3.III.1935, S.R.E.Brock Collection donated to ANIC 1987View Materials ( ANIC)  . SOUTH AUSTRALIA: 1 specimen  , South Australia, 20.VIII.1950, COL-85956 ( NMVM)  . VICTORIA: 1 specimen, Grampians , 3.I.1938, C.Oke, COL-86032 ( NMVM)  ; 1 specimen, Hattah, C.Oke, COL-85921 (NMVM). WESTERN AUSTRALIA: 2 specimens, Prince Frederick Harbour, 15°00'S, 125°21'E, “ Marun ” CALM Site 8/4, 6–11.VI.1988, closed forest and margin, I.D.Naumann ( ANIC)GoogleMaps  ; 2 specimens, Carnarvon , Western Australia, IV.1958, Snell, COL-85955 and COL-85957 ( NMVM)  . COCOS (KEELING) ISLAND  : 1♀, West Island , Cocos (Keeling)  Island, 23.V.1952, 8630, H.E.Bomans  , BMNH (E) 1999-248, 408630 (handwritten) ( NHM); 1 specimen, West Island , Cocos (Keeling)  Island, X.1962, 8631, H.E.Bomans  , BMNH(E) 1999-248, 408631 (handwritten) (NHM).

Distribution. Australia: Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria, Western Australia, Cocos (Keeling) Islands  ; New Guinea: Indonesian Papua, Papua New Guinea; Raja Ampat Archipelago: Misool Island; Moluccan Archipelago: Bacan Islands ( Bartolozzi et al. 2011). The few records from South Australia, Victoria, and Western Australia probably need confirmation.

Natural history data. The larvae live in and under rotting wood and have been described and illustrated by Cammaerts & Bomans (1997). According to label data, this species has been collected in habitats ranging from close forest and ist margins (WA) to open forest (N Queensland). The material we examined includes specimens found under bark or in rotten logs and by sweeping strand vegetation. Most specimens were collected at mv light or light traps. Two specimens, one of which was labeled “RF” (= rainforest), were sampled by Pyrethrum  fogging on trees and logs, and four other specimens were from rainforest pitfall traps. The elevation mainly ranges from 10 m (Torres Strait, Prince of Wales Island, I.2008) to 500 m in rainforest, but one specimen was collected in montane forest at about 1000 m (Mount Welsh Queensland, X.1975). For Australia, the host plant(s) are unknown. Cammaerts & Bomans (1997) listed the following host plants in New Guinea: Excoecaria agallocha  ( Euphorbiaceae  ), Terminalia catappa  ( Combretaceae  ), and Leucaena leucocephala  ( Fabaceae  ).

Remarks. This species is as common and widespread as Figulus regularis  . We found one specimen in the MNHN collection labeled “New Zealand” (Belligny, 3-43), but we consider this locality as erroneous, as the genus Figulus  is not known from this country.

Kriesche (1922) described the subspecies foveatus of Figulus mento  from northern Queensland. The type specimens in Hannover Museum were destroyed during World War II ( Krajcik 2003). Since we never found any specimen corresponding to this subspecies, nor to F. mento mento  , coming from Australia, we believe that the record from Australia is erroneous and that the species should be removed from any checklists of Australian Lucanidae  . We also consided F. mento mento  (recorded from New Guinea: Papua New Guinea; Moluccan Archipelago: Aru Islands [ Bartolozzi et al. 2011]) as a synonym of F. sulcicollis  (new synonymy). The species was also recorded from the Philippines (Luzon, Mindanao) and Palau ( De Lisle 1964). According to Cammaerts & Bomans (1997), the species does not occur in Aru and in Palau.

NHM

University of Nottingham

QMB

Queensland Museum, Brisbane

ANIC

Australian National Insect Collection

MSNM

Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

MSNG

Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova 'Giacomo Doria'

IRSNB

Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Coleoptera

Family

Lucanidae

Genus

Figulus

Loc

Figulus sulcicollis Hope in Westwood, 1845

Monte, Cinzia, Zilioli, Michele & Bartolozzi, Luca 2016
2016
Loc

Figulus mento foveatus

Bartolozzi 2011: 45
Krajcik 2003: 80
Krajcik 2001: 11
Maes 1992: 39
Moore 1992: 10
Benesh 1960: 26
Didier 1953: 181
Kriesche 1922: 134
1922
Loc

Figulus mento

Bartolozzi 2011: 45
Fujita 2010: 386
Krajcik 2003: 80
Krajcik 2001: 11
Mizunuma 2000: 85
Cammaerts 1997: 13
Maes 1992: 39
Moore 1992: 10
Bomans 1988: 8
Bomans 1985: 357
De 1964: 4
Benesh 1960: 26
Didier 1953: 182
Nagel 1928: 295
Kriesche 1922: 133
Van 1910: 52
Boileau 1898: 432
Felsche 1898: 78
Masters 1888: 301
Albers 1883: 226
1883
Loc

Figulus sulcicollis Hope in Westwood, 1845 : 7

Bartolozzi 2011: 46
Krajcik 2003: 84
Krajcik 2001: 13
Cammaerts 1997: 12
Maes 1992: 41
Moore 1992: 11
Bomans 1988: 8
Bomans 1986: 9
Benesh 1960: 29
Didier 1953: 183
Didier 1937: 30
Boileau 1913: 265
Van 1910: 53
Felsche 1898: 78
Parry 1875: 22
Harold 1868: 966
Parry 1864: 99
Thomson 1856: 8
Westwood 1845: 7
1845