Figulus regularis Westwood, 1834,

Monte, Cinzia, Zilioli, Michele & Bartolozzi, Luca, 2016, Revision of the Australian species of Figulus MacLeay, 1819 (Coleoptera: Lucanidae), Zootaxa 4189 (3), pp. 447-484: 461-470

publication ID

http://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4189.3.2

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:3B503E4F-7748-4AC4-965E-B010E225255B

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03E30D10-FFAB-FFD0-FF77-F93CFACB6541

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Plazi

scientific name

Figulus regularis Westwood, 1834
status

 

Figulus regularis Westwood, 1834 

( Figs. 16–19View FIGURES 16‒19)

Figulus regularis Westwood, 1834: 120  ; Dejean 1836: 194; Westwood 1838: 263; Westwood 1845: 7; Burmeister 1847: 437; Reiche 1853: 84; Thomson 1856: 8; Thomson 1862: 402, 432; Parry 1863: 450; Parry 1864a: 6; Parry 1864b: 99; Harold 1868: 965; Macleay 1871: 173; Parry 1875: 22; Gestro 1880: 335; Albers 1883: 225; Masters 1888: 301; Boileau 1898: 433; Felsche 1898: 78; Heyne & Taschenberg 1908: 57; Van Roon 1910: 52; Boileau 1913: 265; Mjöberg 1916: 13; Kriesche 1922: 133; Nagel 1928: 294; Didier 1937: 30; Nagel 1939: 1; Didier & Séguy 1953: 182; Benesh 1960: 27; Holloway 1960: 343; De Lisle 1964: 4; Holloway 1969: 974; Tiberghien & Lacroix 1969: 535; Williams 1977: 4; Klausnitzer 1982: 16; Hawkeswood 1985: 200; Bomans 1986: 9 (lectotype designation); Hawkeswood 1988: 270 –272; Maes 1992: 52; Moore & Cassis 1992: 10; Mizunuma & Nagai 1994: 300; Mizunuma 2000: 85; Krajcik 2001: 12; Krajcik 2003: 82; Klausnitzer & Sprecher-Uebersax 2008: 33; Fujita 2010: 382; Bartolozzi et al. 2011: 45; Hawkeswood 2014: 1; Maes 2014; Schoolmeesters 2015.

Figulus australicus Thomson, 1862: 402  , 432; synonymized by Benesh 1960: 27.

Figulus laevithorax Bomans, 1987: 6  ; Maes 1992: 38; Moore & Cassis 1992: 9; Krajcik 2001: 11; Krajcik 2003: 78; Maes 2014; Schoolmeesters 2015. New synonymy.

Type material. Figulus regularis Westwood  , 1Ƌ lectotype (designation by Bomans 1986): “N.H. [handwritten]”, “ Figulus regularis  / Westw. in ann. Sc. nat. [handwritten]”, “TYPE / WESTWOOD / Ann. Sci. Nat. / 1834 P.120 / Coll. Hope Oxon. [printed, handwritten]”, “TYPE COL: 327 1 / 2 / Figulus  / regularis Westw.  / HOPE DEPT. OXFORD [printed, handwritten]”, [OUMNH]; Figulus regularis Westwood  , 1♀ paralectotype: “N.H. [handwritten]”, “TYPE / WESTWOOD / Ann. Sc. Nat. / 1834 P.120 / Coll. Hope Oxon. [printed, handwritten]”, “TYPE COL: 327 2 / 2 / Figulus  / regularis Westw.  / HOPE DEPT. OXFORD [printed, handwritten]”, [OUMNH]. Figulus australicus Thomson  : Lectotype here designated: Lectotype male: “Th. / TYPE [printed]”, “ Australicus  / Type Thoms / Austr. [handwritten]”, “Ex musaeo / JAMES THOMSON [printed]”, “MUSÉUM PARIS / 1952 / COLL R OBERTHÜR [printed]” [MNHN]. Figulus laevithorax Bomans  (Ƌ): “Holotype [printed]”, “Cap York [handwritten]”, “ Figulus  / regularis  Ƌ / Australien [handwritten]”, “1431 [handwritten]”, “H.E. Bomans / BMNH (E) / 1999-248 [handwritten] \ 401431 [handwritten]”, “H.Bomans det., 1974 / Figulus  / laevithorax  n.sp. [printed, handwritten]” [NHM]; Figulus laevithorax Bomans  (Ƌ): “Para- / type [printed]”, “P. Darwin [handwritten]”, “Macleay Museum / University of Sydney / 2006 Australia [printed]”, “11382 [handwritten]”, “H.E. Bomans / BMNH (E) / 1999-248 [printed] \ 411382 [handwritten]”, “H.Bomans det., 1986 / Figulus  / laevithorax Bom.  [printed, handwritten]” [NHM].

Other material: 1 specimen “ Figulus  / regularis  / Westwood NH [handwritten]”, “Ex Musaeo / Parry [printed]”, “MUSÉUM PARIS / 1952 / Coll. R. OBERTHÜR [printed]”, [MNHN]; 1 specimen “ F. re g ul ar i s / v. minor  [handwritten]”, “Ex Musaeo / Parry [printed]”, “MUSÉUM PARIS / 1952 / Coll. R. OBERTHÜR [printed]”, [MNHN]; 1 specimen “Moreton / Bay [handwritten]”, “Ex Musaeo / Parry [printed]”, “MUSÉUM PARIS / 1952 / Coll. R. OBERTHÜR [printed]”, [MNHN]. Note: this material was indicated as “syntypes” in the loan form, but their status as type material is uncertain.

Diagnosis. Figulus regularis  is similar to F. boileaui  , from which it can be distinguished by the shape of labrum, which is strongly protruded and subtriangular, instead of broad, short, and slightly convex at the anterior margin; by the medial groove on the pronotal disc, which is superficial instead of deep and lanceolate; by the absence of microreticulation on pronotal disc, and by the different shape of the male genitalia.

Redescription. Measurements: size range (n = 777): TL: 10.91–18.25 mm; PL: 2.92–4.83 mm; EL: 6.25– 10.08 mm; PW: 3.50–6.25 mm; EW: 3.75–6.08 mm.

Male ( Fig. 16View FIGURES 16‒19). Body elongate, with subparallel sides, black or dark brown, glossy.

Head: transverse, about half and two times wider than long, slightly depressed. Frontoclypeal region slightly concave at the anterior margin densely and coarsely punctate, with two large, glossy areas situated before the eyes and a medial ridge of frons that varies from weakly developed to absent. Labrum strongly protruding, narrow and almost equilateral triangular, with apex blunt and long, golden setae. Vertex slightly concave in the middle, inclined anteriorly, with two high transversal elevations. Two slightly elevated, longitudinal carinae are present along the inner margin of eyes. Eyes large, divided into 2 parts by the canthi, the upper part smaller than the lower with distinct facets. Canthus largely protruding, rounded laterally and directed obliquely inwards behind; upper surface slightly depressed and smooth, with sparse, minute punctures on the lateral margin. Head surface densely punctate with some smooth areas, on canthi, on frons and between the transversal elevations on vertex. Mandibles longer than head, densely and minutely punctate, strong and asymmetrical, rounded laterally, apices slightly blunted and strongly upwards; upper surface slightly elevated at base. Internal margin of the right mandible with a moderately developed basal tooth and a medial strong tooth, with apex blunted directed inwards. Internal margin of the left mandible with a moderately developed basal tooth, a well developed medial tooth and a preapical angulation, moderately developed. Antenna with 10 antennomeres, scape slightly shorter than the remaining antennomeres; club of last three antennomeres, which are flatter and broader than the remaining antennomeres of the funicle. Mentum subrectangular ( Fig. 17View FIGURES 16‒19), medially with 2 smooth irregular concavities almost always confluent; anterior margin slightly bilobed and sides from almost straight to slightly rounded. Surface strongly punctate at sides, at base and along anterior margin.

Thorax: pronotum slightly wider than long with subparallel sides; anterior margin slightly convex, slightly to strongly elevated, with a small, blunt medial tubercle; posterior margin slightly bisinuate; subparallel sides; anterior angles produced and almost right angled with a narrow rim; the posterior angles largely rounded, with slightly crenulate margin. Longitudinal medial groove deep or sometimes shallow on disc, with some large, circular punctures. Pronotal surface glossy, with dense, minute, superficial punctures on disc and with patch of large close punctures at the anterolateral margin and at basal 2/3. Scutellum long, wedge shaped; surface smooth and glossy.

