Berlesia vorontsovi, Lindquist & Oconnor & Shaw & Sidorchuk, 2020

Lindquist, Evert E., Oconnor, Barry M., Shaw, Matthew D. & Sidorchuk, Ekaterina A., 2020, Review of the genera Berlesia Canestrini, 1884, and Katydiseius Fain & Lukoschus 1983, the subfamily Katydiseiinae Fain & Lukoschus, 1983, and their family group relationships (Acari: Mesostigmata: Gamasina), with description of three new species parasitic on gryllacridid crickets (Orthoptera), Zootaxa 4857 (1), pp. 5-70: 26-33

publication ID

publication LSID


persistent identifier

treatment provided by


scientific name

Berlesia vorontsovi

new species

Berlesia vorontsovi   new species

( Figures 13–17 View FIGURE 13 View FIGURE 14 View FIGURE 15 View FIGURE 16 View FIGURE 17 )


Adult: dorsal shield faintly reticulated posteriorly, smooth elsewhere, with irregular indication of lateral incisions at level of setae s6; setae j1, mid-dorsals (j4–j6, z5, J1, J3) very short; dorsal shield setae j3 and z4 relatively long, about as long or slightly longer than diagonal interval between them, and longer than transverse interval between j3; setae z1, J2 and J4 absent. Dorsolateral regions of idiosoma with setae of r -R -and S -series sparse, not hypertrichous. Soft ventral cuticle with 6 and 4 pairs of opisthogastric setae on female and male, respectively. Leg I genu and tibia each with 10–11 setae, pd-3, av-2 and sometimes ad-3 absent. Tarsus IV with seta pv-1 asymmetrically shorter, but similar in attenuated form to av-1. Peritremes embellished with internal cellular structure.


Adult: Idiosomatic dorsum. Adult female ( Fig. 13A View FIGURE 13 ). Idiosoma 741–791 long, 432–451 wide between insertions of setae r3; dorsal shield 580 long, greatest width 306–324 at level between insertions of s4 (n=4), ornamentation not apparent, shield with irregular indication of lateral incisions at level of setae s6 and irregular indentations more posteriorly. Dorsal shield with usually 9 or 10 pairs (7 or 8 podonotal, 2 opisthonotal) of smooth setae of which j1 may be asymmetrically on/off shield margin and J4 always absent; setae j3 (131–140), z4 (133–137), s4 (135–140) of similarly long lengths; other shield setae (j4–j6, z5, J1, J3) tiny (ca 5), occasionally asymmetrically vestigial. Soft dorsal peripheral cuticle with tiny setae j1 (10–12) anteriorly (occasionally on shield), z2 (110–119), s6 (110–126) and r2, r3, r5 (103–105) anterolaterally, and Z2 (108–119), Z4 (133–142), S2 (85–89), S3 (60–89), S4 (96–140), S5 (128) and R1 (78–92) posterolaterally, Z5 (92–101) slightly off shield posteriorly. Dorsal shield pore-like structures difficult to discern (maximum observed complement shown in Fig. 13A View FIGURE 13 ).

Adult male ( Fig. 15A View FIGURE 15 ). Idiosoma 672 long, 409–432 wide between insertions of setae r3; dorsal shield 570 long, greatest width 321–335 at level between insertions of r5 (n=3), without distinct ornamentation and with shallow lateral incisions, setae j1 off shield anteriorly, z2 and r2–r5, Z2, Z4, S2–S4 on lateral subcutaneous extensions. Dorsal shield with 9 or 10 pairs (7 podonotal, 2–3 opisthonotal) of smooth setae; setae j1 (7–8), j4–j6, z5 (3), J1, J3 (3) occasionally asymmetrically vestigial or absent, J4 absent; other setal lengths j3 (92–108), z2 (41–46), z4 (92–117), s4 (105–108), s6 (96–103), r2 (64–76), r3 (71–76), r5 (73–78), Z2 (108–115), Z4 (108–115), Z5 (92–96), S2 (60–64), S3 (53–76), S4 (92–110), S5 (119–133), R1 (55–73). Dorsal shield with complement of ca 15 pairs of discernible pore-like structures (4 podonotal, 11 opisthonotal), many of which are difficult to discern whether secretory (gland pores) or non-secretory (poroids).

