Leporinus jamesi Garman, 1929

Garavello, Júlio C., Britski, Heraldo A. & Birindelli, José L. O., 2014, Redescription of Leporinus jamesi (Characiformes: Anostomidae), a poorly known species of Leporinus from the lowlands of the central Amazon, Brazil, Neotropical Ichthyology 12 (2), pp. 317-326: 318-320

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1590/1982-0224-20130114

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4775872

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03D487CD-2E54-8D64-3D1E-F92DFD593154

treatment provided by

Carolina

scientific name

Leporinus jamesi Garman, 1929
status

 

Leporinus jamesi Garman, 1929  

Figs. 1-3 View Fig View Fig View Fig , 4 View Fig a-b

Leporinus jamesi Garman, in Borodin, 1929:281   ,plate 9 [Manacapuru, Brazil]. - Fowler, 1950: 235, fig. 274 (literature compilation). - Géry, 1977: 158, 159, fig. pg. 168 (literature compilation).- Garavello & Britski, 2003: 76 (literature compilation). - Britski & Garavello, 2007: 25 (literature compilation). - Britski & Birindelli, 2008: 49 (citation).- Sidlauskas & Vari, 2008: 74 (citation). - Birindelli & Britski, 2009: 4 (citation). - Birindelli, Britski & Lima, 2013: 7, 9 (citation).

Leporinus   amazonensis   ” Johannes, 1999: BSWW Report, Nr3: 15 (literature compilation based on Garavello, 1979; nomen nudum).

Diagnosis. Leporinus jamesi   is distinguished from the congeners, except L. apollo   , L. affinis   , L. amazonicus   , L. brunneus   , L. cylindriformis   , L. desmotes   , L. falcipinnis   , L. fasciatus   , L. geminis   , L. macrocephalus   , L. muyscorum   , L. niceforoi   , L. nigrotaeniatus   , L. obtusidens   , L. pearsoni   , L. pitingai   , L. trifasciatus   , L. unitaeniatus   , and L. yophorus   , by having 42 or more scales on the lateral line (vs. less than 42). Leporinus jamesi   is distinguished from L. desmotes   , L. falcipinnis   , L. fasciatus   , L. pearsoni   , and L. yophorus   by having dark midlateral blotches on body (vs. body with dark transversal bars), head without dark transversal bars (vs. head with a dark transversal bar between the contralateral orbits), and eight branched rays in pelvic fin (vs. nine). Leporinus jamesi   is distinguished from L. macrocephalus   , L. muyscorum   , L. obtusidens   , and L. trifasciatus   by having four teeth on the premaxilla and dentary (vs. three on each). Leporinus jamesi   is also distinguished from L. brunneus   , L. cylindriformis   , L. geminis   , L. niceforoi   , L. nigrotaeniatus   , L. pitingai   , and L. unitaeniatus   by having medially dark marks on the pectoral and pelvic fins (vs. hyaline), a body with two dark midlateral blotches, the first one relatively large and conspicuous, and the second small and sometimes inconspicuous, and the absence or inconspicuous presence of a third blotch on the caudal peduncle (vs. three dark mid-lateral blotches in L. cylindriformis   , L. geminis   , L. niceforoi   ; a single midlateral stripe that is sometimes fragmented or inconspicuous in L. brunneus   ; body with a single incomplete mid-lateral stripe running from the vertical through the dorsal-fin origin to the caudal peduncle in L. nigrotaeniatus   ; approximately six transversally elongate midlateral blotches in L. pitingai   ; or a single midlateral stripe in L. unitaeniatus   ). Leporinus jamesi   is distinguished from L. amazonicus   by having more than one dark midlateral blotch (vs. a single dark midlateral blotch posterior to opercle), 42 to 45 lateral line scales (vs. 45 to 47); and three large transversal dark bars in front of the dorsal-fin origin in specimens of approximately 60 mm SL (vs. five or seven thin transversal bars).