Elytra: about twice as long and as wide as pronotum. Base concave, subparallel sides slightly crenulate at the base; apex regularly rounded. Humeral angles acute, with a small, acute tubercle. Elytral surface glossy, with 9 visible subparallel striae, the dorsal striae deeper than the lateral striae; each stria formed by a row of large, adjacent punctures, except for the first stria, where the punctures are confluent and is the only stria than reaches at apex. Striae 3‒6 and 4‒5 converging towards apex. Interstriae much wider than striae, slightly convex and minutely punctate. Elytral margins and apex strongly punctate, with short, erect, red setae. Wings present. Legs thin and straight. Protibiae with elongate apical fork, and a long, strong spur internally at apex; lateral margin with 4‒5 small teeth, increasing in size distally. Mesotibiae with 4 long, acute apical teeth, and 2 apical spurs, 1 larger than the other; lateral margin with strong submedial tooth, preceded by 1‒2 smaller teeth. Metatibiae with 4 acute apical teeth, and 2 long, apical spurs, 1 larger than the other; lateral margin with strong submedial tooth, preceded by a smaller tooth. Prosternum subpentagonal in shape behind the coxae; surface with large and deep punctures at anterior edge and with smaller punctures medially and at posterior edge. Metasternum smooth, with a long medial groove, deep at posterior edge.

Abdomen: first abdominal ventrite with some horseshoe-shaped, superficial hollows bringing each a short, golden seta in the middle. The other ventrites have some large and deep punctures along the anterior margin and some horseshoe-shaped, superficial hollows at sides, punctures are fine in the middle. Last ventrite medially with dense, small punctures, becoming smaller towards the posterior margin.

Male genitalia: penis tubular, short, evenly tapering towards apex in dorsal view ( Fig. 18View FIGURES 16‒19); in lateral view completely covered by a dorsal translucid, membranous extension of the basal piece, nearly straight, more curved proximally close to articulation with basal piece ( Figs. 18–19View FIGURES 16‒19). Permanently everted internal sac drawn out into a long and broad, colorless or yellow flagellum tapering towards apex. Parameres slightly shorter than the basal piece, apically broadly spatulate, slightly angulate at inner margin, with marginal fringe of short setae entirely enclosed in the cuticle (not represented in figure). Basal piece elongate, sclerotized, nearly parallel-sided; ventrally mostly membranous, dorsally with a moderately broad, nearly parallel-sided sclerotic area along midline ( Figs. 18– 19View FIGURES 16‒19). A pair of long, slender struts run along basal piece, from penis articulation to slightly beyond the base of the short, truncate expansion of basal piece.

Female. All external morphological characters as in male.

Female genitalia: hemisternites elongate, apically with long, golden setae surrounding the styli; moderately broad, enlarged medially; outer edge almost straight or slightly sinuose, medial edge convex; styli slender with apex straight, slightly longer than wide. Bursa copulatrix represented by a slight expansion of the wall of spermathecal duct near junction with the median oviduct. Spermathecal duct long, ending in a bulbous, pearshaped expansion; colorless in the proximal half, pigmented in the distal half.

Intraspecific variation. The medial ridge of frons varies from weakly developed to absent; the prothorax can be nearly parallel or slightly broadened posteriorly. For the body size see the “Measurements” section.

