Capobula montana, Haddad & Jin & Platnick & Booysen, 2021

Haddad, Charles R., Jin, Chi, Platnick, Norman I. & Booysen, Ruan, 2021, Capobula gen. nov., a new Afrotropical dark sac spider genus related to Orthobula Simon, 1897 (Araneae: Trachelidae), Zootaxa 4942 (1), pp. 41-71: 56-58

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4942.1.2

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:79353662-7653-4F41-8B39-40E6E4B2E005

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4618481

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03D67155-FFA0-FFB7-FF25-FB10A4922C15

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Capobula montana
status

spec. nov.

Capobula montana   spec. nov.

Figs 7, 8 View FIGURES 3–10 , 65–70 View FIGURES 65–70

Type material. Holotype ♀: SOUTH AFRICA: Eastern Cape:Mount Coke State Forest, 32°59.452’S, 27°28.740’E, 395 m a.s.l., 29.XI.2013, leg. J. Neethling (leaf litter, Afromontane forest ) ( NCA 2013 /4565) GoogleMaps   . Paratypes: LESOTHO: Butha Buthe district: Valley near Butha Buthe , 28°48’S, 28°16’E, 2150 m a.s.l., 31. GoogleMaps   VII.2012, leg. J. van Niekerk (under rocks on mountainside), 1♂ ( MHBU). Maseru district: Mohale Dam , Island 2, 29°25.396’S, 28°05.903’E, 2025 m a.s.l., 14.XII.2003, leg. C. Haddad (under rocks on hillside) GoogleMaps   , 1♀ ( MHBU). Quthing district: Ha Lazaro, Letšeng-le-Letsie , 30°18.207’S, 28°07.872’E, 2355 m a.s.l., 11.XI.2005, leg. C. Haddad (under rocks on hillside) GoogleMaps   , 1♀ ( NCA 2020 /102). SOUTH AFRICA: Eastern Cape: Amatola Mountains, Hogsback , 32°36.285’S, 26°56.580’E, 27. GoogleMaps   III.2007, leg. C. Haddad (active searching, knee down), 3♀ ( NCA 2007 /1191); Crdock, 32°09.535’S, 25°35.496’E, 23. GoogleMaps   IV.2010, leg. C. Haddad (base of grass tussocks, roadside), 2♀ ( TMSA 23765 View Materials ); Grahamstown Municipal Caravan Park , 33°19.166’S, 26°31.326’E, 580 m a.s.l., 10–19.II.2006, leg. J. Miller, H. Wood & L. Lotz (forest) GoogleMaps   , 1♂ ( CAS, CASENT 9068190); Humansdorp District, Tsitsikamma Forest , 33°50’S, 24°30’E, I.1961, leg. N. Leleup GoogleMaps   , 1♂ ( MRAC 139801 View Materials ); Shamwari Game Reserve , 33°27.983’S, 26°03.033’E, 13. GoogleMaps   VII.2005, leg. C. Haddad & R. Lyle (under logs), 1♂ ( NCA 2008 /2014); Somerset East, Bestershoek Nature Reserve , 32°42.475’S, 25°34.293’E, 882 m a.s.l., 2.XII.2012, leg. J.A. Neethling (leaf litter, montane thicket) GoogleMaps   , 1♀ ( NCA 2020 /101). Free State: Harrismith, Platberg Nature Reserve , 28°16.842’S, 29°12.024’E, 2040 m a.s.l., 13.XI.2015 – 26.I.2016, leg. C. Haddad, D. Fourie & Z. Mbo (pitfall traps, alpine grassland) GoogleMaps   , 1♂ ( NCA 2015 /2312); Same locality, 28°16.900’S, 29°12.015’E, 13. GoogleMaps   III.2012, leg. J.A. Neethling (leaf litter, dry mountain runoff, thicket), 1♂ 1♀ ( MHBU)   .