Idiosomatic venter. Adult female ( Fig. 13B View FIGURE 13 ). Tritosternum base 25–30 long and 28–34 wide at its base, with paired ciliated laciniae fused for about 8% of entire length (92–103) ( Fig. 13F View FIGURE 13 ). Presternal region without platelets and lineation. Sternal shield mid-length (96–98) much less than narrowest width (158–172) between legs II, unornamented; sternal setae st1 (96–110), st2 (69–87), st3 (87–92), st4 (62–69) attenuated, with poroid iv3 on soft cuticle. Endopodal strips absent alongside coxae III–IV. Epigynal shield smooth, its rounded hyaline anterior margin reaching or slightly overlapping posterior edge of sternal shield, its lateral margins widened at insertions of attenuated setae st5 (73–82), its posterior margin slightly convex, occasionally indented or with fragmented platelets posteriorly; shield 185–218 long, 46–48 at narrowest width between legs IV, 68–76 at widest level at setae st5. Opisthosomatic venter with several irregularly spaced platelets widely separated at level between metapodal plates, and with two pairs of small ovoid metapodal platelets, anterior pair 14–16 long, 5–7 wide, posterior pair 25–30 long, 14–21 wide. Anal shield subrhomboidal, weakly reticulate posteriorly, without paranal gland pores; shield greatest width (126–130) slightly less than length (137–149, including cribrum), cribrum U-shaped, width 55–64; postanal seta (69–73) longer than paranal setae (37–53) inserted in line with posterior margin of anus. Soft cuticle with maximum of 6 pairs of opisthogastric setae flanking anal shield, JV1 (53–60), JV2 (46–48), ZV2 (44–46) anteriorly and JV3 (39–48), ZV3 (46–53), JV5 (60–66) posterolaterally, ZV1 and JV4 setae always absent, JV2, JV3, JV5, ZV2 sometimes unilaterally or bilaterally absent; one pair of pore-like structures observed on soft cuticle. Peritrematal shield and peritreme extending to posterior margin of coxae III; peritreme structure with embellished internal chambers ( Fig. 13E View FIGURE 13 ), its length 60–62, including stigmatal diameter of ca 11; peritrematal shield continuous posteriorly with short exopodal strip extending partly around posterior margin of coxa IV. Exopodal elements absent alongside coxae II–IV. Spermathecal apparatus with simple, elongate (80–119) tubulus leading from solenostome in soft cuticle between bases of legs III–IV to an unpaired sacculus ( Fig. 13G View FIGURE 13 ).

Adult male ( Fig. 15B View FIGURE 15 ). Tritosternum formed as in female, with laciniae fused for only about one-tenth of entire length (98–100). Presternal region with a pair of weakly developed platelets abutting genital opening, one or both platelets sometimes fused with sternitigenital shield. Sternitigenital shield length 252–263, narrowest widths 124–134 at level between coxae II, 124–131 between coxae III; posterior margin width 62–69; shield with scalelike ornamentation anterior to setae st4, narrowly connected to anterior edge of endopodal strips beside coxae IV; alveoli of setae st5 barely contiguous with rounded posterolateral corners of shield; setae st1–st5 attenuated as in female, st4 (34–37) clearly shorter than others, st1 (76), st2 (66–73), st3 (66–69), st5 (57–69). Paragenital poroids on soft cuticle flanking posterolateral corners of sternitigenital shield. Postgenital groove not developed. Inguinal region with six or seven pairs of small platelets or sigilla as in B. hospitabilis   . Anal shield rhomboid with a variously formed anterior extension, weak ornamentation present laterally; shield longer (144–156, including cribrum ca 34–60 long) than wide (112–119, cribrum width 64–73); postanal seta (73–78) about 1.5 times as long as paranal setae (48–50). Soft cuticle with four pairs of opisthogastric setae flanking anal shield; other than JV5, these setae shorter than in female, and ZV1, ZV3, JV3, JV4 absent; JV1 (46–48), JV2 (34–41), JV5 (37–48), ZV2 (25–30); pore-like structures on soft cuticle difficult to discern. Peritremes, and peritrematal shield with brief poststigmatal exopodal extension, as in female.