Additional material examined. Australia [state unknown]: 1 specimen, Nouv  . Galles du Sud, Mniszech 1856 (MNHN) [note: at this date New South Wales included Queensland, the two states split up in 1859; so we put this specimen in this section]  . 1 specimen (IRSNB); 1 specimen, R. Mus. Hist. Nat. Belg. I.G. 12.595 (IRSNB); 3 specimens, R.I.Sc.N.B. 21.418, Collection P. de Moffarts (IRSNB); 1 specimen, Muséum Paris 1935 Collection Sedillot (MNHN)  ; 1 specimen, ex Musaeo Mniszech, Muséum Paris 1952 Collection Oberthür (MNHN)  ; 1 specimen, 1853, Muséum Paris ex Collection Perroud (MNHN)  ; 1 specimen, Australia Or., Act , X.1870, H.Deyr ( MSNG)  ; 2 specimens (GTC); 1 specimen, 30.VIII.1946 (GTC); 2 specimens (MEL); 3 specimens, Muséum Paris J. Verreaux 2-47 (MNHN)  ; 3 specimens, Muséum Paris (MNHN)  ; 4 specimens 15.VII.1927, Lina Rasim  ded. (SMNS); 1 specimen, Nouvelle Hollande, ex Musaeo Van Lansberge, Muséum Paris 1982 Collection Oberthür ( MNHN)  ; 1 specimen, Nouvelle Hollande, Muséum Paris 1935 Collection M. Sedillot ( MNHN)  ; 1 specimen, Nouvelle Hollande, Vict., Edwards, Fry Collection 1905-100, BMNH (E) # 607564 ( NHM)  ; 3 specimens, Nouvelle Hollande, Collection E. Candèze ( IRSNB)  ; 2 specimens, Nouvelle Hollande, ( MEL, IRSNB)  . NEW SOUTH WALES: 1 specimen  , New South Wales, ex Musaeo Van Lansberge, Muséum Paris 1952 Collection Oberthür (MNHN)  ; 1 specimen, New South Wales, Muséum Paris 1952 Collection Oberthür (MNHN)  ; 1 specimen, New South Wales, ( GTC)  ; 1♀, 6 specimens, New South Wales, COL-85935, COL-85936, COL-85937, COL-85938, COL-85939, COL-85858, and COL-85859 ( NMVM)  ; 1 specimen, New South Wales, Nat. Mus  . Victoria, C.French’s Collection 6.I.08, COL-85903 ( NMVM)  ; 1 specimen, New South Wales, Collection Ogier de Baulny, 8114 ( IRSNB)  ; 1 specimen, Northern N.S.W., 1972, G.May, C.G.L.Gooding collection, donated to ANIC 1979View Materials ( ANIC)  ; 2 specimens, Albury , 4.VII.1937, F.E.Wilson, F.E.Wilson Collection, COL-85908 ( NMVM)  ; 1 specimen, Baan Baa , 29.X.1908, G.E.Bryant, G.E.Bryant Collection 1919-147, # 607613 ( NHM)  ; 2 specimens, Broad Sound , Queensland, 24.V.1957, Banksia, G.P.Witley, K  293171 and K 293172 (AMS)  ; 1 specimen, Banyabba Nature Reserve, near Coaldale , 8.I.1921, R.Hardie, on Xanthorrhoea  , University of New England Collection, donated 1983 ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen, Belubula , 21.IV.1923, R. Musgrave, K 48145View Materials (handwritten), K 293099 (AMS)  ; 1 specimen, Bingara , 5.VI.1992, O.Hillert, ex Collection Werner ( LBC)  ; 1 specimen, Blandford , IX.1908, C.S., K 22618View Materials (handwritten), K 293121 (AMS)  ; 1 specimen, Bogan Gate, Blow Glearwest State Forest , R.H.M., K 293145, R.H.Mulder Collection (AMS)  ; 1 specimen, Bugaldie , 25.II.1972, D.A.Doolan, K 293136, D.A.Doolan Collection (AMS)  ; 2 specimens, Burma Road, Pilliga East State Forest , 5–7.XI.1999, R.deKeyzer & A.Sundholm, K 293309, K 293310, R.deKeyzer Insect Collection (AMS)  ; 1 specimen, Burrier , 29.XII.1933, Rodway, University of New England Collection, donated 1983 ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen, Caldwell, V.Robb, K 293107 (AMS); 1 specimen, Capella, Retro Station , VIII.1929, J.R.Sievin, K 61074View Materials (handwritten), K293162 (AMS)  ; 3 specimens, Caragabol, P.H.Taylor, K 293115, K 293116 and K 293120 (AMS); 2 specimens, Clarence R., I.1904, R.Helms, K 293098 (AMS); 1 specimen, Condobolin , 11.II.1972, D.A.Doolan, D.A.Doolan Collection, K 293108 (AMS)  ; 1 specimen, 40 km N of Coolah , 1.X.1971, S.Misko ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen, Coonabarabran , XII.1929, H.J.Carter ( ANIC)  ; 2 specimens, Coonabarabran , 25.II.1972, D.A.Doolan, K 293134 and K 293135, D.A. Doolan Collection (AMS)  ; 1 specimen, Coonabarabran , 16.I.1981, D.A.Doolan, K 293111, D.A.Doolan Collection (AMS)  ; 3 specimens, Coonabarabran , 21.X.1957, F.E.Wilson, F.E.Wilson Collection, COL-85170 ( NMVM)  ; 1 specimen, CSIRO Parkes Radio Telescope , 16.XI.1996, in soil at base of live Eucalyptus, G.W.Ulrich  Collection ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen, Curlewis , 29.XI.1933, T.Iredale, K 293105 (AMS)  ; 1 specimen, Dabee, K 28023 (handwritten), K 293097 (AMS); 1 specimen, Dorrigo , I.1931, C.Oke, COL-85924 ( NMVM)  ; 2 specimens, Dubbo , 29.VIII. 1925, 149 m ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen, Dubbo , 25.IV.1975, D  . Lester, K 293142 (AMS); 1Ƌ, Dunmore , I.1988, J.Hasenpusch, Graeme Krake Collection, donated Feb. 2007, COL-80304 ( NMVM)  ; 1 specimen, Emmaville , 27.III.1973, R.H.M., K 293109 (AMS)  ; 1 specimen, Fletcher , 29.V.1967, E.Sutton ( ANIC)  ; 2 specimens, Fletcher, 1945, E.Sutton, C.G.L.Gooding Collection, donated to ANIC 1979 (ANIC); 1Ƌ, Fortis Creek State Forest , N Grafton, 5.X.1996, mv light, S.G.Watkins, 96:247 Ƌ, S.G.Watkins Collection, donated 2001 ( ANIC)  ; 3ƋƋ, 2♀♀, Fortis Creek State Forest , N Grafton, 10.X.1996, mv light, S.G.Watkins, 96:281 Ƌ, 96:282 Ƌ, 96:283 Ƌ, S.G.Watkins Collection, donated 2001 ( ANIC)  ; 2ƋƋ, 6♀♀, Fortis Creek State Forest , N Grafton, 13.XI.1996, mv light, S.G.Watkins, 96:540 Ƌ, 96:541 Ƌ, S.G.Watkins Collection, donated 2001 ( ANIC)  ; 3ƋƋ, 4♀♀, Fortis Creek State Forest , N Grafton, 6.XII.1996, mv light, S.G.Watkins, 96:709 Ƌ, 96:710 Ƌ, 96:711 Ƌ, S.G.Watkins Collection, donated 2001 ( ANIC)  ; 1♀, Fortis Creek State Forest , N Grafton, 9.XII.1996, mv light, S.G.Watkins, S.G.Watkins Collection, donated 2001 ( ANIC)  ; 2ƋƋ, 1♀, Fortis Creek State Forest , N Grafton, 3I. XII.1996, mv light, S.G.Watkins, 96:1079 Ƌ, 96:1080 Ƌ, S.G.Watkins Collection, donated 2001 ( ANIC)  ; 5ƋƋ, 4♀♀, Fortis Creek State Forest , N Grafton, 16.II.1997, mv light, S.G.Watkins, 97:346 Ƌ, 97:347 Ƌ, 97:348 Ƌ, 97:349 Ƌ, 97:350 Ƌ, S.G.Watkins Collection, donated 2001 ( ANIC)  ; 4ƋƋ, 10♀♀, Fortis Creek State Forest , N Grafton, 22.II.1997, mv light,. G.Watkins, 97:376 Ƌ, 97:377 Ƌ, 97:378 Ƌ, 97:379 Ƌ, S.G.Watkins Collection, donated 2001 ( ANIC)  ; 3ƋƋ, 1♀, Fortis Creek State Forest , N Grafton, 26.II.1997, mv light, S.G.Watkins, under log, 97:412 Ƌ, 97:413 Ƌ, 97:414 Ƌ, S.G.Watkins Collection, donated 2001 ( ANIC)  ; 2ƋƋ, Fortis Creek State Forest , N Grafton, 4.III.1997, mv light, S.G.Watkins, 97:457 Ƌ, 97:458 Ƌ, S.G.Watkins Collection, donated 2001 ( ANIC)  ; 3ƋƋ, Fortis Creek National Park, SE boundary, N Grafton, 6–7.II.1998, S.G.Watkins, under log, 60 m, 98:207 Ƌ, 98:217 Ƌ, 98:305 Ƌ, S.G.Watkins Collection, donated 2001 ( ANIC)  ; 1Ƌ, Fortis Creek National Park, seast boundary, N Grafton, 50 m, 16.XI.1998, S.G.Watkins, 98:643 Ƌ, mv light, S.G.Watkins Collection, donated 2001 ( ANIC)  ; 2ƋƋ, 2♀♀, Fortis Creek National Park, seast boundary, N Grafton, 50 m, 17–20.XII.1998, S.G.Watkins, 98:836 Ƌ, 98:852 Ƌ, mv light, S.G.Watkins Collection, donated 2001 ( ANIC)  ; 2ƋƋ, 1♀, Fortis Creek National Park, SE boundary, N Grafton, 50 m, 13.I.1999, S.G.Watkins, 99:105 Ƌ, 98:106 Ƌ, mv light, S.G.Watkins Collection, donated 2001 ( ANIC)  ; 2ƋƋ, Fortis Creek National Park, seast boundary, N Grafton, 50 m, 4.I.2000, 00:3, 00:4, mv light, Copmanhurst 9438-1-N 56JMN968328, S.G.Watkins Collection, donated 2001 ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen, Gilgandra, Biddon State Forest , 3.XII  – I.1986, R.H.M., K 293148, R.H.Mulder Collection (AMS); 1 specimen, Glenview , 12 km S Inverell, 29.VIII.1985, N.S. & S.G.Hunter, K 293 147 (AMS)  ; 1 specimen, SE boundary of Goobang National Park, Circuit Road, 33°11'19.7''S, 148°25'13.7''E, R.deKeyzer & A.Scott, K 293316, R.deKeyzer Insect Collection (AMS); 2 specimens, Goonoo State Forest , 12–18.I.1981, D.A.Doolan, K 293139 and 1 specimen, 17.I.1981, R.H.Mulder, K 293119, (AMS)  ; 1 specimen, Goonoo State Forest , 6 km SW Mendooran, 6.IV.1979, D.K.McAlpine & B.J.Day, K 293110 (AMS)  ; 1 specimen, Goonoo State Forest, Mogriguy , 24.I.1980, K 293144 (AMS)  ; 1 specimen, Griffith , 22.XI.1955, G.F.Bornemissza ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen, Gulgong , I.1986, F.E.Wilson, F.E.Wilson Collection, COL- 85164 ( NMVM)  ; 1 specimen, Gunnedah , X.1959, F.E.Wilson, F.E.Wilson Collection, COL-85165 ( NMVM)  ; 1 specimen, Mount Kaputar, Bullawa Creek , 28.XI.1984, George Hangay ( ANIC)  ; 3 specimens, Lambton, ex Musaeo Möllenkamp 1913, Muséum Paris 1952 Collection Oberthür (MNHN)  ; 2 specimens, Macdonald R., 23.II.1971, D.A.Doolan, K 293122 and K 293123, D.A.Doolan Collection (AMS); 1 specimen, Maitland , 26.XII.1962, COL-86041 ( NMVM)  ; 1 specimen, 24 km NNE of Mendooran , 17.I.1981, D.A.Doolan, K 293118, D.A.Doolan Collection (AMS)  ; 1 specimen, Mogriguy , 6.I.1979, R.H.M. K 293143, R.H.Mulder Collection (AMS)  ; 5 specimens, Mooney Mooney Range near Coolac , 7.X.1974, ex dead stem of Xanthorrhoea australis, K.L.Pullen  ( ANIC)  ; 2 specimens, 73 km N of Moree , 29.XII.1977, R.G.Thompson Collection, COL-86044 and COL-86045 ( NMVM)  ; 1 specimen, Mulwala, COL-86033 (NMVM); 1 specimen, Munmorah State Conservation Area , -33º12'34'', 151º34'59'', 1.V.1997, L.Wilkie, K 136541 (AMS)  ; 1 specimen, Murrurundi, 1841, K 28030 (handwritten), K 293096 (AMS); 2 specimens, Narrabri, Sydney , 30–31.X.1924, W.W.Froggatt ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen, Narrabri, Jacks Creek , 5.XI.1932, K.C.McKeown, K 66664View Materials (handwritten), K 293104 (AMS)  ; 1 specimen, Narrabri, J.Armstrong, K.K.Spence Collection, K 293102 (AMS); 1 specimen, Native Dog Creek Road, 14.V.1999, W.W.Froggatt Collection ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen, Nymagee , 16.XI.1962, H.Cogger, K 293117 (AMS)  ; 1 specimen, Ogilvie Trail, Banyabba Nature Reserve, SSW Whiporie , 130 m, 27.XI.2000, 00:214, mv light ( ANIC)  ; 1Ƌ, 1♀, Olives Swamp Myrtle State Forest , 28.X.1996, S.G.Watkins, 96:360 Ƌ, mv light, S.G.Watkins Collection, donated 2001 ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen, Olives Swamp Myrtle State Forest, SSE Rappville , 50 m, 27.I.1999, S.G.Watkins, mv light, S.G.Watkins Collection, donated 2001 ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen, Ourimbah, C. Schindler 1905 (MNHN)  ; 2 specimens, Pilliga Scrub , XI.1999 R.deKeyzer ( LBC) and ( MZUF)  ; 3 specimens, Pilliga Scrub, 25 m, W of Narrabri , 30.X.1967, C.W.Frazier, University of New England Collection, donated 1983 ( ANIC)  ; 7 specimens, Pilliga Scrub , XI.1999, R.deKeyzer, Graeme Krake Collection, donated Feb. 2007, COL-86871, COL- 86872, COL-86877, COL-86878, COL-86879, COL-86880, and COL-86881 ( NMVM)  ; 1♀, 1 specimen, Pilliga State Forest, 20 Foot Tk , 4.xi.1994 ( MEL)  ; 1 specimen, Pilliga State Forest, Greens Road, Logging Site , 2.XI.1991, R.deKeyzer & A.Sundholm, K 293305, R.deKeyzer Insect Collection (AMS)  ; 4 specimens, Pilliga State Forest, Pine Creek Rd, XI.1991, R.deKeyzer & A.Sundholm, K 293301, K 293302, K 293303 and K 293304, R.deKeyzer Insect Collection (AMS)  ; 2 specimens, Pilliga , 1.XII.1992, R.deKeyzer, ex Collection Bornemissza ( SMNS)  ; 3 specimens, Pilliga , 13.II.1994, J.A.Walker, K 293306, K 293307 and K 293308, R.deKeyzer Insect Collection (AMS)  ; 1 specimen, Quirindi , 3.XI.1908, G.E.Bryant, G.E.Bryant Collection 1919-147, # 607597 ( NHM)  ; 1 specimen, Quirindi , V.1928, R.E.Jobson, K 58096View Materials (handwritten), K 293101 (AMS)  ; 1 specimen, Rooty Hill, E.W.Ferguson Collection (ANIC); 1 specimen, Salt Caves area, Pilliga East State Forest , 5–7.XI.1999, R.deKeyzer & A.Sundholm, K 293311, R.deKeyzer Insect Collection (AMS)  ; 1 specimen, Shepherds Hill Quarry area, east side of Round Hill Nature Reserve near Euabalong West , 23.X.2004, R.deKeyzer, K 293319, R.deKeyzer Insect Collection (AMS)  ; 1 specimen, Sutherland , X.1927, M.Fuller. ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen, Sydney, (MNHN)  ; 1 specimen, Sydney , VIII.1931, Dr. K.K. Spence, K.K. Spence Collection, K 293 103 (AMS)  ; 12 specimens, environs de Sydney, H. Bureau 1923, Muséum Paris (MNHN)  ; 1 specimen, Turrella, K 293114 (AMS); 1 specimen, Upper Colo , 1.I.1979, D.P.Carne, at uv light ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen, Wagga, C.Oke, COL-85907 (NMVM); 2 specimens, Warrumbungles , 21–22.II.1972, D.A.Doolan, K 293127 and K 293129, D.A.Doolan Collection (AMS)  ; 1 specimen, Warrumbungles , 3.X.1979, D.A.Doolan, K 293138, D.A.Doolan Collection (AMS)  ; 1 specimen, near Wellington, Ponto Falls , 18.VII.1982, in rotten logs, J.F.Lawrence ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen, Wellington Caves, 21.VII.1991, W.W.Froggatt Collection ( ANIC)  ; 1Ƌ, 3 specimens, Wentworth , 24.IV.1990, G.J.Krake, Graeme Krake Collection, donated Feb. 2007, COL-86873, COL-86874, COL-86875 and COL-86876 ( NMVM)  ; 1 specimen, Wheogo, near Dunedoo , XII.1927, A.Musgrave, K58473View Materials (handwritten), K 293100 (AMS)  ; 2 specimens, Wyangala dam, 24.VIII.2003 ( MEL)  ; 1 specimen, Wyee , 7.VII.1973, D.A.Doolan, K 2 93137, D.A.Doolan Collection (AMS)  ; 1 specimen, Yalwal, near Nowra , 29.xii.1933, G.Rodway, K 293106 (AMS)  ; 1 specimen, Yathong Nature Reserve, Mallee woodland, 32°58'56''S, 146°10'58''E, 13.IX.2000, D.Eldridge, pitfall trap., K 293113 (AMS)GoogleMaps  ; 1 specimen, Yathong NR, Semi-arid Grassland , 32°35'58''S, 145°32'28''E, 20.XI.2001, G.Swan, Pitfall trap., K 293140 (AMS)GoogleMaps  ; 1 specimen, Yathong Nature Reserve , Spinifex Grassland  , 32°35'13''S, 145°29'51''E, XI –XII.1999, E.Wapstra, pitfall trap., K 293112 (AMS)GoogleMaps  . NORTHERN TERRITORY: 18 specimens, Bullita, Gregory National Park , 16°07'S, 130°25'E, 18–24.V.2001, T.Weir & P.Bouchard, under log and bark ( ANIC)GoogleMaps  ; 4 specimens, Curtin Springs , IX.1948, Geelong College Expedition, COL-85158, COL-85159, COL- 85160, and COL-85161 ( NMVM)  ; 1♀, Herrmannsburg, Central Australia, H.J.Hillier 1911-311, BMNH (E) # 607570 ( NHM)  ; 1 specimen, MacDonnell Ranges, S.A. Wight, ex Collection Australian Museum ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen, Northern Territory, Yulara , III.2007 ( CMC)  ; 1 specimen, Plenty Highway , 268 km ENE of Alice Springs, 13.X.1978, Upton & Barrett, 8637, H.E.Bomans BMNH (E) 1999-248, 408637 ( NHM)  ; 1 specimen, Ti Tree , 30.XII.1982, at light, D.P.Carne ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen, Tindal , 1.XII.1967, W.J.Vestgens ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen, Victoria River Crossing , 29.XII.1994 ( MSNT)  . QUEENSLAND: 1 specimen  , Queensland Expedition Range, 1.I.1968, G.Hangay, K 293223, Hangay Collection (AMS)  ; 3 specimens, Queensland, R. Mus. Hist. Nat. Belg. I.G. 12.595 ( IRSNB)  ; 7 specimens, Queensland, Muséum Paris ( MNHN)  ; 9 specimens, Queensland, Muséum Paris 1935 Collection Pic ( MNHN)  ; 1♀, 1 specimen, Queensland, Muséum Paris 1935 Collection Sedillot ( MNHN)  ; 12 specimens, Queensland, Muséum Paris 1952 Collection Oberthür ( MNHN)  ; 1 specimen, Queensland, ex Musaeo Van Lansberge, Muséum Paris 1952 Collection Oberthür ( MNHN)  ; 1 specimen, Queensland, ex Musaeo Möllenkamp 1913, Muséum Paris 1952 Collection Oberthür ( MNHN)  ; 2 specimens, Queensland, A.H.Elston, K 293163 and K 293165 (AMS)  ; 1 specimen, Queensland, 1905, Rolle ( MSNM)  ; 1 specimen, Queensland, Nat. Mus  . Victoria COL-85880 ( NMVM)  ; 1 specimen, Queensland, COL-86036 ( NMVM)  ; 1 specimen, Queensland, Nat.  Mus. Victoria, C.French’s Collection 6.I.08, COL-85879 ( NMVM)  ; 1 specimen, Queensland, Dr. K.K. Spence, K 293160, K.K.Spence Collection (AMS)  ; 2 specimens, Queensland, near Silver Plains homestead, 24.VI.1960, C.N.Smithers, K 293246 and K 293247 (AMS)  ; 1 specimen, N Queensland, E.W.Ferguson Collection ( ANIC)  ; 2 specimens, N Queensland, H.J.Carter Collection P. 20.IV.1922, COL-85889 and COL-86035 ( NMVM)  ; 1 specimen, som. S. of Ayr , 11.IX.1950, E.F.Riek ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen, Allinga, Chinchilla , 26°41'S, 150°38'E, Grace Lithgow ( QMB)GoogleMaps  ; 1 specimen, Amiens , 16.V.1954, G.L.Gooding, C.G.L.Gooding Collection, donated to ANIC 1979View Materials ( ANIC)  ; 1Ƌ, 1♀, Amiens , 10 mi. W Stanthorpe, 25.III.1975, H. & A.Howden ( LBC)  ; 1 specimen, Biggenden, 25.31ºS, 152.03ºE, W of Bluff Range , 18.VIII.1972, H.Frauca ( ANIC)GoogleMaps  ; 1 specimen, Blackall Ranges , X.1920, F.E.Wilson F.E.Wilson Collection, COL-85904 ( NMVM)  ; 2 specimens, Blair Athol , VIII.1960, C.V., C.G.L.Gooding Collection, donated to ANIC 1979View Materials ( ANIC)  ; 2 specimens, Boggom 19, via Taroom , XI.1996  ‒ I.1997, Baited Flight Intercept, 0 30, Monteith & Cook (QMB); 1Ƌ, Bottle Tree Scrub, Taroom-Cracow Road , 25°33'S, 150°08'E, 14.IX.1996, D.Cook, night hand collection 0 70, CM Reg. No. T 34263View Materials ( QMB)GoogleMaps  ; 2 specimens, Braemar State Forest , 27°11'S, 150°47'E, 2–4.III. 2000, 380 m, brigalow & open forest, 9193, D.J.Cook ( QMB)GoogleMaps  ; 1Ƌ, Braemar State Forest, via Kogan , 15–19.X.1979, G.B.Monteith & QM ( QMB)  ; 1 specimen, Brigooda, Koy Property , 26°16'S, 151°25'E, 23.I.1995, G.Monteith ( QMB)GoogleMaps  ; 1 specimen, Bringalily Fire Tower , 2 km S, 28°12.6'S, 151°07.5'E, 21.XI. 2007, 340 m, mv lamp brigalow, 15599, A.Ewart ( QMB)GoogleMaps  ; 1 specimen, Brisbane, 1637, ex Collection Australian Museum (ANIC); 1 specimen, Brisbane , 29.X.1917, H.Hacker ( QMB)  ; 2 specimens, Brisbane, Griffith University , 15.II.1982, T.J.Hawkeswood ( ANIC)  ; 2 specimens, Lake Broadwater, via Dalby , 22–25.II.1986, Site 6 and Site 9, G.Monteith & G.Thompson ( QMB)  ; 1 specimen, Bulimba Creek, Carindale , 3.XI.2003, 15 m, QM Party, day hand colin, forest red gum woodland, 51652 ( QMB)  ; 3 specimens, Bundaberg, 331(handwritten), K 293164, A.H.Elston Collection (AMS); 1 specimen, Cairns, 1912, R.Sunter, K 31981 (handwritten), K 293152 (AMS); 1 specimen, Cairns, H.J.Carter Collection P. 20.IV.1922., COL-85887 (NMVM); 1 specimen, Cairns , VIII.1965, G.R. ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen, Cairns, 1952, J.G.Brooks, C.G.L.Gooding Collection, donated to ANIC 1979 (ANIC); 1 specimen, Cairns, Edge Hill , 18.IV.1965  ‒ 14.V.1965, at indoor light, J.G.Brooks (ANIC); 1 specimen, Cape York, ex Musaeo Mniszech, Muséum Paris 1952 Collection Oberthür (MNHN)  ; 1Ƌ Cape York, ( MEL)  ; 2 specimens, Cape York, Muséum Paris 1952 Collection Oberthür (MNHN)  ; 2 specimens, Mount Carbine , 30.XII.1973 and 10.II.1975, ( GTC)  ; 1 specimen, Mount Carbine , I.1972 ( MSNM)  ; 1 specimen, Mount Carbine , 30.XII.1973, Collection Bomans 6531-a, H.E.Bomans BMNH (E) 1999-248, 411720-3 ( NHM)  ; 2 specimens, Mount Carbine , 6.VI.1945, T.W.Gamble, K 293169 and K 293170, (AMS)  ; 1 specimen, Mount Carbine, near Mossman , IV.1945, T.W.Gamble, 11720-c, H.E.Bomans BMNH (E) 1999-248, 406531-1 ( NHM)  ; 4 specimens, Mount Carbine, near Mossman , 5.V.1945 and IV.1946, T.W.Gamble, K 293174, K 293178, K 293185, and K 293187, Hangay Collection (AMS)  ; 2 specimens, 10 km W by N of Mount Carbine, Desailly Creek , 16.30ºS, 144.55ºE, 19–21.V.1981, by sweeping, A.Calder ( ANIC)GoogleMaps  ; 1 specimen, Carnarvon Range , 2.I.1939, R.Geary, K 293167 (AMS)  ; 2 specimens, Carnarvon National Park, Rotary shelter shed, 24°54'52'', 148°01'33''E, 8–21.IV.1999, M.Neave, E.D.Edwards, M.Yee, & J.Cardale ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen, Carnarvon National Park, section Mount Moffatt , 25°01'312''S, 147°53'572''E, 710 m, A5, V.Malý ( QMB)  ; 2ƋƋ, 1♀, same locality, 16–20.XII.2004, V.Malý ( CMC)  ; 1 specimen, Carnarvon National Park, Mount Moffat, Top Moffat Camp , 13–15.XII.1987, Monteith, Thomson, & Yeates ( QMB)  ; 4 specimens, Carnarvon Range , II.1944, R.Geary, K 293168, K 293242, K 293243, and K 293244 (AMS)  ; 3 specimens, Carnarvon National Park, Chimneys [?], 25°05'54''S, 147°52'04''E, 8– 21.IV.1999, M.Neave, E.D.Edwards, M.Yee, & J.Cardale ( ANIC)GoogleMaps  ; 1 specimen, Clermont, Dr. K.K.Spence K 293166, K.K.Spence Collection (AMS); 1 specimen, Clermont , VIII.1929, K.K.Spence ( ANIC)  ; 2 specimens, Clermont , X.1962, C.V., C.G.L.Gooding Collection, donated to ANIC 1979View Materials ( ANIC)  ; 4 specimens, Clermont , VIII.1928, Dr. K.K. Spence, K 293156, K 293157, K 293158, and K 293159, K.K.Spence Collection (AMS)  ; 2 specimens, Caves near R’Ton (=Rockhampton), R.L.Higgins (QMB); 1 specimen, Coen , Nat. Mus. Victoria, C.French’s Collection 6.I.08, COL-85970 ( NMVM)  ; 2 specimens, Cooktown, (MNHN)  ; 1 specimen, Cooktown , 19.V.1945, C.Olive, COL-85905 ( NMVM)  ; 1 specimen, Cooktown , V.1951, C.Oke, COL-85959 ( NMVM)  ; 1 specimen, Cooktown , 19.V.1953, C.Oke, COL-85918 ( NMVM)  ; 1 specimen, Cooktown , 30.VIII.1946, 10 ( GTC)  ; 1 specimen, Cunnamulla, Dr. A.Breyer, 8114 (IRSNB); 1 specimen, Cunnamulla, H.Hardcaste COL-86011 (NMVM); 1 specimen, Curtis Island, 4.I.1957, COL-85958 ( NMVM)  ; 1 specimen, Dalby , 10.III.1990, S.Lamond, K 293313, R.deKeyzer Insect Collection (AMS)  ; 4 specimens, Dalby , 21.II.1987 ( GTC)  ; 3 specimens, 27 km SW Dalby , 30.X.1982, under wood, P.Schroeder, Graeme Krake Collection, donated Feb. 2007, COL-86883, COL- 86884, and COL-86885 ( NMVM)  ; 7 specimens, Davies Creek National Park, 5–12.IV.1998, A.A.Calder ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen, Dayboro , 0.5 km S, 27°12'S, 152°49'E, X.2004, 60 m, mv lamp, 52147, S.G.Wright ( QMB)GoogleMaps  ; 1Ƌ, Duaringa , I.1946, Smith, 11721-a, H.E.Bomans BMNH (E) 1999-248 ( NHM)  ; 4 specimens, Duaringa , I.1946  ‒ II.1946, C.W.Smith K 293190, K 293194, K 293201, and 293204, Hangay Collection (AMS); 2 specimens, Duaringa , 8.III.1946, L.A.Smith, K 29 3205 and K 293208, Hangay Collection (AMS)  ; 3 specimens, Duaringa , 4.IX.1946, C.W.Smith, K 293173, K 293209, and K 293210, Hangay Collection (AMS)  ; 2 specimens, Duaringa , 26.XII.1946, C.W.Smith, K 293214 and K 293221, Hangay Collection (AMS)  ; 10 specimens, Dunmore State Forest, Trig 4 area, 23.I.1999, R.deKeyzer & A.Sundholm, K 293290, K 293291, K 293292, K 293293, K 293294, K 293295, K 293296, K 293297, K 293298, and K 293299, R.deKeyzer Insect Collection (AMS)  ; 2 specimens, Edungalba , 26.XII.1958, E.E.A., C.G.L.Gooding Collection, donated to ANIC 1979View Materials ( ANIC)  ; 5 specimens, Edungalba, 1 mi. N of Mourangee Station , 22.V.1969, T.Campbell & E.Adams ( ANIC)  ; 5 specimens, 1 mi. W by N of Edungalba, on Mourangee Station , 22.V.1969, under log, T.Campbell & E.Adams ( ANIC)  ; 2 specimens, Eidsvold , X.1929  ‒ IV.1930, T.L.Bancroft (ANIC); 2 specimens, Emu Creek Road, near Emu Vale, 28–29.X.2002, R.deKeyzer, K 293314 and K 293315, R.deKeyzer Insect Collection (AMS)  ; 1 specimen, Endeavour N Queensland, Muséum Paris 1952 Collection Oberthür (MNHN)  ; 1 specimen, Endeavour River , H. Rolle, Berlin S.W. ( MEL)  ; 1 specimen, Endeavour River , Muséum Paris 1935 Collection Pic (MNHN)  ; 6 specimens, Endeavour River , C. French’s Collection, 6.I.08, Nat. Mus. Victoria COL-85849, COL-85886, COL-85968, COL-86046, COL- 86047, and COL-86049 ( NMVM)  ; 1 specimen, Mount Eumamurrin , 26°09'S, 148°41'E, 14.XII. 2001, 500 m, Ironbark /cypress, G.B.Monteith & D.J.Cook ( QMB)GoogleMaps  ; 1 specimen, Expedition Range National Park , 25°12'S, 148°59'E, 24–26.IX.1997, Ironbark woodland, 5007 D. & L. & T. & H. Cook ( QMB)GoogleMaps  ; 2 specimens, 50 km W of Mount Garnet , 15.I.2003, K 293252 and 24.I.2003, K 293253, J.Hasenpusch, at mv light, R.deKeyzer Insect Collection (AMS)  ; 1♀, Mount Garnet , N Queensland, 20.II.2010 ( CMC)  ; 1 specimen, 9 mi E of Gatton , 27.33ºS, 152.17ºE, 5.XI.1969, S.Misko ( ANIC)GoogleMaps  ; 1 specimen, Glen Aplin , XI.1935, B.Stoyles, C.E.Clarke Collection B.M. 1957-24, #607616 ( NHM)  ; 2 specimens, 38 miles N Goondiwindi , 23.VI.1965, D.P.Carne ( ANIC)  ; 1Ƌ, Haay, Collection E.Candèze (IRSNB); 1 specimen, Hann Tableland Radar Station , 16°55'S, 145°15'E, 8.II.1996, 800‒ 900 m, G.B.Monteith ( QMB)GoogleMaps  ; 1 specimen, Herberton , 6.I.1990, T.Woodger K 293259, R.deKeyzer Insect Collection (AMS)  ; 3 specimens, Inglewood , 41 km NE, 28°19'S, 151°27'E, 25.X.1991, under rotten log, Tom Gush, 3194, Tom Gush 1 specimen, Ipswich, K 293151 (AMS)GoogleMaps  ; 7 specimens, 7 km N of Jondaryan , 25.XII.1982, J.T.Doyen ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen, 24 mi. SW by W of Kingaroy , 26.44ºS, 151.31ºE, 26.XI.1968, Britton & Misko ( ANIC)GoogleMaps  ; 2 specimens, Kuranda, 2/48, J.G.Brooks Bequest 1976 (ANIC); 2 specimens, Kuranda , 21.V.1970 ( GTC)  ; 1 specimen, Kuranda, 1972 (GTC); 1 specimen, Lansdown Research Station , 19.40ºS, 146.51ºE, 7 km S of Woodstock, 16.I.1974, at light, R.A.Barrett ( ANIC)GoogleMaps  ; 7 specimens, Leyburn , 29.I.1974, J.Macqueen ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen, Lindeman I., Whitsunday Grp. Q., XII.1928, Mel. Ward, K 60547 (handwritten), K 293161 (AMS); 1 specimen, Mackay , 5–20.V.1991, W.J.Vestgens ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen, Mackay, COL-85963 (NMVM); 1 specimen, Mackay, Turner, 284, Muséum Paris 1952 Collection Oberthür (MNHN)  ; 1Ƌ, Mackay , 25.X.1971, 2326 ( MSNM)  ; 1 specimen, Magnetic Island, H.J.Carter, H.J.Carter Collection P. 20.IV.1922, COL-85882 ( NMVM)  ; 1 specimen, Magnetic Island, 24.IV.1953, C.Oke, COL-85923 ( NMVM)  ; 1 specimen, Magnetic Island, H.J.Carter, COL-85928 ( NMVM)  ; 1 specimen, Magnetic Island, G.F.Hill, ex Collection Australian Museum ( ANIC)  ; 5 specimens, Magnetic Island, VII.21, H.J.Carter ( ANIC)  ; 8 specimens, Magnetic Island, 12.V.1981, D.P.Carne, in Xanthorrhoea  ( ANIC)  ; 1Ƌ, Mount Malloy , 7.I.1975 ( LBC)  ; 3 specimens, Mount Malloy, Station Creek , 18. II.1969, X219, J.G.Brooks ( ANIC)  ; 4 specimens, N Mount Malloy, Station Creek , 11 m, 2.XII.1972, J.A.G.Brooks, 180 ( ANIC)  ; 1Ƌ, Mareeba, 6535-a, H.E.Bomans BMNH(E) 1999-248 (NHM); 1 specimen, Mareeba (GTC); 6 specimens, Mareeba , 4–5.XII.1972 ( GTC)  ; 1Ƌ, Mary Creek , 16.33ºS, 145.12ºE, 4.XII.1968, open forest at light, E.Britton & S.Misko, 8638, H.E.Bomans BMNH (E) 1999-248 ( NHM)GoogleMaps  ; 1 specimen, Millmerran , 6.II.1974 ( ANIC)  ; 12 specimens, Millmerran , VII.1949  ‒ VIII.1949, G.L.Gooding, C.G.L.Gooding Collection, donated to ANIC 1979 (ANIC); 1 specimen, Morehead , 10.I.1988, M.S.Moulds, K 293249, R.deKeyzer Insect Collection (AMS)  ; 2 specimens, Moreton Island, IV.1916, E.Allen ( QMB)  ; 1 specimen, Moreton Bay , Waterhouse, ex Musaeo Van Lansberge, Muséum Paris 1952 Collection Oberthür (MNHN)  ; 8 specimens, Mourangee, near Edungalba, 50 mi. SW of Rockhampton , 27.XI.1968, under logs, Britton, Misko & Adams ( ANIC)  ; 2 specimens, Mutchilba , X.1959, A.D.Selby F.E.Wilson Collection, COL-86003 ( NMVM)  ; 2 specimens, National Park Queensland, I.1928, H.J.Carter, K 60790View Materials (handwritten), K 293154 and K 293155 (AMS)  ; 2 specimens, 20 km SW of Nebo , 8.I.2006, T.M.S.Hanlon, to light at night, K 293225 (AMS)  ; 2 specimens, Nipping Gully , 25°42'S, 151°26'E, 25.I.1996, Site 6, 240 m, at mv light, open forest, 7442 and 7460, Monteith, Gough, & Thompson ( QMB)GoogleMaps  ; 1 specimen, Nipping Gully , 18–19.XII. 1998, 200 m, 7532, G.Monteith, C.Gough, & G.Maywald ( QMB)  ; 1 specimen, North West Island, 23.298°S, 151.704°E, 11.X.2008, Site 5, 17597, QM/QP WS party, 0.5 m, Day hand, Pisonia forest Photog. Spm, PS 1174 ( QMB)GoogleMaps  ; 2 specimens, Palm Creek C.A., J.W.Hanks COL-85904 and COL-85904 ( NMVM)  ; 3 specimens, Parmentier Creek, 10 km W of Kuranda, Mareeba Road , 26.II.1970, m.v., R.Hardie, University of New England Collection, donated 1983 ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen, Prairie , VII.1904, W.Froggatt Collection ( ANIC)  ; 2 specimens, 13 km N of Quinalow , 25.XII.1987, J.T.Doyen ( ANIC)  ; 2 specimens, Rathdowney , 28.12ºS, 152.51ºE, 21.XI.1982 (E.