Clinopsalta autumna, Popple & Emery, 2017
Popple, Lindsay W. & Emery, David L., 2017, Two New Species of Clinopsalta Moulds (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) and Additional Distribution Records for Clinopsalta adelaida (Ashton), with Notes on their Distinctive Calling Songs, Records of the Australian Museum 69 (4), pp. 237-256: 238-243
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Clinopsalta autumna sp. nov.
Holotype: 1♂, Mt Annan Gardens , Narellan, NSW, 31°18.14'S 149°02.05'E, 29.ix.2009, N. Emery ( AM, K.504498) GoogleMaps . Paratypes: 1♂, southeast Queensland, 28°03'S 152°22'E, Cunninghams Gap, via Aratula , 26.xii.1997, C. J. Burwell, QM GoogleMaps reg. no. T237102 ( QM) ; 1♂, 3 km E Wedderburn , NSW, 15.xi.2003, D. Britton ; 2♂♂ 1♀, Beach Road, Harley Hill nr Berry , NSW, 34°46.40'S 150°44.01'E, 24.xii.1994, D. Emery ( AM, K.504499–501) GoogleMaps ; 1♂, same location, 27.xii.2002, S. and D. Emery GoogleMaps ; 2♀♀, same location, 2.xi.1997, S. and D. Emery GoogleMaps ; 1♀, same location, 30.xii.2002, S. and D. Emery GoogleMaps ; 1♂, Burragorang Rd, The Oaks , NSW, 34°04.10'S 150°28.28'E, 400 m, 14.xi.2003, S. and D. Emery GoogleMaps ; 3♂♂ 1♀, Prospect Reservoir , NSW, 33°48.48'S 150°54.48'E, 14.xi.1997, D. Emery GoogleMaps ; 2♂♂, same location, 5–11.xi.1998, D. Emery GoogleMaps ; 1♀, same location, 2.xi.1997 GoogleMaps ; 1♀, same location, 17–21.xi.1997 GoogleMaps ; 2♂♂ 1♀, same location, 5.i.1998, D. Emery GoogleMaps ; 4♂♂, same location, 11–26.xi.1998, D. Emery GoogleMaps ; 2♂♂ 2♀♀, Hume Highway, Pheasants Nest nr Bargo , NSW, 34°16.58'S 150°38.20'E, 1.xii.2003, D. Emery and L. Popple GoogleMaps ; 2♂♂, Littlefields Rd, Mulgoa , NSW, 33°50.32'S 150°40.35'E, 4.xii.2000, N. Emery GoogleMaps ; 1♀, Littlefields Rd, Mulgoa , NSW, 33°50.32'S 150°40.35'E, 5.xi.2000, N. Emery (all DE) GoogleMaps ; 1♂, Prospect Res , 11.xi.1998, D. Emery, 214-0001 ; 1♀, Prospect Res , 26.x.1998, D. Emery, 214-0002 ; 1♂, Cunningham’s Gap , southeast Queensland, 6.Jan.2001, L. Popple, J. Moss, 214-0003 ; 1♂ 1♀, same data as previous, 12.xi.2001, 214-0004, 214-0006 ; 1♂, same data as previous, 31.i.1999, 214-0005 ; 3♂♂ 1♀, Australia NSW, Bargo, Ac [acia] parramattensis , 1.Dec.2003, L. Popple, D. Emery, 214-0008–214-0011 (all LWP) ; 1♂, Milperra , NSW, 7.xii.1976, G. R . Brown ; 1♂ 1♀, Harley Hill , 18.xii.1995, D. Emery ; 2♂♂ 2♀♀, Menai, W. of Sutherland, Sydney , NSW, 14.xi.1983, R . Eastwood (all MSM) .
Other material examined. 1♂, Beach Road , Harley Hill nr Berry, NSW, 34°46.40'S 150°44.01'E, 15.i.1993, T GoogleMaps . Emery ; 2♂♂, same location, 18–22.xii.1995, D. Emery ; 1♂, same location, 1.i.2001, D. Emery ; 2♂♂, Prospect Reservoir , NSW, 33°48.48'S 150°54.48'E, 11.x.1998, D. Emery GoogleMaps ; 3♂♂, Burragorang Rd , The Oaks, NSW, 34°04.10'S 150°28.28'E, 400 m, 18.xi.2003, D. Emery GoogleMaps ; 3♂♂, Littlefields Rd , Mulgoa, NSW, 33°50.32'S 150°40.35'E, 14.xi.2007, D. Emery GoogleMaps ; 3♂♂ 1♀, Mt. Hunter , NSW, 15.xii.2005, D. Emery ; 1♂, Mt. Annan Gardens , Narellan, NSW, 31°18.14'S 149°02.05'E, 24.ix.2011, N. Emery GoogleMaps ; 1♀, same location, 29.x.2009, N. Emery GoogleMaps ; 1♂, Kentlyn , NSW, 34°02.52'S 150°53.09'E, 1.xi, 2009, N. Emery GoogleMaps , 1♂, Endrick River nr Nerriga, 35°05.17'S 150°06.59'E, 1.i.2015, S., N., C., and D. Emery (all DE) GoogleMaps .