Gnathosoma   . Adult female. Gnathotectum anterior margin acutely triangular with very weakly serrate edges ( Figs 13H View FIGURE 13 ). Cheliceral shaft, excluding basal section, 160–165 long; fixed digit with truncated apex and minute subapical tooth, other structures not observed; movable digit (23–25) with three coarse teeth flared laterally ( Figs 13C, D View FIGURE 13 ). Subcapitulum with 11 relatively narrow rows of deutosternal denticles, varying somewhat in width and consisting from a single denticle to multidentate ( Fig. 13J View FIGURE 13 ); subcapitular setae hp1 (62–82) and hp3 (82–103) attenuated, hp2 (30–44) and capitular setae pc (39–41) similarly short, but pc with strongly bulbiform base and laterally positioned flagellum. Corniculi somewhat hyaline, blade-like, narrowly rounded apically (39–44), but exceeded by elongated tubular salivary styli (60–64) and slender, finely fimbriated internal malae (57–62). Palp length 183–188; palptrochanter setae dissimilar in length, v1 46–78, v2 41–46; palpus with femoral seta al-1 acicular, genual setae al-1 spatulate, al-2 acicular; palpfemoral seta d (60–64) spine-like, typically longer than femur ( Fig. 13J View FIGURE 13 ); palptarsal apotele two-tined ( Fig. 13K View FIGURE 13 ).

Adult male. Gnathotectum slightly serrate anteriorly as in female, sides almost parallel posteriorly, leading to single median projection ( Fig. 15D View FIGURE 15 ). Cheliceral shaft, excluding short basal section 92–94 long, including fixed digit projection; fixed digit straight, more slender and pointed than in female; movable digit reduced, except for greatly elongated, sinuous spermatodactyl 404–444 long, its base extending anteroventrally beyond apex of fixed digit, gradually narrowing distally, abruptly hooked apically ( Fig. 15C View FIGURE 15 ). Unlike female, corniculi shorter (25–30), more truncated apically, greatly exceeded by salivary styli; capitular setae pc with bulbous base as in female ( Fig. 15E View FIGURE 15 ). Form and length of other gnathosomatic structures much as in female: attenuated salivary styli (44), internal malae (89–108); setae hp1 (57–69) and hp3 (78–92) much longer than hp2 and pc (21); deutosternum with 11–12 rows of denticles, basal 4 rows multidentate, apical rows with 1–2 denticles (if two, then one is always distinctly larger). Palp ( Figs. 15F, G View FIGURE 15 ) length 179–185. Form and lengths of palpal setae as in female.

Legs. Adult female ( Figs 14 View FIGURE 14 A–F). Legs I (561–589) distinctly shorter than legs IV (644–672), and only slightly shorter than dorsal shield; other leg lengths (excluding pretarsi): II (524–552), III (543–561). Leg I pretarsus (65–89) to apex of pulvillus, tarsus (169–176) about 1.9–2.1 longer than each of the similarly long femur (85–92), genu (80–85), and tibia (87–92). Legs II–IV with tarsus/tibia length ratios about 1.7–2.1. Complement of setae on leg segments holotrichous for femora I-II-III-IV (12-11-6-6) as presented for the genus; chaetotactic formulae for genua I-II-III-IV: 10–11 (2-2 or 3/1, 2/1-2), 11 (2-3/1, 2/1-2), 9 (2-2/1, 2/1-1), 10 (2-2/1, 3/1-1); tibiae: 10–11 (2-2 or 3/1, 2/1-2), 9–10 (2-1 or 2/1, 2/1-2), 7–8 (1 or 2-1/1, 2/1-1), 10 (2-1/1, 3/1-2); genu I and tibia I without pd-3, av-2, sometimes without ad-3; tibia II sometimes without ad-2; tibia III without pl-2, sometimes without al-2. Tarsus I with seta md (103–110) longer than other setae on basal half of segment ( Fig. 14B View FIGURE 14 ); dorsal subapical cluster of sensory structures with a row of three tightly adjacent, tiny, pointed setae surrounded by three solenidia, one of which biramous ( Fig. 14B View FIGURE 14 ). Tarsi II–IV with ventroapical ridge, serrations not discernible, short, rounded process not discernible, and with setae (d-1) (ca 14–16) less than half as long as pretarsus to base of claws (34–41). Coxal seta av on leg I and pv on legs II, III strongly bulbiform basally like subcapitular pc ( Figs 14A, C, D View FIGURE 14 ); coxa IV seta v setiform ( Fig. 14F View FIGURE 14 ). Trochanters II–IV with basal seta pv-2 attenuated (71–94), and III–IV ad slightly spinelike. Femur IV with seta v large, somewhat spine-like (49). Tarsus IV with apical seta pv-1 asymmetrically shorter, but not thicker than av-1 ( Fig. 14E View FIGURE 14 ). Legs I–IV each with particular dorsal setae enlarged, spinelike: I Fe ad-1 (103– 126), pd-1 (50–85); I Ge ad-1 (87–92), pd-1 (112–128), ad-2 (48–50); II Fe ad-1 (115–121), pd-1 (80–82); II Ge ad-1 (69–76), pd-1 (119–121), ad-2 (69–71); II Ti pd-1 (69–80); III Fe pd-1 (115–124); III Ge ad-1 (92–117), pd-1 (92–110); III Ti ad (85–96), pd-1 (69–73); IV Fe ad-1 (114–135); IV Ge ad-1 (124–133), pd-1 (92–121); IV Ti ad-1 (92–105), pd-1 (92–103). Note: all long setae on leg IV in the holotype are stunted on one side, their measurements not included above. Relative lengths of other leg setae as shown in Figures 14 View FIGURE 14 A–F.