-Y: AU-82), dry logs on meadow, Endrödy-Younga ( TMP)GoogleMaps  ; 1 specimen, Robert Wicks Research Station , 1.3 km SW, 28°17.9'S, 151°08.4'E, 22.XI. 2007, 310 m, mv light, 15598, A.Ewart. ( QMB)GoogleMaps  ; 1 specimen, Rockford Scrub , 20°07.0'S, 146°37.8'E, 10–11.XII.2006, Site 1, 270 m, vinescrub, bendee, hand collect, Monteith, Cook & White, Reg. No T 147163 ( QMB)GoogleMaps  ; 1 specimen, Rockford Scrub , 20°06'S, 146°37.1'E, 11.II.2007, Site 5, 300 m, QM party night hand collect, vinescrub, lancewood/bendee, Monteith, Cook, & White, Reg. No T 147164 ( QMB)GoogleMaps  ; 3 specimens, Rockhampton , III.1959, C.V., C.G.L.Gooding Collection, donated to ANIC 1979View Materials ( ANIC)  ; 2 specimens, Rockhampton , XII.1964, C.V., C.G.L.Gooding Collection, donated to ANIC 1979View Materials ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen, Rockhampton , 4.I.1999, T.M.S.Hanlon, to light in town, K 293264, R.deKeyzer Insect Collection (AMS)  ; 31 specimens, Rockhampton, Thozet 1870, 257 (MNHN)  ; 1 specimen, Rockhampton, Meek, Muséum Paris 1952 Collection Oberthür (MNHN)  ; 1 specimen, 33 mi. SW of Rockhampton , 26.XI.1968, Britton & Misko ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen, Mount Rose, via Taroom , 25°25'S, 149°58'E, 15–16.XII. 1997, 260 m, vine scrub remnant, 5057, D. & L.Cook ( QMB)GoogleMaps  ; 1 specimen, 5 km W by N of Rounded Hill , 15.17ºS, 145.13ºE, 5–6.X.1980, T.Weir ( ANIC)GoogleMaps  ; 1 specimen, 1 km N of Rounded Hill , 15.17ºS, 145.10ºE, 7.XII.1980, T.Weir ( ANIC)GoogleMaps  ; 1 specimen, Scotts Peak, SE slopes, 22°51.7'S, 148°13.5'E, 9.III. 2006, 480 m, day hand collect, rocky scree, Wright & Burwell, 13343, QM Reg. No T137257 (QMB); 1 specimen, Shipton’s Flat , 15.47ºS, 145.14ºE, 17–19.X.1980, T.Weir ( ANIC)GoogleMaps  ; 1 specimen, Silver Valley III, R. Mus. Hist. Nat. Belg. I.G. 12.595 ( IRSNB)  ; 1Ƌ, Silver Valley III (MNHN)  ; 1 specimen, Somerset Dam, 23.XII.1912, at light, R.J.Kohout ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen, Springsure , 24.VII.1975, J.C.Lesouef. ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen, St Lucia, Brisbane , 27.X.1984, R.deKeyzer, K 293312, R.deKeyzer Insect Collection (AMS)  ; 1 specimen, Stanthorpe , 17.V.1923, 0 91 ( QMB)  ; 3 specimens, Stanthorpe , 19.X.1926, 29.IX.1927, 7.II.1929, E.Sutton, E.Sutton Collection Don.  - Dec. 1964 (QMB); 1 specimen, Stanthorpe , I.1928, H.J.Carter, K 60713View Materials (handwritten), K 293153 (AMS)  ; 1 specimen, Stanthorpe, Muséum Paris 1935 Collection Pic (MNHN)  ; 3 specimens, Stanthorpe , 5.II.1974 ( ANIC)  ; 3 specimens, Stanthorpe, E.Sutton, F.E.Wilson Collection, COL-85865, COL-85888, and COL-85895 (NMVM); 1 specimen, Station Creek , 10 m, NW Cairns Cook Highway, 28.II.1970, m.v., R.Hardie ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen, Stockhaven , 3 km SE, 25°48'S, 150°01'E, 10.X.‒19.XII. 1998, 450 m, rainforest intercept, 7516, G.Monteith & C.Gough ( QMB)GoogleMaps  ; 1 specimen, Tara , 16– 18.XII.2010, A.Urban & C.Dale, K 293300, R.deKeyzer Insect Collection (AMS)  ; 4 specimens, Taroom District , 25°33'S, 150°08'E, 14.I.1997, Bottle tree scrub, 210, Burwell, Cook & Janetzki ( QMB)GoogleMaps  ; 1 specimen, Taroom District, Boggomoss No 19, 25°25'S, 150°01'E, 18.VI.1996, H.Janetzki, QM Reg. No T34266View Materials ( QMB)GoogleMaps  ; 2 specimens, Taroom District, Boggomoss No 4, 25°25'S, 150°01'E, 9.IX.‒11.XII.1996, Pitfall 0 96, QM Reg. No T34264View Materials and XI.1996GoogleMaps  ‒ I.1997, Pitfall 0 97, QM Reg. No T34265, P.Lawless, (QMB); 1 specimen, Taroom, 6 km N on Highway , 25°36'S, 149°46'E, 21.IX.‒17.XII. 1997, 200 m, 5047, G.Monteith ( QMB)GoogleMaps  ; 2 specimens, The Palms via Cooyar , 25°29'S, 149°42'E, 6.XII.1992, G.J.Ingram ( QMB)GoogleMaps  ; 1 specimen, Toomba High School (Queensland), 19°58.2'S, 145°35.2'E, 13–15.II. 2007, 390 m, QM party dayhand, pasture, 14798, QM Reg. No T 147165 ( QMB)GoogleMaps  ; 1 specimen, Townsville, E.W.Ferguson Collection (ANIC); 1 specimen, Townsville, F.E.Wilson Collection, COL- 85864 (NMVM); 3 specimens, 7 km N of Wallangarra , 27.XII.1982, J.T.Doyen ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen, Warrego Highway , 23 km E Toowoomba, 28.VII.1995, F.Douglas, COL-86006 ( NMVM)  ; 2 specimens, Warrego Highway , 25 km E Toowoomba, 28.VII.1995, F.Douglas, ex pupa 12.VIII.1996, K 293317 and K 293318, R.deKeyzer Insect Collection (AMS)  ; 4 specimens, 24 km S of Warwick , 26.XII.1982, J.T.Doyen ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen, Westwood, near Rockhampton , 22.II. 1924, 500 feet, G.H.Wilkins, W Australia Exp., B.M. 1924-293, # 607612 ( NHM)  ; 1 specimen, Yarramulla , 18 ° 13'S, 144°40'E, 8–10.II.2003, mv light, 11260, G.B.Monteith ( QMB)GoogleMaps  ; 4 specimens, Yuleba State Forest , 26°58'S, 149°44'E, 8–10.III.2002, Site 1, 270 m, cypress/box, 10495, Monteith, Cook, & Wright ( QMB)GoogleMaps  ; 1 specimen, Yuleba State Forest , 26°58'S, 149°45'E, 8–10.III.2002, Site 2, 207 m, 10496, Monteith, Cook, & Wright ( QMB)GoogleMaps  ; 1 specimen, Yeppoon , 3.III.1935, S.R.E. Brock Collection, donated to ANIC 1987View Materials ( ANIC)  . SOUTH AUSTRALIA: 5 specimens  , South Australia, Nat. Mus  . Victoria COL-85856, COL- 85860, COL-85862, COL-85909, and COL-85899 ( NMVM)  ; 1 specimen, South Australia, A.H.Elston, A. K 293228, H.Elston Collection (AMS)  ; 1 specimen, South Australia, G.H.Dalton, ex Collection Australian Museum ( ANIC)  ; 1 specimen, Adelaide, 1867, Collection Castelnau (MSNG); 1 specimen, NW Davey, F.E.Wilson Collection, COL-85893 (NMVM); 1 specimen, Port Lincoln , K 28027View Materials (handwritten), K 293226 and K 293227 (Old Collection) (AMS)  ; 1 specimen, Willalo , IV.1942, H.Mincham, K 293229 (AMS)  . VICTORIA: 1 specimen  , Victoria, ex Musaeo Van Lansberge, Muséum Paris 1952 Collection Oberthür ( MNHN)  ; 1 specimen, Victoria, Muséum Paris 1936 Collection A. Boucomont ( MNHN)  ; 1 specimen, Victoria ( MNHN)  ; 1 specimen, Victoria, Muséum Paris 1935 Collection Sedillot ( MNHN)  ; 1 specimen, Victoria, COL-85964 ( NMVM)  ; 5 specimens, Victoria, J.E.Dixon, COL-85930, COL-85931, COL-85932, COL-85933, and COL-85934 ( NMVM)  ; 1 specimen, NW Victoria, 1934, De Boulay, C.E. Clarke Collection B.M. 1957-24, # 607592 ( NHM)  ; 1 specimen, Cavendish , I.1950, B.Given, F.E.Wilson Collection, COL-85162 ( NMVM)  ; 1 specimen, Echuca, (MNHN)  ; 2 specimens, Emerald, C.Oke, COL-85877 and COL-85897 (NMVM); 1 specimen, Ferntree Gully , XII.1920, C.Oke, COL- 85927 ( NMVM)  ; 1 specimen, Grampian Ranges, COL-86034 (NMVM); 1 specimen, Gunbower, COL-85171 (NMVM); 2 specimens, Hattah, C.Oke, COL-86039 and D.Best, COL-85876 (NMVM); 1♀, Hattah, C.Oke, COL- 85854 (NMVM); 1 specimen, Hattah , 6.X.1971, 1335B, COL-86038 ( NMVM)  ; 1 specimen, Horsham , 15.II.1945, RB, COL-86043 ( NMVM)  ; 1 specimen, Kiata, 1335A, COL-86037 (NMVM); 1♀, 1 specimen, Lake Hattah , XI.1924, C.Oke, COL-85960 and COL-85926 ( NMVM)  ; 1 specimen, Kulkine Forest , NW Victoria, 29.VI.1968, G.W.Anderson, 8635, H.E.Bomans BMNH (E) 1999-248, 408635 ( NHM)  ; 1 specimen, Linga , IV.1922, F.E.Wilson, F.E.Wilson Collection, COL-85902 ( NMVM)  ; 1 specimen, Melbourne, 24.63, Muséum Paris environs de Melbourne, Miller 1863 (MNHN)  ; 7 specimens, environs de Melbourne, Miller 1863, 2463 (MNHN)  ; 1 specimen, Warburton , 25.II.1922, C.Oke, COL-85920 ( NMVM)  . WESTERN AUSTRALIA: 4 specimens  , Australia Orient, v. Müller 2-96, Muséum Paris (MNHN)  ; 2 specimens, Fortescue, Hamersley Range, W.D.Dodd, ex Collection Australian Museum (ANIC). TASMANIA: 2 specimens  , Tasmanie, 4-46, Muséum Paris Australie, J.Verreaux 1846 ( MNHN)  ; 1 specimen, Tasmanie, Muséum Paris Australie, J.Verreaux 2-47 ( MNHN)  .

