Corythalia conferta, Bayer & Höfer & Metzner, 2020

Bayer, Steffen, Höfer, Hubert & Metzner, Heiko, 2020, Revision of the genus Corythalia C. L. Koch, 1850, part 1: Diagnosis and new species from South America (Araneae: Salticidae: Salticinae: Euophryini), Zootaxa 4806 (1), pp. 1-144: 16-20

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4806.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:722DB6C9-2C18-48EB-B202-7F2AFF47F49F

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/BFA805CE-BDA0-48D6-A096-99E87A92F934

taxon LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:act:BFA805CE-BDA0-48D6-A096-99E87A92F934

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Corythalia conferta
status

sp. nov.

Corythalia conferta   sp. nov.

Figs 7 View FIGURE 7 A–E, 57B, 61B, 64B–D, 68B, 71B, 75B–E urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:BFA805CE-BDA0-48D6-A096-99E87A92F934

Type material. Holotype: ♀ (F-2), BRAZIL: São Paulo: São Paulo: Campus da Universidade de São Paulo, about 780 m a.s.l., 23°33’50”S, 46°43’52”W, D.F. Candiani leg. 14 May 2003, Am. 94, Cordão Jardim, IBSP 131451 View Materials GoogleMaps   . Paratypes: 1 ♂ (M-1), 1 ♀ (F-1) with exactly the same data as holotype, IBSP 131451 View Materials GoogleMaps   -I (ex. 131451); 2 ♂ (M-2, -7), 4 ♀ (F-3–4, -13–14) with the same data as holotype, except for R GoogleMaps   .P. Indicatti leg. 19 May 2003 / D.F. Candiani leg. 20 May 2003 (and different Am.-numbers: Am. 08/ Am. 23), IBSP 131475 View Materials   / 131461; (Instituto Butantan, Laboratório de Artrópodos , about 750 m a.s.l., 23°34’08”S, 46°43’03”W) GoogleMaps   : 1 ♀ (F-12), A.D. Brescovit leg. 29 May 2002, IBSP 34886 View Materials   ; 1 ♂ (M-13) with the same data, except leg. 10 Sep. 2002, IBSP 37109 View Materials ; ( Vila Butantan—URB - USP)   : 2 ♂ (M-11/M-8), 1 ♀ (F-15), F.S. Cunha leg. 06 Feb. 2001, IBSP 33508 View Materials   /33518; 2 ♂ (M-9–10), 1 ♀ (F-16), M.S. Sebastião leg. 06 Nov. 2001, IBSP 33503 View Materials   ; 1 ♂ (M-12), 2 ♀ (F-17), R   . P. Indicatti leg. 07 Feb. 2001, IBSP 33502 View Materials   . BRAZIL: São Paulo: Porto Primavera, Usina Hidrelétrica Sérgio Motta   : 2 ♂ (M-3–4), 1 ♀ (F-5), Equipe IBSP   leg. 2001, IBSP 53033 View Materials   - I (ex IBSP 53033 View Materials )   ; 2 ♀ (F-10–11), IBSP 53142 View Materials   - I (ex IBSP 53142 View Materials ). BRAZIL: Mato Grosso do Sul: Anaurilândia , about 300 m a.s.l., ca. 22°12’S, 52°43’W GoogleMaps   : 1 ♂ (M-6), 2 ♀ (F-7–9), F.S. Cunha & C. R   . Souza leg. 05–11 Mar. 2001, IBSP 53374 View Materials   .