Adult male ( Figs 16 View FIGURE 16 A–E). Legs similar in relative dimensions to those of female, including legs IV distinctively longest. Lengths I 478–488, II 423–442, III 442–460, IV 561–598. Legs without noticeable male dimorphism in thickness of segments, with same setation as female; legs I–III with form and relative sizes of setae similar to those of female, including dorsal spine-like setae, but ventral setae more spine-like on femora, genua, tibiae. Basal trochanter seta pv-2 slender, attenuated as on female, though less so on legs III and IV, which also have pv-1 shorter, thicker than on female. Leg IV segments with nearly all dorsal and ventral setae spine-like; genu, tibia and basal half of tarsus with pd- setae normally formed (not as a column of blunt spine-like setae as in male B. hospitabilis   ); femur IV with seta v slightly smaller (37–45) than on female. Lengths of elongated dorsal spine-like setae: I Fe ad-1 (92–96), pd-1 (34–41); I Ge ad-1 (71–87), pd-1 (92–94); II Fe ad-1 (92–110), pd-1 (66–73); II Ge ad-1 (48–60), pd-1 (92–96); III Fe ad-1 (94–98); III Ge ad-1 (80–89), pd-1 (79–89); III Ti ad (50–64), pd-1 (48–55); IV Fe ad-1 (92–137); IV Ge ad-1 (105–115), pd-1 (98–110); IV Ti ad-1 (80–92), pd-1 (85–94). Tarsi II and III with setae (v-1), and mv bulbiform; tarsus IV with setae (d-2) and basitarsal (d-3) not thickened, spine-like.

Deutonymph. Unknown.

Protonymph. Idiosomatic dorsum. Idiosoma 495–543 long, 381–437 wide at widest level of setae r5 (n = 4), with weakly sclerotized dorsal shields ( Fig. 17A View FIGURE 17 ); podonotal shield 294–312 long and 308–321 wide at level between setae s4, strongly ornamented with a network of lines, with 12 pairs of setae (j3–j6, z2, z4, z5, s4, s6, r2, r 3,r5); pygidial shield typically narrowly fused with anterior lateral sclerites, rarely slightly separated, without obvious ornamentation, 188–197 long and 266–280 at widest level between setae R1, with five pairs of setae (J1, J3, Z2, Z3, Z5), J4 absent. Soft cuticle with only one pair of podonotal setae (j1) and two pairs of opisthonotal setae (S2, R1); S3-S5 absent. Form and relative lengths of dorsal setae as in adult, all smooth. Setal lengths on podonotum: j1 (6–7), j3 (69–76), j4–j6 (6), z2 (30–37), z4 (78–87), z5 (6), s4 (80–87), s6 (55–57), r2 (18–25), r3 (30–37), r5 (32–37); on opisthonotum: J1 (7), J3 (7), Z2 (62–64), Z3 (44–46), Z5 (62–69), S2 (32), R1 (27–32). Peritreme (46 including stigma), extending anteriorly to posterior edge of coxae III.

Idiosomatic venter. Tritosternum formed much as in adult, with laciniae fused for 11–16 of total length (73–89). Presternal area devoid of ornamentation. Sternal shield with weak but distinct outline, strongly narrowing between setae st2 and st3, length 144, with setae st1–st2 (48–60) and poroids iv1, iv2; setae st3 (48–53) on soft cuticle; setae st5 and paragenital poroids not discernible ( Fig. 17B View FIGURE 17 ). Anal shield smooth, subrhomboid, broadest between paranal and postanal setae, length 92–94 including cribrum, width 78–80 (cribrum strip width 39–44); postanal seta (39–50) only slightly longer than paranal setae (39–44). Soft opisthogastric integument with four pairs of setae: JV1 (34–41), JV2 (18–25), ZV2 (16–21), JV5 longer (48–55), ZV2 unilaterally absent in 3 of 4 specimens.