Distribution. Australia: Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, Victoria, South Australia, Western Australia, Tasmania (?); New Guinea: Papua New Guinea; Moluccan Archipelago: Aru Islands ( Bartolozzi et al., 2011).

Natural history data: The adults have been collected year round, but mainly from November to February. They are most commonly found in rotten logs, in dead wood, under bark of rotten logs, rocky scree, and also in urbanized areas at light (Rockhampton, I.1999). The elevation ranges from 10 to 710 m. Hawkeswood (1985, 1988, 2014) lists some host plants for the species: Angophora bakeri  ( Myrtaceae  ), Camptostemon  ( Bombacaceae  ), Eucalyptus  ( Myrtaceae  ), and Xanthorrhoea johnsonii  ( Xanthorrhoeaceae  ). Some data on host plants and habitats were obtained from labels, including brigalow ( Acacia harpophylla  , Fabaceae  ), bendee ( Acacia catenulata  , Fabaceae  ), Banksia  ( Proteaceae  ), Spinifex  ( Poaceae  ) grassland, forest red gum woodland, Xanthorrhoea australis  ( Xanthorrhoeaceae  ), ironbark/cypress woodland, Mallee woodland, and vine scrub. Collecting methods include flight intercept trap and light trapping (mainly mv light, rarely uv light). Two pupae were collected in July 1995 from which two adults emerged in August 1996. The larvae are unknown.