Description. Medium-sized Leporinus   ; largest examined specimen 154.9 mm SL. Body elongate, its depth approximately 24% of SL; head length approximately 25% of SL and snout length around 37% of head length. Other morphometric traits presented in Table 1. Dorsal profile straight from snout tip to tip of supraoccipital spine and slightly arched from this point to beginning of dorsal-fin origin; juvenile specimens with a weak dorsal hump immediately anterior to dorsal-fin origin; profile straight along dorsal-fin base and almost straight from dorsal-fin terminus to adipose fin; concave along caudal peduncle, between adipose and caudal fins. Ventral profile slight convex from lower jaw, through pectoral-fin base, to anal-fin origin; straight along anal-fin base, and concave along caudal peduncle.

Snout slender in ventral view; mouth terminal and provided with weakly fringed lips; mouth gap horizontally aligned with lower margin of orbit. Four elongate curved teeth on each premaxilla and four on each dentary ( Fig. 2 View Fig ); symphyseal premaxillary tooth bicuspidate, remaining teeth incisor-like and with slightly-acute cutting edge; dentary teeth shorter and also with slightly-acute cutting edge; teeth gradually decreasing in size. Branchial opening moderate in size; 21 to 27 gill-rakers on first gill arch.

Dorsal-fin rays posteriorly reaching five or six dorsal scales from dorsal-fin terminus, when adpressed. Pectoral-fin tip reaching up to five or six lateral body scales when adpressed; pelvic fin reaching fourth abdominal scale anterior to anus. Anal fin short, tip of longest rays separate from caudal-fin origin by two or three scales, when adpressed; margin of anal fin truncate or convex, when extended. Dorsal-fin rays i-ii,9 (holotype with i,9); pectoral-fin rays i,15; pelvic-fin rays i,8; anal-fin rays ii,7; caudal fin rays i,17,i. Caudal fin forked; upper lobe longer than lower.

Scales relatively small; 42 to 45 (holotype with 43) perforated scales on lateral line; five series of scales between dorsal-fin origin and lateral line; five series of scales between lateral line and pelvic-fin origin; 16 series of scales around caudal peduncle; median dorsal line of trunk with 11 scales between supraoccipital and origin of dorsal fin, 12 or 13 between dorsal and adipose fins, and 8 or 9 between adipose fin and upper caudal-fin base; median ventral line with 18 to 21 scales between isthmus and origin of pelvic fins, 9 to 11 between pelvic fins and anal opening; 2, 3, or 4 scales between anus and anal fin, and 6 to 8 between anal fin and lower caudal-fin base.

Color in alcohol. Color pattern on body and fins somewhat variable; specimens usually with two small and elongate darkbrown blotches on lateral line, first spanning two scale rows vertically and up to five scales longitudinally, and positioned ventral to middle of dorsal-fin base; second spanning one scale row vertically and up to six scales longitudinally, positioned ventral to adipose fin. An inconspicuous and smaller third blotch on caudal peduncle rarely present. In juveniles (up to 60 mm SL), small blotches sometimes appear as interrupted dark-brown stripes from vertical through dorsal-fin origin to caudal peduncle. Dorsum in juvenile specimens with 12 or 13 short transversal dark-brown bars sometimes meeting small dark-brown blotches laterally; three of these bars situated anterior to dorsal-fin origin, two ventral to middle of dorsalfin base, five between dorsal and adipose fins, and two or three on caudal peduncle. Head dark brown on interorbital space and supraoccipital bone; snout, anterior region of eyes, and infraorbital and subopercular regions light brown; isthmus and abdomen yellowish. Fin membranes with brown chromatophores concentrated on base or covering base of pectoral, pelvic and anal fins; dorsal fin with dark blotches occasionally; adipose fin dark brown. Caudal fin with a column of scales forming a dark arrow-shaped stripe facing backwards at end of caudal peduncle; caudal-fin rays dark-brown, with hyaline interradial membranes.