Gnathosoma   . Gnathotectum with anterior margin acutely triangular, tapering to single median projection, apparently smooth ( Fig. 17D View FIGURE 17 ). Cheliceral shaft, excluding short basal section 119–124 long; fixed digit straight, more bluntly pointed than in female; movable digit (18–21) formed much as in female, with three teeth flared laterally ( Fig. 17C View FIGURE 17 ). Subcapitulum with 13 rows of deutosternal denticles, 5 basal rows slightly wider, multidentate, remaining rows uni-or bidentate; subcapitular setae hp1 and hp3 similar in attenuated lengths (32–48), hp2 (21–22) and capitular setae pc (26–30) similar in short simple form. Corniculi hyaline, blade-like, bluntly pointed apically, moderately short (24–25), greatly exceeded by elongated tubular salivary styli (46). Palpus length 137–142, with normal protonymphal complement of setae; single palptrochanter seta 9–11; palpfemoral seta d (30–32) slightly thickened.

Legs. Leg lengths, excluding pretarsi, I 206, II 183, III 181–183, IV 211–215. Leg setation of protonymph typical of general holotrichous pattern presented for free-living Gamasina   by Evans (1963): coxae, 2-2-2-1; trochanters, 4-4-4-4; femora, 10 (2 2/1 2/1 2)-8 (1 2/1 2/1 1)-5 (1 2/1 1/0 0)-4 (1 2/0 1/0 0); genua, 8 (1 2/1 2/1 1)-6 (1 2/0 2/0 1)-6 (1 2/0 2/0 1)-5 (1 2/0 2/0 0); tibiae, 8 (1 2/1 2/1 1)-7 (1 1/1 2/1 1)-7 (1 1/1 2/1 1)-7 (1 1/1 2/1 1). Legs I–IV each with particular setae enlarged, spine-like, with similar pattern as for adults. Tarsi II–IV with ventroapical process, pretarsal structures and weakly developed claws formed as in female. Tarsus IV with asymmetry in lengths of setae (v-1) as in female.

Larva. No material available (adult females anticipated to be nymphiparous).

Type material. Type specimens: all collected by B.M. OConnor (BMOC 84-1800-039) from one adult female cricket, identified as Anancistrogera   sp. by Oscar J. Cadena-Castañeda, collected in the PHILIPPINES: Negros Oriental Prov., Sibulan Municipality, vicinity of Lake Balinsasayao (09°21’N, 123°10’E), 3km N, 14km W Dumaguete City, 835m., 11 June 1984, coll. PD Heideman (PDH 2908). The host specimen is preserved in ethanol in UMMZ with the voucher label “Mites removed, B.M. OConnor #84-1800-039”. HOLOTYPE: female ( BMOC 84 –1800- 039d), deposited in the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, Ann Arbor .   PARATYPES: one female, one male, two protonymphs deposited in UMMZ; one female, one male, one protonymph deposited in the CNC, Ottawa; one female, one male, one protonymph deposited in the Museum of Natural History, University of the Philippines Los Baños, Laguna.

Etymology. The specific name is dedicated to our colleague Dmitry Vorontsov, Institute of Developmental Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, who cooperated closely with his spouse, the late Ekaterina Sidorchuk, in searching for mites parasitic on Australian gryllacridid crickets, and helped us with subsequent refinement of illustrations and some final manuscript preparation for this paper. Dima is further recognized for his technological developments that improve preparation of amber pieces for enhanced viewing and study of their inclusions of mites and other arthropods.

Differential diagnosis. Adults of B. vorontsovi   are most similar to those of B. hospitabilis   in having similarly disparate lengths of setae on the dorsal shield (e.g., setae j5–j6 less than one-fourth length of j3 and z4), in lacking paravertical setae z1, and in lacking any indications of hypertrichy on soft lateral idiosomatic and opisthogastric cuticle. Those of vorontsovi   differ from hospitabilis   in having dorsal shield setae j3 and z4 relatively longer, about as long or longer than the diagonal interval between them, and much longer than the transverse interval between j3, whereas in hospitabilis   those setae are shorter than the diagonal interval between them, and shorter than the transverse interval between setae j3. Adults of vorontsovi   lack setae J4 posteriorly on the dorsal shield, which are present in hospitabilis   ; the genu and tibia of leg I each have at most 11 setae, with the third ventral seta av-2 absent, while in hospitabilis   , these leg segments each have 12 setae, including av-2. The peritremes of B. vorontsovi   have embellished internal chambers as in B. multisetosa   , while in B. hospitabilis   the peritremes are simple in structure.