Remarks. We dissected the male of F. laevithorax  labeled as " Type ", and compared the genitalia with F. regularis  . We found no significant differences between F. laevithorax  and F. re g ul ar i s, both in external and in genitalia characters, except minor differences falling within the range of individual variations. Therefore we consider F. levithorax  as a junior synonym of F. regularis  (new synonymy).

We found in the collection of MNHN three old specimens labeled “Tasmanie” (J. Verreaux leg., 1846), but this locality is probably erroneous, since we did never see any other specimen of this species from Tasmania.

MSNG

Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova 'Giacomo Doria'

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

NHM

University of Nottingham

IRSNB

Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique

MEL

Museo Entomologico de Leon

GTC

Gifu Type Culture Collection

ANIC

Australian National Insect Collection

LBC

University of the Philippines at Los Ba�os

CSIRO

Australian National Fish Collection

MZUF

Museo Zoologico La Specola, Universita di Firenze

SMNS

Staatliches Museum fuer Naturkund Stuttgart

CMC

Coleccion Mastozoologica del Centro de Investigacion en Biodiversidad y Conservacion,Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos

MSNT

Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino

MSNM

Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano

QMB

Queensland Museum, Brisbane

TMP

Transvaal Museum

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Coleoptera

Family

Lucanidae

Genus

Figulus

Loc

Figulus regularis Westwood, 1834

Monte, Cinzia, Zilioli, Michele & Bartolozzi, Luca 2016
2016
Loc

Figulus laevithorax

Krajcik 2003: 78
Krajcik 2001: 11
Maes 1992: 38
Moore 1992: 9
Bomans 1987: 6
1987
Loc

Figulus australicus

Benesh 1960: 27
Thomson 1862: 402
1862
Loc

Figulus regularis

Hawkeswood 2014: 1
Bartolozzi 2011: 45
Fujita 2010: 382
Klausnitzer 2008: 33
Krajcik 2003: 82
Krajcik 2001: 12
Mizunuma 2000: 85
Mizunuma 1994: 300
Maes 1992: 52
Moore 1992: 10
Hawkeswood 1988: 270
Bomans 1986: 9
Hawkeswood 1985: 200
Klausnitzer 1982: 16
Williams 1977: 4
Holloway 1969: 974
Tiberghien 1969: 535
De 1964: 4
Benesh 1960: 27
Holloway 1960: 343
Didier 1953: 182
Nagel 1939: 1
Didier 1937: 30
Nagel 1928: 294
Kriesche 1922: 133
Mjoberg 1916: 13
Boileau 1913: 265
Van 1910: 52
Heyne 1908: 57
Boileau 1898: 433
Felsche 1898: 78
Masters 1888: 301
Albers 1883: 225
Gestro 1880: 335
Parry 1875: 22
Macleay 1871: 173
Harold 1868: 965
Parry 1864: 6
Parry 1864: 99
Parry 1863: 450
Thomson 1862: 402
Thomson 1856: 8
Reiche 1853: 84
Burmeister 1847: 437
Westwood 1845: 7
Westwood 1838: 263
Dejean 1836: 194
Westwood 1834: 120
1834