Modisimus makandal, 2010

Huber, Bernhard A., Fischer, Nadine & Astrin, Jonas J., 2010, High level of endemism in Haiti’s last remaining forests: a revision of Modisimus (Araneae: Pholcidae) on Hispaniola, using morphology and molecules, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 158 (2), pp. 244-299 : 271-272

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2009.00559.x

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5491014

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/03D3130F-7A23-742A-DFF2-BBDEFE4D4021

treatment provided by

Valdenar

scientific name

Modisimus makandal
status

SP. NOV.

MODISIMUS MAKANDAL HUBER & FISCHER SP. NOV.

( Figs 11, 12 View Figures 5–16 , 44 View Figures 38–62 , 67 View Figures 63–82 , 139–141 View Figures 136–141 , 197 View Figure 197 )

Type: Male holotype from near Cana (19°29.8 ′ N, 71°16.9 ′ W), Santiago Rodríguez Prov., Dominican Republic; overhangs along river, 150 m a.s.l., 15 November 2005 (B.A. Huber), in ZFMK ( DR 53 View Materials a) GoogleMaps .

Etymology: The species name refers to Makandal, a famous Maroon, or runaway slave, who tried to organize a mass slave uprising, but was betrayed and burned at the stake in 1758; it is used as a noun in apposition.

Diagnosis: Medium-sized species, with distinctive pattern of modified hairs on male chelicerae ( Fig. 140 View Figures 136–141 ), and distinctive epigynum shape ( Fig. 44 View Figures 38–62 ); otherwise similar to M. vittatus .

Male (holotype): Total length, 2.7; carapace width, 1.4. Leg 1: 31.5 (8.1 + 0.5 + 7.9 + 13.0 + 2.0); tibia 2, 5.1; tibia 3, 4.1; tibia 4, 4.6. Tibia 1 L/d: 55. Habitus, in general, similar to M. vittatus (cf. Figs 30–34 View Figures 17–37 ), carapace pale ochre-white, ocular area darker brown, clypeus with pair of brown stripes; sternum with two wide brown longitudinal bands, medially whitish; legs light brown, tips of femora and tibiae whitish, indistinct darker rings on femora and tibiae subdistally; abdomen bluish grey, dorsally, laterally, and especially posteriorly, densely covered with black spots grouped by distinctive lines made of bluish-white spots (cf. M. vittatus ); ventrally with dark bluish mark between genital area and spinnerets. Ocular area strongly elevated, with several stronger hairs on top; thoracic furrow distinct. PME–PME, 105 Mm; PME diameter, 115 Mm; PME–ALE, 135 Mm; AME– AME, 20 Mm; AME diameter, 20 Mm. Sternum wider than long (0.75/0.55), unmodified. Each chelicera with ~20 strong modified hairs, forming an arc, and with roughly seven hairs of similar size in laterodistal patch ( Fig. 140 View Figures 136–141 ). Palps as in Figure 139 View Figures 136–141 , coxa with retrolateral apophysis, femur with rounded proximal and pointed distal ventral apophyses, with distinctive retrolateral ‘step’; procursus with dark dorsal spinelike process, and membranous structures distally, bulb with large, weakly curved apophysis, with small black rounded branch subdistally. Legs with spines in ventral rows on femora 1 and 2 (~35 spines on femur 1 and 20 spines on femur 2; with a few spines in second row distally on femur 2); retrolateral trichobothrium on tibia 1 at 8%; all femora with higher than usual density of short vertical hairs; curved hairs on tibiae 1–3 and all metatarsi; prolateral trichobothrium missing on tibia 1, present on all other tibiae. Tarsus 1 with ~25 pseudosegments.

Variation: Tibia 1 in 25 other males: 6.2–9.2 (mean 7.7); the males from Labadie are larger than those from other localities (ranges 8.1–9.2 vs. 6.2–8.1). Small males without spines on femora 1 and 2.

Female: In general similar to male; rings on legs tend to be more distinct; at least some females with a few weak spines distally on femur 1. Tibia 1 in 18 females: 4.7–7.0 (mean 5.7); the females from Labadie are larger than those from other localities (ranges 6.1–7.0 vs. 4.7–6.5). Epigynum, relatively small and simple externally, barely elevated, with a few stronger hairs laterally directed inwards ( Fig. 44 View Figures 38–62 ); dorsal view as in Figures 67 View Figures 63–82 and 141 View Figures 136–141 .

Distribution and habitat: Known from several localities in the north-western Dominican Republic and northern Haiti ( Fig. 197 View Figure 197 ). This species typically occurs close to the ground, among and under rocks, and in cavities of embankments.

Material examined: Dominican Republic: Santiago Rodríguez Prov., near Cana , 1♂, holotype above; same data, 3♂, 4♀ and one juvenile ( ZFMK, DR 53 View Materials ); same data, 2♀, in pure ethanol ( ZFMK, DR 100-37 View Materials ) . Haiti: Dept Nord, forest near Labadie at 19°47.1 ′ N, 72°14.5 ′ W, 10–30 m a.s.l., domed sheets among rocks, 4 December 2007 (B.A. Huber), 8♂, 7♀ and some juveniles ( ZFMK, Haiti 28/29); same data, 3♂, 2♀ and two juveniles, in pure ethanol ( ZFMK, Haiti 90); near Plaisance at 19°36.3 ′ N, 72°27.4 ′ W, 490 m a.s.l., forest along brook, 5 December 2007 (B.A. Huber), 10♂, 5♀ and one juvenile ( ZFMK, Haiti 34/35); same data, 1♂ and 2♀, in pure ethanol ( ZFMK, Haiti 105). Dept Artibonite, north-east of Gonaïves at 19°29.5 ′ N, 72°29.5 ′ W, 300 m a.s.l., small forest patch near river, near ground among plants and rocks, 4 December 2007 (B.A. Huber), 5♂, 6♀ and some juveniles ( ZFMK, Haiti 38); same data, 2♂, 4♀ and one juvenile, in pure ethanol ( ZFMK, Haiti 92) GoogleMaps .

Assigned tentatively: Haiti: Dept Nord , Cap-Haïtien, lower altitude, part of city, 27–30 March 1969 (L. Raynolds), 1♀ ( AMNH) .

ZFMK

Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Pholcidae

Genus

Modisimus