Brexia madagascariensis (Lam.) Ker Gawl.

Schatz, George E. & Lowry Ii, Porter P., 2004, A synoptic revision of Brexia (Celastraceae) in Madagascar, Adansonia (3) 26 (1), pp. 67-81: 78-79

publication ID

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5181310

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http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03D487CF-1C56-A358-FF23-A4EEAD3F89EA

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Carolina

scientific name

Brexia madagascariensis (Lam.) Ker Gawl.
status

 

9. Brexia madagascariensis (Lam.) Ker Gawl.  

Bot. Reg. 9: t. 730 (1823). — Venana madagascariensis Lam., Tabl. Encycl. Meth. Bot.   2: t. 131 (1792). — Type: Commerson s.n., Madagascar, without precise locality, old infruct. (holo-, P!).

Brexia madagascariensis   is a shrub to small tree in humid littoral forest on sand from W of Fort Dauphin at Cap Andavaka to just S of Vohemar at Ambaroana (Fig. 4). It can be recognized by its adult leaves with entire margins, pseudo-umbellate inflorescences borne on a long, flattened peduncle greater than 2.5 mm broad (sometimes narrower in flowering material), and large fruits to 8 cm long. This species also occurs in the Comoro Islands, and along the East African coast in Mozambique, Tanzania and Zanzibar (see VERDCOURT 1968; ROBSON 1978, who provide additional synonymy based principally upon cultivated material). In the Seychelles, an upland form with   smaller and pinkish petals and markedly smaller fruits (see FRIEDMANN 1994) has been recognized as either a distinct species ( B. microcarpa Tul.   ) or as B. madagascariensis subsp. microcarpa (Tul.) F. Friedmann.  

VERNACULAR NAMES. — Jobiapototra, Tsimiranjana, Tsivavena, Vahilava, Voalava, Voankatanana, Voantalanina, Voatalanina, Votalanina.

CONSERVATION STATUS. — Within Madagascar, Brexia madagascariensis   has an EO of c. 28000 km 2, an AO of 3500 km 2, and c. 25 subpopulations, 5 of which are encompassed within protected areas (Andohahela PN, Manombo RS, and Masoala PN). It is thus assigned a preliminary status of Least Concern (LC).