Additional locations with audio recordings. Mountain Rd , Bauple, Qld, 25°48'29"S 152°35'15"E GoogleMaps ; Razorback Road , West Haldon, Qld, 27°43'44"S 152°06'53"E GoogleMaps ; Stirling Road Reserve , Rosewood, 27°36'33"S 152°36'36"E GoogleMaps ; Governor’s Chair , Spicers Gap, Qld, 28°05'08"S 152°25'04"E GoogleMaps ; Redwood Park , Withcott, Qld, 27°33'53"S 151°59'56"E GoogleMaps ; Carysfield Park , Bass Hill, NSW, 33°54'10"S 150°59'54"E GoogleMaps (all LWP).
Description. Male ( Figs 1A,B View Figure 1 ; 2A View Figure 2 ; 3 View Figure 3 ). Head. Supraantennal plate and vertex black, with areas of orange-brown colouration extending laterally from dorsal anteriormost edges of postclypeus; frons black with a contrasting area of brown colouration extending anteriorly from median ocellus; mandibular plates and genae black, each with a narrow orange-brown margin and covered by silver–yellow pubescence; small median orange-brown triangular fascia, extending and widening posteriorly from near median ocellus to pronotal margin along the epicranial suture; ocelli pink to red; compound eyes red when alive, brown to dark brown in stored specimens. Postclypeus predominantly black, orange-brown along margins and between the transverse ridges; anterior median area coloured pale orange-brown or reddish-brown; anteclypeus mainly black; rostrum dark brown; antennae dark brown.
Thorax. Pronotum mainly medium brown, with an orange-brown medial fascia, bordered with black colouration that widens anteriorly of pronotal collar and also towards proximal margin; dorsal and lateral fissures black; pronotal collar reddish-brown to brown, with lateral margins ampliate and often black. Mesonotum with submedial sigilla black, fused anteriorly, with rounded posterior terminations; lateral sigilla black, sharply defined, elongated and narrowing posteriorly; area posterior of submedian sigilla with yellow highlights, often dark brown to black medially; remainder of mesonotum, including lateral edges adjacent to lateral sigilla, area surrounding scutal depressions and length of parapsidal suture between submedian and lateral sigilla, brown; scutal depressions black; cruciform elevation brown to dark brown; mesonotum with inconspicuous and sparse silvery-yellow pubescence, more apparent adjacent to wing grooves. Metanotum brown; black medially.
Wings. Fore wing costal vein translucent, orange-brown from base to node, dark brown along remainder; other venation brown, darker proximally; basal membrane orange. Hind wing venation brown, with light brown opaque plaga around margins of anal cell 3, adjacent to vein 3A and vein 2A; six apical cells.
Legs. Coxae and trochanters predominantly pale to medium brown with irregular black fasciae on anterior, lateral and posterior faces; meracantha spikes dark brown with paler lateral margins, slightly overlapping opercula; fore, mid and hind femora medium (or sometimes pale) brown with dark brown longitudinal fascia developed on posterior, dorsal and anterior faces; fore and mid tibiae mainly dark brown; hind tibiae pale brown; tarsi a mixture of pale, medium and dark brown; claws brown, darker apically; spines of fore femora black.
Opercula ( Fig. 1B View Figure 1 ). Broadly rounded; predominantly brown; plates undulating with medial areas slightly depressed.
Timbals ( Fig 2A View Figure 2 ). Five long ribs; ribs 4–5 both unattached to adjacent ribs and shorter than ribs 1–3; ribs 1–3 fused dorsally, but not ventrally.
Abdomen. Tergite 1 dark brown to black; tergite 2 brown on dorsal surface, black laterally; remaining tergites mainly reddish-brown, becoming paler posteriorly, with areas of black colouration anteriorly, extending posteriorly along dorsal midline and along lateral edges, especially on tergite 3; silvery pubescence most prominent along lateral edges of anterior tergites; tergite 8 dark brown to black. Sternite II brown to orange-brown, with median area of black colouration broadening posteriorly; sternites III to VII brown to orange-brown, with broad and prominent black medial triangular areas, pointed anteriorly, weaker, smaller and sometimes restricted to anterior edge of sternite VII; sternite VIII brown; intersegmental membranes brown.
Genitalia ( Fig. 3 View Figure 3 ). Pygofer with black colouration dorsally, extending to beak and along anterior lateral edges; medium brown over the remainder; claspers conspicuously elongated, extending posteriorly beyond termination of pygofer, bluntly rounded apically; uncus vertically narrow, relatively short, with rounded termination; pseudoparameres clearly longer than endotheca; endotheca soft and fleshy.
