Filopalpus bale, Martens, 2022

Martens, Jochen, 2022, From the Ethiopian Bale Mountains hotspot-Filopalpinae subfam. nov., a new taxon of Laniatorean harvestmen based on external and genital morphology (Arachnida, Opiliones, Assamiidae), Zootaxa 5159 (2), pp. 221-244 : 233-236

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.5159.2.3

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Filopalpus bale

sp. nov.

Filopalpus bale View in CoL sp. nov.

( Figs 40–57 View FIGURES 40–50 View FIGURES 51–57 )

Type material: Holotype (CJM 9000), ♂, ETHIOPIA, Oromia, Bale Mts., southern slope below Rira , 2380 m a.s.l., leg. 16.12.2016, 06°43’17”N, 39°43’14”E GoogleMaps . Paratypes: (CJM 8962), 1 ♀, same data as for holotype. (CJM 8947), 1 ♀, Harenna forest , Bijamo Valley W Rira, 3130 m a.s.l., leg. 8.– 9.2.2020, 6°47’07”N, 39°40’53”E. (CJM 8903) GoogleMaps , 1 ♀, Harenna forest E Rira, 2900 m a.s.l., leg. 9.2.2017, 6°44’07”N 39°45’59”E. (CJM 8967) GoogleMaps , 1 ♀, Harenna forest S of Rira, 1780 m a.s.l., leg. 12.12.2017, 06°35’38” N, 39°45’12”E GoogleMaps .

Diagnosis: Total body length 2.3 mm, smallest species of the species set available here; in male dorsal side of body with two pairs of long pointed apophyses para-median on the scutal areas I–V, nearly lacking in female, male pedipalp extremely long and slender, filiform Fe reaching body length, relatively short Fe of female, frontal apophysis of Tu oc strong, in male surpassing frontal rim of prosoma, less so in female, glans with prickly funnel in unexpanded state surpassing distal rim of penis).

Remarks: Body coloration variable changing from yellowish to brownish, in all female specimens with regular light and dark tessellate pattern.

Etymology: It refers to the collecting site, the Ethiopian Bale Mountains; noun in apposition.

Description. MALE. Body, dorsal side ( Figs 46–47 View FIGURES 40–50 ): Scutum densely covered with light brownish tubercles, nearly touching each other, frontal rim of prosoma irregularly equipped with a row of 6 pointed tubercles of various sizes, all directed distad; prominent para-median apophyses on areae of abd scutum: two pairs each on areae I and III, one pair each on areae II and IV, a dense row of large stump apophyses on area V directed posteriad; free tergites visible from above, each covered by a narrowly-set row of massive distally rounded apophyses, longest in mid-part of tergites.

Tuber oculorum ( Figs 46–47 View FIGURES 40–50 ): Small, front part close to the frontal rim of prosomal scutum, irregularly equipped with few long stump apophyses, the central distal one most massive, markedly surpassing distal rim.

Colour pattern ( Figs 46–47 View FIGURES 40–50 ): General impression whitish to light yellowish, apparently due to short period after final moult, not yet in final state of exoskeleton consistence; light-dark pattern of spots discernable but indistinctly coined.

Body, ventral side ( Fig. 48 View FIGURES 40–50 ): Cx irregularly covered all over with large tubercles of various form (not markedly polygonal), all apophyses pointed with seta on top. Op gen only with scattered minute apophyses, remainder of ventral side covered with apophyses of various sizes, smallest on free sternites, largest on Op anale.

Legs: All articles light and of normal size and proportions; Tr smooth except for few minute apophyses, all articles of all legs round in cross section, all articles irregularly covered with low apophyses, all pointed with small seta (except tarsomeres).

Pedipalp ( Figs 46–48 View FIGURES 40–50 , 55–56 View FIGURES 51–57 ): Extremely long, thin and filiform, all articles slenderer than those of legs I–IV, articles as long (Fe) or slightly shorter (Pt) than body, Fe and Pt slightly broadened towards distal end, Ti extremely short and parallel-sided, Ta shortest article, fusiform. All pedipalpal articles ( Figs 55–56 View FIGURES 51–57 ) coarse, devoid of any strong and elevated apophyses or tubercles, few fine light setae on all articles, elongated setae on Ta close to the claw, length of Ta slightly larger than depth of article; claw slightly shorter than Ta.

Chelicera ( Figs 51–52 View FIGURES 51–57 ): Basal article slender, dorsally strongly concave in mid-part, much less on ventral side, dorso-distal part of basal article forming a distinctly rounded irregular apophysis, few strong apophyses dorso- and ventro-distally, a small field of fine pointed tubercles ventrally and less dorsally on the dorsal mid-part; 2 nd article slightly inflated, fusiform, frontally with a dense cover of fine pointed tubercles, single strong setae frontally and distally close to insertion 3 rd article.