Additional material examined. LESOTHO: Butha Buthe: Near Butha Buthe, 28°47’S, 28°15’E, 1780 m a.s.l. GoogleMaps   , 14.XII.2012, leg. J. van Niekerk (under rocks on mountainside), 1♀ ( NCA 2019 /1004)   . SOUTH AFRICA: Eastern Cape: Baviaanskloof, Keurkloof, Farm Ferndale , 33°41’S, 24°50’E GoogleMaps   , 21–24. III.2008 GoogleMaps   , leg. A.S. Honiball & S. Hohowsky (pitfalls), 1♂ ( NCA 2020 /104); Greater Addo Elephant National Park   GoogleMaps , 33°27.783’S, 25°47.017’E, IV.2011 GoogleMaps   , leg. B. Milne (pitfall traps), 1♀ ( NCA 2020 /105). Free State: Bloemfontein, Free State National Botanical Gardens   GoogleMaps , 29°03’S, 26°12’E, 1380 m a.s.l., 8.V–8. VII.2018 GoogleMaps   , leg. C. Haddad & L. Mosese (pitfalls, Searsia lancea   and grassland), 1♀ ( NCA 2019 /514); Clocolan district, Mpetsane Conservation Estate   GoogleMaps , 28°48’S, 27°39’E, 9. III.2007   , leg. C. Haddad ( Eucalyptus   leaf litter), 1♀ ( NCA 2008 /557); Same locality, 17. III.2010 GoogleMaps   , leg. C. Haddad (base of grass tussocks), 1♀ ( NCA 2010 /345); Golden Gate Highlands National Park   GoogleMaps , 28°26.157’S, 28°43.560’E, 1771 m a.s.l., 19–21. III.2019 GoogleMaps   , leg. J. Botham (shrubland patch 1, soil sampling 10 m inside patch), 1♀ ( NCA 2019 /1006); Same   GoogleMaps locality, 28°31.081’S, 28°34.528’E, 1880 m a.s.l., 19–21. III.2019 GoogleMaps   , leg. J. Botham (shrubland patch 6, leaf litter sifting), 1♀ ( NCA 2019 /1005); Harrismith, Platberg Nature Reserve   GoogleMaps , 28°16.137’S, 29°11.172’E, 14. III.2012 GoogleMaps   , leg. J.A. Neethling (leaf litter, mountain runoff, Eucalyptus   plantation), 1♀ ( NCA 2020 /103); Luckhof district, Farm Bankfontein   GoogleMaps , 30°03.466’S, 24°53.653’E, 1235 m a.s.l., 25–28. IV.2019, leg. H. Badenhorst & C. Haddad (Berlese-Tullgren extraction, kloof litter), 1♀ ( NCA 2019 /887); Tussen-die-Riviere Nature Reserve   GoogleMaps , 30°27.797’S, 26°07.849’E, 1280 m a.s.l., 14. IV.2012   , leg. University of the Free State students (leaf litter, shrubs in open grassland), 3♀ ( NCA 2019 /1003).

Diagnosis. Females of C. montana   spec. nov. have a similar epigyne to that of C. neethlingi   spec. nov., but can be distinguished by the V- rather than J-shaped ridges containing the copulatory openings, the slightly separated copulatory ducts (touching medially in C. neethlingi   spec. nov.), and the bursae that are separated by approximately half their diameter, while almost touching in C. neethlingi   spec. nov. (compare Figs 65 and 66 View FIGURES 65–70 with Figs 71 and 72 View FIGURES 71–74 ). Males of C. montana   spec. nov. share with C. capensis   spec. nov. the relatively short distal section of the embolus, but can be distinguished by the lobate rather than spike-like femoral apophysis, and the subtriangular rather than ridge-like retrolateral tibial apophysis (compare Figs 67–70 View FIGURES 65–70 and 56–58 View FIGURES 54–58 ).

Etymology. The species name reflects the predominantly montane habitats that this species has been sampled from; Latin adjective.