Additional material examined. BRAZIL: São Paulo: São Paulo: Parque da Previdência ( URB - PREV): 1 ♂, 4 ♀, 1 p. s.a. ♀, R   . P. Indicatti leg. 05 Nov. 1999, IBSP 33489 View Materials   . Garça , about 600–700 m a.s.l., ca. 22°13’S, 49°38’W: 1 ♂ (M-5), 1 ♀ (F-6), A. Nogueira leg. IX.2006, IBSP 123107 View Materials GoogleMaps   . Ribeirão Preto : 1 ♂, E. Nascimento et al. leg. 2003– 2005, IBSP 58181 View Materials   ; 1 ♂ with the same data, except: Manta de Santa Tereza, I. Cizauskas leg. 06 Nov 2006, IBSP 85597 View Materials   . Caucaia do Alto, Reserva do Morro Grande : 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Equipe Biota leg. 13–28 June 2002, IBSP 37180 View Materials   . São Caetano do Sul, Parque Chico Mendes : 3 ♂, 4 ♀, A. Macedo leg. 2004, IBSP 75139 View Materials   . Campinas : 1 ♂, 1 ♀, A.J. Santos leg. X.1998, IBSP 42989 View Materials   . Tupã : 2 ♂, G. R   . S. Ruiz leg. 16 Sep. 2006 & 05 Oct. 2004, IBSP 151791 View Materials   /151787. Mato Grosso do Sul: Mundo Novo, Bairro Tapajós : 1 ♂, 4 ♀, D. Araujo et al. leg. IV–VI.2008, IBSP 143642 View Materials   ; 1 ♂, 9 ♀, with the same data, except Bairro Berneck, IBSP 143698 View Materials   . Anaurilândia : 1 ♂, 7 ♀, 1 s.a. ♀, F.S. Cunha & C. R   . Souza leg. 12–19 Mar. 2001, IBSP 53320 View Materials   . Santa Rita do Rio Pardo : 1 ♀, R   . Bertani & K. Kashimata leg. 24 Apr. 2001, IBSP 53255 View Materials   . Ivinhema : 2 ♂, D. Araujo leg. 2012, IBSP 168295 View Materials   . Brasilândia, Usina Hidrelétrica Sérgio Motta : 2 ♀, D.F. Candiani & C.A. R   . Souza leg. 17–24 July 2000, IBSP 31244 View Materials ; (Fazenda Cizalpina)   : 2 ♂, D.F. Candiani & C.A. R   . Souza leg. 2000, IBSP 35236 View Materials   /35241.

Etymology. The specific name refers to the dense arrangement of light scale hairs on the clypeus of the type specimens of this species, which were collected just a few years ago and thus are in very good condition (Latin adjective “conferta” meaning “densely arranged”); adjective.

Diagnosis. Males distinguished from those of all other Corythalia   species by the following characters in combination: embolus (actual tubular section) quite narrow (at central section at most 1/2 the width of RTA [ventral view] at central section, Figs 7A View FIGURE 7 , 64 View FIGURE 64 B–D) and at most 2/3 as long as width of tegulum; width of embolus base-circle slightly larger than 1/2 and clearly less than 2/3 the width of tegulum; tip (distal section) of retrolateral half of tegulum reaching (slightly) further distally than distal margin of embolus base ( Figs 7A View FIGURE 7 , 64 View FIGURE 64 B–D). Females distinguished from those of all other Corythalia   species by the following characters in combination: anterior margin of epigynal window (W) (AMW) continuous; septum of epigynal windows (SW) not continuous; W only slightly longer than broad (less than 1.15x) ( Figs 7C View FIGURE 7 , 71B View FIGURE 71 ); in dorsal view ( Figs 7D View FIGURE 7 , 75 View FIGURE 75 B–E) secondary (SS) and primary spermtheca (PS) (almost) in touch with each other, connective duct (DST) between SS and PS relatively short (at most as long as diameter of PS); SS small (diameter at least 1/3 the diameter of primary spermathecae, but clearly less than 1/2). Heads of spermatheca visible in dorsal view. Arising point of fertilisation duct (FD) antero-medially on PS ( Figs 7D View FIGURE 7 , 75 View FIGURE 75 B–E).

