Ferrisia williamsi Kaydan & Gullan, 2012

Kaydan, M. B. & Gullan, P. J., 2012, 3543, Zootaxa 3543, pp. 1-65 : 56-57

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Ferrisia williamsi Kaydan & Gullan

sp. n.

Ferrisia williamsi Kaydan & Gullan sp. n.

( Figs 2H, 22)


Type material: Holotype adult ♀, ex bract of inflorescence of Heliconia sp. , COLOMBIA, Quindio, Parque Nacional del Café , 30.xii.2004, T. Kondo, UCDC type # 1792 ( BME).

Paratypes: 4 adult ♀ (4 slides, including DNA voucher NH163), same data as holotype ( BME) ; 5 adult ♀ (5 slides), ex stem of avocado, Persea americana , COLOMBIA, Valle del Cauca, Alcalá, Hacienda la Polonia, 04°17’59”N, 75°53’08”W, 1361 m, 4.xi. 2008, T. Kondo (1 slide ANIC, 3 BME, 1 UNCB) GoogleMaps ; 8 adult ♀ (8 slides) ex leaves of Pithecellobium dulce , COLOMBIA, Valle del Cauca, Palmira, Cali, International Airport , 03°33’N, 76°23’W, 1017 m, 2.x. 2008, T. Kondo (1 slide ANIC, 5 BME, 1 UNCB, 1 USNM) GoogleMaps ; 12 adult ♀ (12 slides, including DNA voucher TK0657) ex trunk of Erythrina sp. , COLOMBIA, Antioquia, Medellin , at bus terminal, 06°12’49”N, 75°35’15”W, 18.ix. 2008 and 29.vii.2009, T. Kondo (1 slide ANIC, 8 BME, 3 UNCB) GoogleMaps ; 41 adult ♀ & 1 third-instar ♀ (42 slides) ex foliage of Inga edulis , COLOMBIA, Valle del Cauca, Cali , 03°28’25”N, 76°31’12”W, 1017 m, 8.xii. 2008, T. Kondo (4 slides ANIC, 22 slides BME, 2 BMNH, 2 CSCA, 3 IMLA, 3 USNM, 6 UNCB) GoogleMaps .

Other material examined (may not be conspecific with Colombian specimens and measurements not included in the description below): 2 adult ♀ (2 slides), ex orchid leaf, BOLIVIA, intercepted Miami 12577, 5.i.1976, E.B. Lee ( USNM) ; 1 adult ♀, ex Croton (Codiaeum) , BRAZIL, Rio de Janeiro, 23.x.1935, D.T. Fullaway, 37 339 ( USNM) ; 1 adult ♀, ex orchid leaf, BRAZIL, intercepted Miami 5740, 14.v.1973, J.L. Buff ( USNM) ; 2 adult ♀ (2 slides), ex Spondias purpurea , COSTA RICA, San Jose, La Sabana airport, 5.ii.1970, M. Kosztarab, Herb C446a&b ( USNM) ; 3 adult ♀ (1 slide), ex Codiaeum variegatum , COSTA RICA, San Pedro de Montes de Oca , 14.x.1932, C.H. Ballou, C.R.618, 32 1823 ( USNM) ; 2 adult ♀ (1 slide), ex Annona reticulata fruit, GUYANA, intercepted JFK [ New York ], 14.ix.1981, B. Isaksoa, JFKIA 35931 ( USNM) ; 1 adult ♀, ex Codiaeum , NICARAGUA, intercepted at Philadelphia , 22.vi.1932, A.B. Wells, Phila #15385, 32 1374 ( USNM) ; 1 adult ♀, ex orchid leaf, PERU, intercepted at Miami , 14.xi.1960, C.R. Shepard, Miami 14908, 61 0435 ( USNM) ; 1 adult ♀, ex ornamental cut greens, USA, Florida via Texas [may come from Mexico], intercepted California, Blythe Inspection Station , 23.iii.2010, coll. Burries, PDR#50003722 ( CSCA) .