Female (holotype, Mount Coke, NCA 2013/4565). Measurements: CL 0.87, CW 0.69, AL 1.08, AW 0.94, TL 2.15 (1.73–2.30), PERW 0.30, MOQAW 0.11, MOQPW 0.17, MOQL 0.16. Length of leg segments: I 0.63 + 0.24 + 0.52 + 0.47 + 0.27 = 2.13; II 0.54 + 0.22 + 0.43 + 0.39 + 0.25 = 1.83; III 0.46 + 0.21 + 0.36 + 0.38 + 0.24 = 1.65; IV 0.62 + 0.24 + 0.51 + 0.59 + 0.29 = 2.25.

Colour: carapace deep orange-brown, pits and lateral margins brown; chelicerae dark yellow-brown; endites and labium yellow-brown proximally, distal ends cream; sternum orange-brown, pits slightly darker, lateral margins brown; palps pale yellow-brown; legs with femora and tibiae I and II dark yellow-brown, other segments paler yellow-brown, similar to legs III and IV; all tarsi lightly paler; abdomen dark grey dorsally and laterally, with cream spots at setal bases, dorsally with seven indistinct fine cream chevrons in posterior half to spinnerets; venter paler mottled grey; spinnerets cream.

Leg spination: femora and patellae: spineless; tibiae: I plv 6 rlv 5, II plv 5 rlv 4; metatarsi: I plv 4 rlv 4, II plv 4 rlv 4; tarsi: I plv 4 rlv 3, II plv 4 rlv 2.

Epigyne with copulatory openings in small cup-shaped ridges ( Fig. 65 View FIGURES 65–70 ); copulatory ducts thin, initially curving mesally, then directed posteriorly along midline, looping dorsally and laterally before entering lateral teardropshaped primary spermathecae along their interior margin; bursae globular, slightly smaller than primary spermathecae ( Fig. 66 View FIGURES 65–70 ).

Male (paratype, Shamwari, NCA 2008/2014). Measurements: CL 0.83, CW 0.62, AL 0.83, AW 0.60, TL 1.78 (1.73–1.94), PERW 0.29, MOQAW 0.11, MOQPW 0.16, MOQL 0.15. Length of leg segments: I 0.54 + 0.22 + 0.49 + 0.43 + 0.25 = 1.93; II 0.51 + 0.22 + 0.38 + 0.37 + 0.24 = 1.72; III 0.43 + 0.19 + 0.34 + 0.36 + 0.24 = 1.56; IV 0.53 + 0.23 + 0.46 + 0.52 + 0.28 = 2.02.

Colour: carapace orange-brown, pits and lateral margins brown; chelicerae dark yellow-brown; endites and labium yellow-brown proximally and medially, cream distally; sternum bright yellow-orange, pit margins orange, lateral margins orange-brown; palps pale yellow-brown; legs with femora I yellow-brown, remaining segments yellow, except tarsi creamy-yellow; abdomen with bright yellow dorsal scutum covered in dark grey mottling, sides mottled dark grey; venter mottled pale grey, with bright yellow epigastric and ventral sclerites; spinnerets cream.

Leg spination: femora and patellae: spineless; tibiae: I plv 6 rlv 5, II plv 6 rlv 4; metatarsi: I plv 6 rlv 4, II plv 6 rlv 4; tarsi: I plv 4 rlv 4, II plv 4 rlv 3.

Palpal femur with short thumb tip-like ventral apophysis; patella with small, broad subtriangular retrolateral ridge; tibia with tibial apophysis short and triangular in ventral view, triangular and proximally directed in retrolateral view; embolus shorter and narrower than in congeners, tip slightly bent and directed retrodistally ( Figs 67–70 View FIGURES 65–70 ).

Habitat and biology. A litter-dwelling species mainly sampled from the litter of shrubs and trees in various biomes, including Grassland, Thicket, Fynbos, Nama Karoo and Afromontane Forests. This is the species that occupies the greatest altitudinal range, from approximately 250–2350 m a.s.l.

Distribution. Widespread in the central and south-eastern parts of South Africa ( Fig. 75 View FIGURE 75 ).

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Trachelidae

Genus

Capobula