MATERIAL EXAMINED. — MADAGASCAR: Baron 1577, 5732, without locality; Beaujard 415, 416, Vohipeno; Bernard 325, 358, Masoala PN; Bernier 285, Ste Marie; Birkinshaw 1148, Vohibola; Boivin 1833, Sahabe, 2552, without locality; Bojer s.n., Toamasina; Bosser 18704, Farafangana-Vangaindrano; Breon s.n., without locality; Cours 2901, Ambila- Lemaitso; Cremers 2318, Mahanoro-Vatomandry; Croat 32598, Fenerive; D’Alleizette 1333, without locality; Decary 4254, Fort Dauphin, 6543, Ambila- Lemaitso, 9922, Sainte Luce, 10333, Ambinanibe, 13792, Mananjary; Deroin 129, Atiala; Dorr 3906, Mananjary, 4477, Ambila-Lemaitso; Dumetz 675, 1292, Mandena STF; Forbes s.n., without locality; Friedmann 163, Manantenina; Ganzin s.n., without locality; Geay 6346, 6362, Cap Andavaka, 6784, Farafangana, 7210, 7211, 7213, 7684, 7685, 7786, 7979, 8105, 8106, Mananjary, 8930, 9071, Fenerive; Giraudy s.n., without locality; Goudot s.n., without locality; Humbert   5726, Fort Dauphin, 20777, Ambinanibe, 24419, Ambatobiribiry; Humblot 168, 343, Lac Nossi Ve; Imbert 95, Antampolo; Keating 2266, Ampandrozonana; Keraudren 24990, 25034, Fort Dauphin; Koopman 138, Ambahy; Leandri 4358, Cap Itapere; Lowry 3967, Ambila-Lemaitso, 4353, Antalavia, 4554, Ambila-Lemaitso; Martine E6, Tampina; McPherson 14185, 14208, Sainte Luce, 18406A, Manombo RS, 18776, Manakana, 18889, Ste Marie; Miller 3684, Ambila-Lemaitso; Monin s.n., without locality; Oumazer s.n., Ambila-Lemaitso; Perrier de la Bâthie 2336, Matitana, 6011, Antalaha, 18182, Ambila-Lemaitso; Poisson 2633, Fort Dauphin; Rabe 149, Masoala PN; Rabenantoandro 636, 651, Mahabo, 1198, Antanambao; Rabevohitra 1802, Vatomirindry, 3707, Mandena STF; Rahajasoa 287, 309, 394, Masoala PN; Rakotozafy 1304, Tampolo STF, 1368, Soanierana-Ivongo, 1397, Manompana; Randriampionona 842, Andohahela PN; Randrianaivo 537, Ambila-Lemaitso, 675, Masoala PN, 740, Ambaroana; Randriantafika 78, Petriky, 306, Mandena STF; Ratovoson 96, Manombo RS; Razafimandimbison 156, Tampolo STF; Réserves Naturelles 3357, 5292, 8290, Masoala PN, 8386, Andohahela PN; Richard 556, without locality; Schatz 1493, 3449, Ambila-Lemaitso; Scott Elliot 2725, Fort Dauphin; Service Forestier 873, Ambatobiribiry, 1345, Antetezana STF, 1615, Ambila-Lemaitso STF, 1874, Ankijahana, 2891, Ambila-Lemaitso STF, 4213, Ambondrombe, 4235, Ambila-Lemaitso STF, 4710, Mahanoro, 4933, Ambila-Lemaitso STF, 5571, Mandena STF, 5650, Amboanato, 6225, Analabe, 6358, Tsararano, 6636, Antetezana STF, 10908, 13670, Amboanato Begisy, 14523, Mandena STF, 14805, 17288, Masoala PN, 17333, Andohahela PN, 17832, Mahanoro, 21532, Mahatsara STF, 26107, Antsiraka, 28832, Lonkintsy, 28872 Ambohidena, 29364, Antohomaro, 29865, Mahatsara STF, 32494, Andranokoditra, 32683, Mahatsara STF, 32911, Mandena STF, 33031, Sainte Luce, 34410, Mahatsara STF, 35293, Mandena STF, 35317, Mandromodromotra; Thouars   s.n., without locality; Ursch 124, Tampina; Viguier 367, Ampanalana, 437, Toamasina; Zarucchi 7464, 7594, Mandena STF; Zjhra 537, Masoala PN.

10. Brexia marioniae G.E. Schatz & Lowry   , sp. nov.

Haec species a Brexia cauliflora   foliis latioribus, pedunculo breviore, calyce margine fimbriato atque disci

segmentis altioribus integris vel non profunde 2- vel 3-lobulatis intus carinatis distinguitur.

TYPUS. — Nicoll, Rakotozafy, Schatz & Suzon 521, Madagascar, Prov. Toamasina, Masoala Peninsula, beach trail S of Ambanizana , 15°37’S, 49°57’E, 25 m, 12 Apr. 1987, fl. (holo-, MO!; iso-, P!, TAN!) GoogleMaps   .

Shrub to slender treelet 2-4 m tall. Leaves 13- 47.7 × 3.7-11 cm, narrowly elliptic to oblanceolate, usually broader above the middle, glabrous above and below, midrib raised above and below, 2.5 mm broad at the base above, secondary venation weakly brochidodromous with 10-20 secondary veins per side, the base cuneate to attenuate and decurrent along the petiole, the margin entire or often spinose, the spines less than 0.5 mm, the apex acute to acuminate. Petioles 12- 43 mm long, 2.5-4.5 mm in diam., terete to slightly flattened above to shallowly canaliculate, glabrous. Inflorescences borne on the main stem (cauliflory), occasionally to within 20 cm of leaves on younger stems, a fascicle of several 2-7-flowered cymose pseudo-umbels each subtended by a minute bracteole, the peduncle 2.5-5 mm long, the pedicels 8-15 mm long, less than 1 mm in diam. in flower, to 3.5 mm in diam. in fruit, each subtended by a minute bracteole. Sepals connate for 2/3 their length, 4 × 4-5 mm, broadly ovate, glabrous, the margin finely fimbriate, the apex acute to rounded. Petals 12-17 × 6-10 mm, ovate to oblong, glabrous, membranous with evident venation, the base truncate, the margin entire, the apex obtuse. Disk 5-lobed, the lobes connate for 2 mm at their base, 4.5-7 × 3-4 mm, oblong to obovate, membranous, glabrous, the margin entire or rarely shallowly 2-3-lobed, the apex truncate, with a distinct medial keel inside. Stamens fused to the disk at their base, 13.2-17.2 mm long; filaments 9-13 mm long, flattened, 1.3 mm broad at their base; anthers 4.2 × 1.8 mm, lanceolate, basifixed. Ovary 9 mm tall, 4.7 mm in diam. at the base, ovoid, 10-ribbed, crowned at the apex with 5 tongue-like stigmas, 0.5 mm tall, collectively 2.5 mm in diam., minutely tuberculate. Fruit 10-13.3 cm long, 2.5-4 cm in diam., narrowly ellipsoid to lanceoloid, 5-angled-winged, the wings to 8 mm, the apex acuminate, woody. Seeds 6-7 mm long, 3 mm in diam., ellipsoid. — Fig. 6 View FIG .