Distribution. Leporinus jamesi   is known from the rio Amazonas, rio Solimões, rio Madeira, río Ucayali and lower portion of their tributaries at the central Amazonian region in Brazil and Peru ( Fig. 3 View Fig ).

Material examined. Bolívia. Trinidad. MZUSP 27850 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 83.3 mm SL, Laguna Redonda , 19 May 1983, Conv. Piscic. Orstom-Utb   . Brazil. Acre. MZUSP 49674 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 91.4 mm SL, rio   Acre, at Seringal Bom Destino , 9°36’S 67°32’W, Porto GoogleMaps   Acre, 19 Oct 1994, Instituto do Meio Ambiente do   Acre. Amazonas. MCZ 20439 View Materials , 73.8 View Materials , holotype, rio Solimões, Manacapuru , 3°6’S 61°30’W, 27 Nov to 6 Dec 1865, W. James (Thayer Expedition). MZUSP 7515 View Materials , 3 View Materials , 82.1-89.3 mm SL, Urucará GoogleMaps   , Paraná de Urucará, 9 Dec 1967, Expedição Permanente da Amazônia. MZUSP 6374 View Materials , 16 View Materials , 74.6-98.1 mm SL, rio Purus at Lago Beruri , 3°53’S 61°22’W, 8-9 Nov 1967, Expedição Permanente da Amazônia. GoogleMaps   MZUSP 6966 View Materials , 2 View Materials , 86.1-104.3 mm SL, rio Madeira , 25 km from Nova Olinda, 5°34’S 64°20’W, 27 Nov 1967, Expedição Permanente da Amazônia. MZUSP 7589 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 89.8 mm SL GoogleMaps   , Paraná do Mocambo near Parintins city, 2°36’S 56°45’W, 10 Dec 1967, Expedição Permanente da Amazônia. MZUSP uncatalogued, 1, 66.2 mm SL, rio Solimões , Ilha Sorubim , upriver from Coari , 3°59’S 63°8’W, 29 Sep 1968, Expedição Permanente da Amazônia. INPA 13516 View Materials , 7 View Materials , 71.0- 81.2 mm SL, rio Solimões , Lago Janauacá, 3°22’S 60°16’W, 14 Sep 1977, Equipe ictiologia INPA. INPA 19176 View Materials , 1, 106.5 mm SL, rio Solimões at Ilha do Prego in front of Alvarãs, 3°11’S 64°46’W, 24 Feb 2000, W. Crampton. INPA 13510 View Materials , 4 View Materials , 60.5 View Materials -114.0 mm SL, rio Solimões at Lago Janauacá, 3°22’S 60°16’W, 16 Sep 1977. INPA 19317 View Materials , 3 View Materials , 100.3 View Materials - 116.5 mm SL, rio Tefé at Lago Tefé, Comunidade Nogueira, 3°20’S 64°44’W, 30Aug 1999, W.Crampton. INPA 13512 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 83.0 mm SL, rio Solimões at Lago Janauacá, 3°22’S 60°16’W, 13 Nov 1977, G. M. dos Santos. LISDEBE uncatalogued, 3, 77.0- 88.4 mm SL, rio Solimões at Lago Janauacá, 3°22’S 60°16’W, 16 Sep 1977, G. M. dos Santos. MZUSP 9556 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 78.9 mm SL, Lago Supiá, in front of the city, 3°51’S 62°4”W, Codajás, 24 Sep 1968, Expedição Permanente da Amazônia. MZUSP 48757 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 70.7 mm SL, igarapé Manduaçu at GoogleMaps   Paraná de Iupiá, 2°31’S 66°6’W, Fonte Boa, 1968, Expedição Permanente da Amazônia. GoogleMaps   MZUSP 48814 View Materials , 1, 115.4 mm SL, rio Solimões , 2°31’S 66°6’W, Fonte