Ferrisia Fullaway

Kaydan, M. B. & Gullan, P. J., 2012, 3543, Zootaxa 3543, pp. 1-65 : 10-11

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Ferrisia Fullaway


Genus Ferrisia Fullaway

Ferrisia Fullaway, 1923: 308 , 311. Type species: Dactylopius virgatus Cockerell , by monotypy and original designation. Ferrisiana Takahashi, 1929: 429 . Unjustified replacement name; discovered by Morrison & Morrison, 1966: 78.

Ferrisa ; Freidberg et al., 1989: 31. Misspelling of genus name.

The genus Ferrisia was established by Fullaway (1923) for F. virgata (then known as Pseudococcus virgatus ), which at that time was considered to be widespread tropical species of probable Oriental origin. It is clear that Fullaway named this genus in honour of Gordon F. Ferris because he stated that Ferris (1919) had described the morphological characteristics and illustrated the important diagnostic features of F. virgata . Fullaway’s (1923: 311) description of Ferrisia lists the diagnostic features of the genus as the possession of a single pair of cerarii, situated on the anal lobes, and “numerous peculiar wax ducts, which are unusually large and have their mouths surrounded by a small chitinized area bearing one to four small setae”. These distinctive ducts are known now as ‘enlarged tubular ducts’ and are unique to Ferrisia and a new genus, Pseudoferrisia gen. n., that we erect in this paper for a peculiar species. The enlarged tubular ducts of these two genera differ in important characteristics, as listed in the key above and described in the Diagnosis for Pseudoferrisia .

For many years after 1929, Ferrisia was known by the replacement name Ferrisiana Takahashi but, as explained by Morrison & Morrison (1966) and McKenzie (1962, 1967), Takahashi’s (1929) replacement of the name Ferrisia was unjustified. Takahashi had changed the genus name because he considered it to be a junior homonym of the very similar Ferrissia Walker , established in 1903 for a genus of molluscs. The current and past editions of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (Article 56.2 of the 4 th edition (ICZN 1999)) state that even if the difference between two genus-group names is only one letter, they are not homonyms.

Generic description of adult female. Body elongate to oval, 1.3–5.5 mm long, 0.5–3.0 mm wide. Antennae almost always 8 segmented (sometimes 7 segmented in F. milleri and F. pitcairnia ). Labium 3 segmented, always longer than wide. Posterior pair of spiracles always larger than anterior spiracles. Circulus quadrate, divided by an intersegmental line. Legs well developed, with or without translucent pores on hind coxa, femur and tibia; claw without a denticle; tarsal and claw digitules both capitate, claw digitules thicker than tarsal digitules. Posterior ostioles well developed; anterior ostioles usually more weakly developed than posterior pair, or absent. Anal lobes well developed. Anal ring typically with 6 anal ring setae, except for F. setosa with 12 or more setae.

Dorsum. Cerarii confined to anal lobes; each anal lobe usually with 2 enlarged conical setae (more on some specimens of F. dasylirii , F. setosa and F. virgata ) plus associated cluster of trilocular pores and a few auxiliary setae. Body setae slender and flagellate, bluntly tipped to slightly capitate, and of various sizes. Trilocular pores each 3–5 µm in diameter, often slightly larger (4–5 µm diameter) than ventral trilocular pores (typically 3–5 µm), scattered over dorsum. Minute discoidal pores on dorsal submargin of head at base of antennal segment I, usually in small tight cluster of 3–8 pores (often difficult to see), and also associated with enlarged tubular ducts (generally present inside sclerotised area surrounding duct rim). Enlarged tubular ducts present (producing long filaments of glassy secretion in life), mostly on body margin and submargin in segmental clusters but often also present medially and submedially; duct opening of each tubular duct with a sclerotised rim surrounded by a circular sclerotised area bearing 0–3 (generally 1 or 2) minute discoidal pores (appearing as clear areas in cuticle) and with 1–7 (generally 3–5) bluntly-tipped to slightly capitate setae. Oral-collar tubular ducts and multilocular pores absent.

Venter. Body setae slender, bluntly tipped to slightly capitate, and of various sizes. Trilocular pores each 2.5–5.0 µm in diameter, scattered over surface. Minute discoidal pores scattered throughout body on venter, almost always associated with ventral oral-collar tubular ducts. Enlarged tubular ducts absent. Oral-collar tubular ducts of one or more sizes, varying in length and width, shortest ducts often present in marginal clusters at least on posterior abdominal segments; ducts on anterior abdomen and margins or submargins of posterior abdomen often associated with a minute discoidal pore (rarely 2 pores), usually appearing as a clear circular to oval area in cuticle. Multilocular disc pores generally present (absent in F. meridionalis ) on posterior abdominal segments, especially around vulva.












Ferrisia Fullaway

Kaydan, M. B. & Gullan, P. J. 2012


Freidberg, A. & Susman, I. & Kaplan, F. 1989: 31


Morrison H. & Morrison, E. R. 1966: 78
Takahashi, R. 1929: 429
Fullaway, D. T. 1923: 308