Genital morphology ( Figs 40–45 View FIGURES 40–50 ): Truncus penis slender (do/ve views, Fig. 40 View FIGURES 40–50 ), from the small slightly enlarged base parallel-sided in lower half, distal section continuously enlarged, broadest at glans section, truncus (in la view, Fig. 41 View FIGURES 40–50 ) slender as well, in distal forth slightly concave dorsally, distal section only slightly enlarged, distal rim of truncus slightly concave. Glans a longish egg-shaped tube ( Figs 42–45 View FIGURES 40–50 ), emerging from dorso-distal enlarged part of truncus, in unexpanded state slightly surpassing distal end of truncus by about one third of its length; glans tube ending in a small rounded lamella at ventral side. Glans tube with a dense inner cover of minute stings, their tips directed to distal opening. Stylus not to be seen from unexpanded glans. Short setae concentrated on the enlarged distal glans section of truncus, four on ventral side asymmetrically placed, three each on la side, two on distal rim of truncus pointing distally, apparently none immediately beside the glans tube as in other species, e.g., in F. kakaensis ( Fig. 31 View FIGURES 29–39 ).

Description. FEMALE. Body, dorsal side ( Figs 49–50 View FIGURES 40–50 ): Coloration and pattern markedly different among specimens, varying from light to dark brown without distinct pattern to a tessellate pattern ( Fig. 50 View FIGURES 40–50 ); anterior margin of scutum with three apophyses laterally of Tu oc; prominent para-median apophyses on areae of abd scutum varying from low and indistinct ( Fig. 49–50 View FIGURES 40–50 ) to two distinct though low pairs each on areae I, II and III, one pair on areae IV, a dense row of large pointed apophyses on area V directed posteriad, on free tergites a row of marked pointed apophyses, smaller and lower ones interspersed; length of apophyses slightly varying in different females.

Ventral side: Cx with low roundish apophyses, stronger and more pointed towards distal end; less prominent on free sternites but strong and relatively long on la sides.

Chelicera ( Figs 53–54 View FIGURES 51–57 ): Similar to male, no distinct differences but without granulation on basal and on 2 nd articles.

Pedipalp ( Figs 49–50 View FIGURES 40–50 , 57 View FIGURES 51–57 ): Relatively stout, articles slightly thickened and massive. Tr with two strong ve apophyses with seta on top, one of them larger; Fe slightly enlarged to distal end, dorsally and ventrally with few low apophyses with short seta on top; Pt markedly enlarged distally; Ti ventrally with few low Apo, two of them with long and fine seta; Ta cone-shaped, few fine setae dorsally, three stronger ones ventrally, no elevated apophyses present; claw as long as Ta.

Legs: Roundish in cross section, with scattered low fine tubercles with seta on top.

Measurements (male, females in parentheses):

Body length:Including pointed apophyses on distal and frontal rim of scutum, male holotype 2.3 (3.0/3.0/3.1), without including free tergites: 2.0 (2.6/2.8/2.8).

Leg II: Male, three females in parenthesis: Tr 0.2 (0.2/0.2/0.2), Fe 2.0 (1.8/2.0/2.1), Pt 0.5 (0.45/0.5/0.5), Ti 1.7 (1.6/1.8/1.7), Mt 1.5 (1.4/1.5/1.5), Ta 1.2 (1.0/1.3/1.2), total: 8.9 (6.45/ 7.3/7.2).

Pedipalp: Tr 0.2 (0.3), Fe 1.9 (0.75), Pt 1.8 (0.5), Ti 0.4 (0.4), Ta 0.45 (0.4), claw 0.25 (0.35); total: 5.0 (2.7). Male pedipalp 1.9 times longer than female pedipalp.

Number of tarsomeres on legs I–IV, right and left leg (male, females in parentheses): I 4/4 (2/4), II 6/6 (6/6), III 5/- (5/5), IV 6/6 (5/6).

Penis length: 1.15.

Relationships: F. bale sp. nov. belongs to the set of species with inconspicuous equipment of female pedipalpal tibia and tarsus. Only a number of strong setae are present which form a reduced catching basket. Similar pedipalps are present in the females of all other filopalpid species presently known except for F. altomontanus sp. nov. Its pedipalpal setae of tibia and tarsus stand on top of elevated apopophyses ( Figs 63–64 View FIGURES 58–65 ).

Distribution, habitat, phenology: The male type specimen and three paratype females are known from the Harenna forest around Rira on southern slopes of the Bale Mts; localities range at 2380, 2900 and 3100 m a.s.l.. The Harenna forest, a famous place in the area, is a warm-temperate very species-rich montane broad leave forest, slightly moister than the other sampled localities because the southern slopes of the Bale Mountains receive relatively high amount of precipitation. In addition, the dry season during winter is less strict. Collections were made along a shadowy forest stream by scrambling and sieving litter and soil at various sites.

The male type specimen has bleach soft cuticle apparently due to short period after final moult, the other specimens show hard cuticle indicating a longer period of adulthood after final moult. Their body coloration varies (see above).













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