Description. Male (measurements of paratype M-1 first, those of all other male paratypes as range in parentheses): total length 5.5 (4.7–5.6), carapace length 2.6 (2.0–2.7), maximal carapace width 1.7 (1.4–1.8), width of eye rectangle 1.5 (1.3–1.5), opisthosoma length 2.3 (1.8–2.5), opisthosoma width 1.7 (1.2–1.7), fovea length 0.16 (0.10–0.22). EYES: AME 0.49 (0.38–0.49), ALE 0.31 (0.23–0.31), PME 0.08 (0.07–0.10), PLE 0.27 (0.25–0.27), AME–AME 0.04 (0.03–0.04), AME–ALE 0.04 (0.04–0.05), PME–PME 1.28 (1.16–1.30), PME–PLE 0.21 (0.19– 0.23), ALE–PLE 0.57 (0.53–0.58), PLE–PLE 1.07 (0.92–1.08), clypeus height at AME 0.28 (0.15–0.28), clypeus height at ALE 0.58 (0.49–0.58). Cheliceral furrow with 1 promarginal and 1 retromarginal teeth. SPINATION: palp: no spines. Legs: femur I 1400 (1400, 1500, 1600), II 1600 (1600, 1500), III 2600 {1600} (1600), IV 1600 (1600, 0600); patella I–II 1000 (1000), III–IV 1010 (1010); tibia I 2005 (2004, 2003), II 3005 (2004, 2005), III–IV 3133 (3133); metatarsus I 2004 (2004), II 2014 (2014, 2004), III 3134 (3134), IV 4144 (4144, 4143, 4134). MEA- SUREMENT OF PALP AND LEGS: palp 1.9 (1.5–2.1) [0.7 (0.5–0.7), 0.3 (0.3–0.4), 0.2 (0.2–0.3), 0.7 (0.5–0.7)], I 4.1 (3.0–4.2) [1.3 (1.1–1.4), 0.7 (0.5–0.7), 0.9 (0.6–1.0), 0.7 (0.5–0.7), 0.5 (0.3–0.5)], II 4.2 (3.0–4.4) [1.4 (1.1– 1.4), 0.7 (0.5–0.7), 0.9 (0.6–1.0), 0.7 (0.5–0.8), 0.5 (0.3–0.5)], III 5.2 (3.8–5.6) [1.8 (1.2–1.9), 0.8 (0.6–0.8), 1.0 (0.8–1.2), 1.0 (0.8–1.1), 0.6 (0.4–0.6)], IV 5.0 (3.7–5.2) [1.6 (1.2–1.7), 0.7 (0.5–0.7), 1.1 (0.8–1.1), 1.1 (0.8–1.1), 0.5 (0.4–0.6)]. LEG FORMULA: 3421. COPULATORY ORGAN: embolus moderately long, narrow hose-like and arising point at medio-proximal section of embolus base ( Figs 7A View FIGURE 7 , 64 View FIGURE 64 B–D); embolus base circle about half as broad as tegulum or slightly broader or narrower ( Figs 7A View FIGURE 7 , 64 View FIGURE 64 B–D). Tegulum narrower than cymbium, sperm duct double-stacked S-shaped, occupying retrolateral 2/3 of tegulum ( Figs 7A View FIGURE 7 , 64 View FIGURE 64 B–D), retrolatero-proximal tegulum lobe (PTL) clearly distinguished from residual tegulum, prolateral margin of PTL in some specimens with blunt, but rather flat lobe ( Fig. 7A View FIGURE 7 ). Cymbium in ventral view ( Figs 7A View FIGURE 7 , 64 View FIGURE 64 B–D) distally conically converging and at distalmost section broadly rounded; at distal 1/4 slightly lighter and with scopula ( Fig. 68B View FIGURE 68 ). Palpal tibia short, broader than long ( Figs 7 View FIGURE 7 A–B, 64D, 68B) and ventral tibial bump medium sized and slightly conical. RTA dorsally with serration ( Figs 7 View FIGURE 7 A–B, 64D, 68B). COLOURATION: see genus description for conservative aspects. Carapace dark red-brown ( Fig. 57B View FIGURE 57 ), light scale hairs densely arranged, especially frontally (however material examined still quite freshly recorded and in good condition). Legs dark brown to red-brown, except for some articles being lighter (see genus description) ( Fig. 57B View FIGURE 57 ). Opisthosoma like noted in genus description under general dorsal colouration, except for chevron-like patch in central band missing ( Fig. 57B View FIGURE 57 ).