There is some variation among specimens of this species from different collections in Colombia and also there are specimens of uncertain identity from other places (listed immediately above) that have similarity to F. williamsi . Thus, although we have examined material from a number of Neotropical countries, we deliberately restrict the type series to material collected recently in Colombia and represented by several specimens per collection. Further taxonomic study based on both morphological and molecular data is warranted.

ADULT FEMALE. Diagnosis. Ferrisia williamsi can be diagnosed by the following combination of features (based on type females only): presence of a few (0–10, usually ≤6, per segment) small oral-collar tubular ducts usually scattered or clustered on ventral margins of last 2–3 abdominal segments; ventral oral-collar tubular ducts with/without 1–2 minute discoidal pores, a few with 2 contiguous elliptical to elongate triangular pores touching rim of duct opening (if with discoidal pores, duct opening in slightly sclerotised area); dorsal enlarged tubular ducts totalling 100–120 throughout dorsum, with 1 or 2 circular to oval discoidal pores usually adjacent to rim of each duct opening and at least a few adjacent as a double pore; number of multilocular disc-pores on venter of abdominal segments as follows: segment VI (2–5), VII (12–16), and VIII + IX (12–21); anal lobe cerarii each with 2 conical setae; both pairs of ostioles present and pairs well developed; translucent pores scattered on dorsal surface of hind coxa.

Adult females of F. williamsi from Colombia are most similar to F. cristinae from Argentina and the two species are difficult to distinguish morphologically, but in F. williamsi any minute discoidal pores associated with the ventral oral-collar ducts always touch the rim of duct opening and are larger than those in F. cristinae (in F. cristinae , discoidal pores associated with ventral ducts often do not touch the duct rim); furthermore, the translucent pores on the hind coxa of F. williamsi are mostly 2.0–3.0 µm in diameter (mostly 0.5–2.0 µm in F. cristinae ). F. williamsi differs from F. kondoi by having scattered translucent pores on the hind coxa (none on the coxa of F. kondoi ), fewer trilocular pores on each anal lobe (36–50 in F. williamsi ; 58–62 in F. kondoi ), and usually fewer small oral-collar tubular ducts in each cluster on the ventral margins of the posterior abdominal segments with mostly ≤6 on each side of each of segments VII and VIII (6–25 on each side of VII and 8–21 on each side of VIII in F. kondoi ). The adult female of F. williamsi differs from that of F. virgata in the position of the discoidal pores, having 1 or 2 pores adjacent to the opening of most dorsal enlarged ducts and ventral oral-collar tubular ducts (discoidal pores never adjacent to duct openings in F. virgata ). F. williamsi can be separated from F. milleri and F. ecuadorensis by the absence of clusters of small oral-collar tubular ducts on the head, thorax and anterior abdominal segments (clusters present on all body segments in F.milleri and all abdominal segments in F. ecuadorensis ).

The live mature adult female of F. williamsi from Colombia has a distinctive dorsal pattern of wax ( Fig. 2H) that readily distinguishes it from the females of other species for which the live appearance is known.

Description of slide-mounted specimens (based on 36 type specimens, including holotype; Fig. 22). Body 1.80–3.77 mm long (holotype 2.30 mm), 0.85–2.28 mm wide (holotype 1.20 mm). Eye marginal, 65–85 µm wide. Antenna 8 segmented, 530–760 (mostly ≥600) µm long; apical segment 100–135 µm long, 30–35 µm wide. Clypeolabral shield 165–200 µm long, 170–190 µm wide. Labium 190–225 µm long, 100–130 µm wide. Anterior spiracles 65–85 µm long, 45–60 µm wide across atrium; posterior spiracles 80–100 µm long, 60–85 µm wide across atrium. Circulus quadrate, 160–280 µm wide, divided by an intersegmental line. Legs well developed; hind trochanter + femur 480–520 µm long, hind tibia + tarsus 480–600 µm long, hind claw 30–45 µm long. Ratio of lengths of hind tibia + tarsus to hind trochanter + femur 0.92–1.16, ratio of lengths of hind tibia to tarsus 2.93–3.67, ratio of length of hind trochanter + femur to greatest width of femur 4.16–5.66. Tarsal digitules subequal, each 40–60 µm long. Claw digitules subequal, each 35–40 µm long. Translucent pores present on hind coxa, femur and tibia, totalling 85–275 combined; usually with 25–70 (rarely up to 220), each 1.5–2.5 µm in diameter, on each hind coxa. Ostioles: both pairs present; each anterior ostiole poorly developed, with 30–40 trilocular pores and 6–8 setae; each posterior ostiole with 40–65 trilocular pores and 8–12 setae. Anal ring 110–155 µm wide, with 6 anal ring setae, each seta 220–300 µm long.