Brexia marioniae   is a small, unbranched cauliflorous treelet in humid low elevation forest known from Analabe W of Foulpointe to Mont Anjenabe N of the Marojejy protected area (Fig. 5). It can be distinguished from B. cauliflora   , to which it is most similar, by its broader leaves, shorter peduncles, calyx with fimbriate margins, and taller, petaloid, entire or rarely 2-3 shallowly lobed disc segments.

ETYMOLOGY. — The species epithet honors our good friend, Marion REGAN, who made many important collections during her time in Madagascar, including the type of this new taxon.

CONSERVATION STATUS. — With an EO of c. 7700 km 2, an AO of 700 km 2, and 7 subpopulations, 4 of which are encompassed within protected areas (Masoala PN, Nosy Mangabe RS), Brexia marioniae   is assigned a preliminary status of Vulnerable (VU B1ab2ab).

PARATYPES. — MADAGASCAR. Prov. Antsiranana: Humbert   & Capuron 24086, vallée inférieure de l’Androranga, affluent de la Bemarivo aux environs d’Antongondriha , Mont Anjenabe , [14°17’S, 49°46’E], c. 800 m, 3-7 Nov. 1950, fl. ( MO, P) GoogleMaps   . Prov. Toamasina: Flores & Andriantiana 29, Nosy Mangabe RS, 15°29’49”S, 49°45’20”E, 0-300 m, 5 Dec. 1998, fl., fr. ( MO) GoogleMaps   ; Lowry et al. 4064, Masoala Peninsula, Trail E of village of Hiaraka , 15°30’S, 49°56’E, 500 m, 10 Oct. 1986, fl. ( MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Lowry et al. 4240, Hills E of village of Sahavary, up Andranofotsy River from Maroantsetra , trail towards headwaters of Sahafotra River , 15°19’S, 49°52’E, 300 m, 24 Oct. 1986, fl., y.fr. ( MO, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Miller & Schatz 3651, Nosy Mangabe RS, 15°30’S, 49°46’E, 0-300 m, 18 Nov. 1988, fl., y.fr. ( MO) GoogleMaps   ; Schatz et al. 1669, same locality, 14 Oct. 1987, fl. ( MO) GoogleMaps   ; Schatz & Gentry 2155, same locality, 13-23 Apr. 1988, st. ( MO, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Schatz & Miller 2532, same locality, 9 Jan. 1989, fr. ( MO) GoogleMaps   ; Schatz et al. 3353, Masoala Peninsula, Ambanizana , 15°38’S, 49°59’E, 450 m, 29 Oct. 1992, fl. ( MO) GoogleMaps   ; Service Forestier (Capuron) 18227, environs de la Baie d’Antongil, reste de forêts à l’W d’Anandrovola , [15°49’30”S, 49°41’E], 100-150 m, 11 Nov. 1957, fl., fr. (P, TEF) GoogleMaps   ; Service Forestier (Capuron) 22804, forêt d’Analalava , à l’W de Foulpointe, [17°42’34”S, 49°26’50”E], [60 m], 30 Oct. 1963, fl. ( MO, P, TEF) GoogleMaps   ; Zjhra & Hutcheon 520, Masoala Peninsula, Andranobe, ridge S of camp Be-dinta , 15°39’30”S, 49°57’30”E, 560- 640 m, July 1993, bud ( MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   .

MO

Missouri Botanical Garden

TAN

Parc de Tsimbazaza

TEF

Centre National de la Recherche Appliquée au Developement Rural