Female (measurements of holotype first, those of all female paratypes as range in parentheses): total length 6.5 (5.2–6.7), carapace length 2.6 (2.1–2.9), maximal carapace width 1.8 (1.5–1.9), width of eye rectangle 1.6 (1.4– 1.8), opisthosoma length 3.3 (2.3–3.8), opisthosoma width 2.3 (1.6–2.7), fovea length 0.22 (0.16–0.24). EYES: AME 0.50 (0.42–0.51), ALE 0.30 (0.27–0.31), PME 0.10 (0.08–0.10), PLE 0.26 (0.23–0.27), AME–AME 0.05 (0.03–0.05), AME–ALE 0.06 (0.03–0.06), PME–PME 1.27 (1.18–1.41), PME–PLE 0.21 (0.19–0.24), ALE–PLE 0.58 (0.52–0.59), PLE–PLE 1.13 (0.93–1.15), clypeus height at AME 0.27 (0.21–0.28), clypeus height at ALE 0.55 (0.50–0.59). Cheliceral furrow with 1 promarginal and 1 retromarginal teeth. SPINATION: palp: no spines. Legs: femur I 1400 (1400, 1500), II 1400 {1500} (1400, 1500), III 1500 (1500), IV 0500 (0500); patella I–II 1000 (1000), III 1010 (1010), IV 0010 (1010, 0010); tibia I 2003 {2002} (2003, 1003), II 2003 {2002} (2003, 3003), III 3133{2133} (3033, 3133, 2033, 1023), IV 1032 {2132} (2033, 3033, 3133, 1033); metatarsus I–II 2004 (2004), III 3134 (3134), IV 4044 (4044, 4134). MEASUREMENT OF PALP AND LEGS: palp 2.1 (1.6–2.1) [0.7 (0.6–0.7), 0.4 (0.3–0.4), 0.4 (0.2–0.4), 0.6 (0.5–0.6)], I 3.8 (3.3–4.1) [1.2 (1.1–1.3), 0.7 (0.6–0.8), 0.8 (0.7–0.8), 0.7 (0.5–0.7), 0.4 (0.4–0.5)], II 3.9 (3.4–4.1) [1.3 (1.2–1.3), 0.7 (0.6–0.8), 0.8 (0.7–0.8), 0.7 (0.5–0.7), 0.4 (0.4–0.5)], III 4.6 (3.8– 4.9) [1.5 (1.3–1.5), 0.8 (0.6–0.8), 0.9 (0.7–1.0), 0.9 (0.7–1.0), 0.5 (0.5–0.6)], IV 4.8 (4.1–5.0) [1.5 (1.3–1.5), 0.7 (0.6–0.7), 1.0 (0.8–1.2), 1.1 (1.0–1.1), 0.5 (0.4–0.5)]. LEG FORMULA: 4321. COPULATORY ORGAN: epigyne with stout oval (almost round) epigynal windows, septum uncontinuous ( Figs 7C View FIGURE 7 , 71B View FIGURE 71 ) and proximally relatively broad. Epigynal field broader than long. Primary spermathecae (PS), visible through cuticle of W, filling large part of W (almost up to proximal 2/3, Figs 7C View FIGURE 7 , 71B View FIGURE 71 ). Vulva with diagonally orientated oval (almost round) primary spermathecae being distinctly larger than secondary spermathecae. Head of spermatheca directed postero-laterally on secondary spermatheca ( Figs 7 View FIGURE 7 D–E, 75B). Connective ducts narrow, quite short and meeting primary spermathecae medially ( Figs 7D View FIGURE 7 , 75 View FIGURE 75 B–C). FD arising antero-medially on PS, being bent laterally. Copulatory ducts only partly (sometimes even hardly) recognisable as covered by connective ducts ( Figs 7 View FIGURE 7 D–E, 75B–D). COLOURATION: see genus description for conservative aspects. Carapace dark red-brown ( Fig. 61B View FIGURE 61 ), light scale hairs quite densely arranged, especially at clypeus (however material examined still quite freshly recorded and in good condition). Legs brown to red-brown, except for some articles being lighter (see genus description) ( Fig. 61B View FIGURE 61 ). Opisthosoma like noted in genus description under general dorsal colouration, except for chevron-like patch in central band missing ( Fig. 61B View FIGURE 61 ).

Intraspecific variation of male and female copulatory organs. In a few males ( Figs 64 View FIGURE 64 C–D) T broader than in others. In some males E slightly longer than usually ( Fig. 64D View FIGURE 64 ) or slightly stronger curved distally ( Figs 64 View FIGURE 64 B–C). PTL in some males with prolateral lobe absent ( Figs 64B, D View FIGURE 64 ). Rarely T just minimally narrower than cymbium ( Fig. 64C View FIGURE 64 ). In females an even higher degree of intraspecific variation is recognisable: few females with DST longer than usually and anteriorly surrounding SS ( Fig. 75D View FIGURE 75 ), or DST covering medial 1/5 of SS ( Fig. 75B View FIGURE 75 ). Orientation of PS in some females almost longitudinal ( Fig. 75C View FIGURE 75 ) or almost transversal ( Fig. 75D View FIGURE 75 ) instead of diagonal as usual. In one specimen SS located further posteriorly ( Fig. 75E View FIGURE 75 ) than usually (However, this might have teratological reasons in this particular case). Direction of head of spermatheca in some females antero-lateral ( Fig. 75C View FIGURE 75 ).

Remarks. This seems to be a widely distributed and common species. It resembles C. noda   and C. concinna   sp. nov. in having an uncontinuous SW, almost round W, SS that are clearly smaller than PS and relatively short DST. These species thus might be close relatives of C. conferta   sp. nov. In C. drepane   sp. nov. at least the males are similar to C. conferta   sp. nov. in having moderately long emboli, PTL with prolateral lobe (even though in the latter species not always) and medium sized RTA. Being aware that recovering relationships between species requires a phylogenetic approach (e.g. molecular phylogenetic methods or morphological cladistic methods), we find that similarities in such complex and specialised organs like the copulatory organs are also strong indicators of a close relationship ( Bayer 2012; Bayer & Schönhofer 2013; Copley et al. 2009).

Distribution. Brazil (south-eastern part).

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

USP

University of the South Pacific

IBSP

Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo

URB

Ryukyu University Department of Zoology

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Salticidae

Genus

Corythalia