Boa , 25 Oct 1968, Expedição Permanente da Amazônia. GoogleMaps   MZUSP 55877 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 102.0 mm SL, rio Madeira , 1.9 km below Paraná do Urucuritiba , 3°33’1”S 58°54’34”W, 15 Oct 1994, J. Lundberg et al. GoogleMaps   MZUSP 75639 View Materials , 21 View Materials , 58.5- 94.1 mm SL, 2 CS, 76.1-89.0 mm SL GoogleMaps   , Paraná de Janauacá at entrance of Lago do Castanho, 14 Sep 1977, P. Bayley. Pará. MZUSP 56531 View Materials , 1, 146.3 mm SL, rio Amazonas, 28.6 km below Paraná de Santa Rita, 1°56’7”S 55°41’18”W, 23 Oct 1994, O. T. Oyakawa et al. GoogleMaps   MZUSP 58177 View Materials , 1, 119.1 mm SL, rio Amazonas , 34.1 km below Paraná de Santa Rita, 1°55’7”S 55°37’20”W, 23 Oct 1994, M. Westneat et al. MZUSP 7825 View Materials , 2 View Materials , 81.7-93.6 mm SL, Faro GoogleMaps   , Paraná Jacaré, 13 Dec 1967, Expedição Permanente da Amazônia   . Rondônia. MZUSP 31480 View Materials , 1, 154.9 mm SL, rio Madeira at Calama , 8°3’S 62°53’W, Dec 1980, M. Goulding GoogleMaps   . Peru. Ucayali. MZUSP 26118 View Materials , 3 View Materials , 55.6-58.5 mm SL, Romainecocha, Pucallpa, Provincia Coronel Protillo , 12 Aug 1977, H. Ortega. MZUSP 26362 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 70.6 mm SL, río Tamaya , at Masisea , Provincia Coronel Portillo , 23 Sep 1975, H. Ortega. MUSM 10307 1, 92 mm SL   , Ucayali, C. Portillo, Pucallpa, Yarinacocha , 15 Nov 1996, H. Ortega. MUSM 0478, 1, 89, 3 mm SL   Ucayali, Pucallpa , Isla Independencia   , río Ucayali, 7 May 1975, H. Ortega. MUSM 0484, 1, 64.5 mm SL   , Ucayali, Pucallpa , Parahuachá Cocha   , río Ucayali, 18 Oct 1983, J. Canepa   . Loreto. MUSM 29750, 1, 132.1 mm SL   , Loreto, Trompeteros, CCA río Corrientes, río Corrientes , playa aguas abajo de Peranito (459382/9607516), 16 Dec 2006, J. Tornailla. MUSM 22381 1, 53, 9 mm SL   , Loreto, Parinari, río Marañon in front of Berlin , 5 Oct 2001, H. Ortega & E. Castro. Iquitos. MUSM 5212, 1, 76.3 mm SL, Maynas , Iquitos , Cocha , Aguajal , 9 Nov 1989, C. Riofrio, A. Borin & E. Borisako   . Colombia. ICNMHN 14072, 1, 60 mm SL, Letícia, San Juan de Atacuari, Jul 1995. ICNMHN 7148 1, 95, 3 mm SL, río Amazonas at Isla Fantasia, C. F. Jimenez   .

MCZ

Museum of Comparative Zoology

MZUSP

Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

INPA

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia

CS

Musee des Dinosaures d'Esperaza (Aude)

T

Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics

CCA

Culture Collection of Algae at the University of Marburg

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Actinopterygii

Order

Characiformes

Family

Anostomidae

Genus

Leporinus

Loc

Leporinus jamesi Garman, 1929

Garavello, Júlio C., Britski, Heraldo A. & Birindelli, José L. O. 2014
2014
Loc

amazonensis

Johannes 1999
1999
Loc

Leporinus jamesi

Garman, in Borodin 1929: 281
1929
Loc

Leporinus

Agassiz 1829
1829