Dorsum. Anal lobe cerarii each with 2 conical setae, 25–40 µm long, with 36–50 trilocular pores and 2 or 3 auxiliary setae. Dorsal body setae slender, each 12.5–50 µm long. Trilocular pores each 4–5 µm in diameter. Enlarged tubular ducts totalling 100–120 on dorsum, each duct 30–38 µm long, 5.0–6.0 µm wide at mid-length, rim of duct opening sclerotised, 7.0–8.0 µm wide, surrounded by a sclerotised circular area 15–35 µm wide, enclosing 0–2 circular to oval discoidal pores (each generally adjacent to duct opening and sometimes 2 adjacent to each other) and with 2–5 (generally 2–4) setae, each 20–35 µm long, usually adjacent to duct rim within sclerotised area (especially on abdomen) or on edge of circular sclerotised area (especially on head); ducts distributed marginally in clusters of 2–5 on head and thorax, on margins of all abdominal segments in groups of 2–4, but with 7–9 ducts on each side of abdominal segment VII, and also 1–2 medially to submarginally on head and thorax, 0–2 medially on each abdominal segment.

Venter. Body setae slender, each 15–250 µm long, longest setae medially on head; apical seta of anal lobe approximately 315–350 µm long. Multilocular disc pores present on posterior abdominal segments only: 2–16 pores on segment VI, 12–33 on segment VII, 12–33 on segments VIII + IX; each pore 8–10 µm in diameter. Trilocular pores each 3–5 µm in diameter. Minute discodial pores (those not associated with oral-collar tubular ducts), each 2.0–2.5 µm in diameter, very few (no more than 2–4 per segment), generally on abdominal segments VI and VII; other discoidal pores associated with oral-collar tubular ducts generally elliptical to elongate triangular, with 1 or usually 2 contiguous pores touching rim of some oral-collar tubular ducts, each pore 2.5–4.0 µm in greatest width. Oral-collar tubular ducts on most of venter (excluding margins of posterior abdomen) each 7.5–11 µm long, 3–4 µm wide, totalling 45–100, distributed as follows: 16–40 on head and thorax, and on abdominal segments: 3–7 total on segments I–III; 2–5 on IV; 1–5 on V; 6–25 on VI; 10–24 on VII; usually 0 on VIII. Small oral-collar tubular ducts each 5.0–7.0 µm long, 3.0–4.0 µm wide, distributed on margins of abdominal segments as follows: 0–2 on each side of segment VI; 0–9 (mostly ≤6) on each side of VII; 0–10 (mostly ≤6) on each side of VIII.

Etymology. This species is named in honour of Dr Douglas J. Williams, who produced the last revision of Ferrisa ( Williams 1996) and who is rightly regarded as the guru of world coccidology ( Miller & Watson 1995) for his great knowledge and prodigious contributions to scale insect studies, as well as for the guidance that he has provided to others.

Biological notes. Type collections of F. williamsi are from hosts in the families Fabaceae , Heliconiaceae and Lauraceae , but the other possible records of this species are from Anacardiaceae , Annonaceae , Euphorbiaceae and Orchidaceae . The large collection of specimens from Inga edulis in Colombia had many associated larval coccinellids. The collection from Pithecelobium dulce in Colombia was mixed with specimens of F. kondoi . If the various specimens of uncertain identity (listed above) are F. williamsi , it seems that this species could easily be introduced to the USA because of the number of quarantine intercepts at ports of entry.


Australian National Insect Collection


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


California State Collection of Arthropods