Opoptera Aurivillius, 1882

Penz, Carla M., 2009, The phylogeny of Opoptera butterflies, and an assessment of the systematic position of O. staudingeri (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae), Zootaxa 1985, pp. 1-20 : 6-9

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https://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.185409



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scientific name

Opoptera Aurivillius, 1882


Genus Opoptera Aurivillius, 1882 View in CoL

Seven unambiguous character changes support the monophyly of Opoptera ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 C, character illustrations in Fig. 1–2 View FIGURE 1 View FIGURE 2 , 4–6 View FIGURE 4 View FIGURE 5 View FIGURE 6 ). As a group, Opoptera is not homogeneous in either wing shape or color ( Fig. 1–2 View FIGURE 1 View FIGURE 2 ). The FW apex can be rounded ( syme , sulcius , fruhstorferi ), mildly pointed ( staudingeri ) or angular ( aorsa , hilaris , arsippe , bracteolata ; character 2). FW with three apical white spots and intersected by an incomplete ‘Yshaped’, usually orange, postmedial band (white in fruhstorferi , character 7:2), a pattern element that is shared with most brassolines. The proximal arm of this band can be either continuous or broken ( bracteolata , character 6). Ventral FW with an eyespot at cell M1, discal cell intersected by two bands. Ventral HW broadly rippled and with well developed eyespots in cells Sc+Rs and Cu1. The HW contour can be nearly smooth ( staudingeri , arsippe ), but it is usually mildly scalloped with or without a tail at M3 (character 10). HW precostal cell arched-out and large within the context of Brassolini ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 H, see Stichel 1909 for a comparison with other genera). There is no sexual dimorphism in color, but females may be slightly larger and paler than males, and may have a faint HW iridescence ( Fig. 1–2 View FIGURE 1 View FIGURE 2 ).

Depending on the species, male HW androconial organs may vary. A patch of androconial scales is located immediately adjacent to vein Cu2 (character 15), where the wing membrane is folded over to form a ‘scent-pocket’ (15:2, Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 K). Within Brassolini , this scent-pocket is unique to Opoptera , and it is present in all species of the genus except for O. arsippe in which it constitutes a shallow depression on the wing membrane (15:1, Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 L). Some species ( syme , sulcius , fruhstorferi , bracteolata ) possess a thin hairpencil inside the discal cell that crosses over vein Cu1-Cu2 (character 12:1). This hairpencil is formed by thin, elongate scales closely joined together, as can be seen by their insertion sockets, and it fits inside the scent-pocket (see Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 A and B). In species lacking this hairpencil, different hairbrushes can be found. Elongate, dense HW discal cell ‘hairs’ form a ‘discal cell hairbrush’ present in two Opoptera species ( staudingeri , arsippe ; character 13:1; Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 K). Furthermore, elongate, dense HW ‘hairs’ in cells Cu1 and Cu2 form two hairbrushes that are in close proximity to the scent-pocket ( aorsa , hilaris , Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 J). Finally, HW ‘hairs’ in cell Cu2 form a long ‘Cu2 hairbrush’ (character 14:1, aorsa , hilaris , Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 J). The hairpencil and hairbrushes are both associated with the Cu2 androconial organ.

The male valva has two defining characters: a sclerotization of the dorsal edge that encircles the valva tip (i.e., sclerotized carena), and bears minute ribbed serrations (characters 21:2 and 22:0; Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 ). The female sterigma is highly variable in shape ( Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 ), and has a continuous anterior section (character 33:0). The corpus bursa lacks signa ( Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 ).

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