Female. ( Fig. 1C View Figure 1 ). Similar to male in general colouring and patterning, with more extensive areas of paler colouration.
Head. Supra-antennal plate and vertex brown anteriorly, black posteriorly; frons black with brown anterior margins and a contrasting area of brown colouration extending anteriorly from median ocellus; mandibular plates and genae brown; small median orange-brown triangular fascia, extending and widening posteriorly from near median ocellus to pronotal margin along the epicranial suture; ocelli pink to red; compound eyes brown to dark brown. Postclypeus black with median area coloured pale orange-brown or reddish-brown; orange-brown along margins and between the transverse ridges; anteclypeus mainly black, reddishbrown medially; rostrum brown, darker posteriorly; antennae dark brown.
Thorax. Pronotum as in male. Mesonotum with submedial sigilla black, fused anteriorly, with rounded posterior terminations, often shorter than in male; lateral sigilla black, sharply defined, elongated and narrowing posteriorly, as in male; cruciform elevation brown to dark brown; remainder of mesonotum mainly brown, as in male; mesonotum with inconspicuous and sparse silvery-yellow pubescence, more apparent adjacent to wing grooves. Metanotum brown; black medially.
Legs. Coxae and trochanters predominantly pale to medium brown with irregular black fasciae on anterior, lateral and posterior faces; fore, mid and hind femora medium (or sometimes pale) brown with dark brown longitudinal fascia developed on posterior, dorsal and anterior faces; fore tibiae mainly dark brown; mid and hind tibiae pale brown; tarsi a mixture of pale, medium and dark brown; claws brown, darker apically; spines of fore femora black.
Abdomen. Tergites 1–8 brown to reddish brown, sometimes dark brown to black anteriorly, with lines of black colouration extending along anterior dorsal and lateral margins; abdominal segment 9 brown to reddish-brown, with a pair of black dorsolateral fasciae, extending from the anterior margin and not reaching the posterior margin and with a localized black spot on posterior lateral surface. Sternite II brown to orange-brown, with median area of black colouration broadening posteriorly; sternites III–VII brown to orange-brown, with broad and prominent black medial, broadly triangular, areas, pointed anteriorly; sternite VIII brown; intersegmental membranes brown. Ovipositor sheath not extending noticeably beyond the posterior termination abdominal segment 9.
Measurements (in mm; range with mean in parentheses: 12 males, 9 females). Body length: male 16.2–17.9 (17.1); female (incl. ovipositor) 15.0–18.8 (18.0). Fore wing length: male 20.3–22.2 (21.4); female 19.1–24.5 (23.0). Forewing length/width ratio: male 2.53–2.79 (2.62); female 2.63–2.81 (2.75). Head width: male 5.9–6.8 (6.3); female 5.9–6.8 (6.3). Pronotum width: male 5.3–6.0 (5.6); female 5.3–6.3 (6.0). Abdomen width: male 5.5–6.3 (5.9); female 5.6–6.6 (6.1).
Distinguishing features. Clinopsalta autumna sp. nov. can usually be distinguished from the C. tigris species complex by the complete lack of fore wing infuscations. However, on rare occasions, specimens in the C. tigris species complex also lack wing infuscations. In this case, C. autumna sp. nov. can still be distinguished by having a predominantly dark brown rostrum (cf. mainly brown or olive in paler specimens of C. tigris ). In addition, C. autumna sp. nov. can be distinguished from C. semilunata by the broad, black markings on the centre of the sternites. It can be distinguished from the superficially similar C. adelaida by the presentation of forewing vein M3+4, which is distinctly kinked at the intersection with the nodal line. By contrast, in C. adelaida , forewing vein M3+4 is straight proximal to the nodal line intersection and only subtly curved over the remainder.
Distribution, habitat and behaviour. This species occupies a warm temperate distribution in eastern Australia from Mt Bauple, near Maryborough and the Bunya Mountains in south-east Queensland south along the Great Diving Range and subcoastally to near Goulburn, Nerriga and near Berry in southern New South Wales ( Fig. 4 View Figure 4 ). The paucity of records between the Border Ranges and the Greater Sydney regions
in New South Wales likely reflect lack of observation or specimen collecting rather than a distribution disjunction, although populations may be patchily distributed. Adults occur in association with wattles, particularly those that retain juvenile foliage (fern-like leaves) as adults, such as Acacia irrorata and A. parramattensis . Hickory wattles, including A. falcata and A. falsiformis , are also inhabited in some areas ( Emery et al., 2005). Males call from main branches typically in the upper foliage of wattles. Observations suggest that they tend to remain fairly static, but will relocate quickly at the first sign of disturbance. Adults have been observed between early September and early February.
Etymology. From the Latin word autumnus, meaning “autumn”. The name is a reference to the various colours of this cicada matching those of autumn leaves in a deciduous forest.
Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile
Marine Science Museum, Tokai Univ.
Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics
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