Bufo (Duttaphrynus) totol Ohler

Teynié, Alexandre, David, Patrick & Ohler, Annemarie, 2010, Note on a collection of Amphibians and Reptiles from Western Sumatra (Indonesia), with the description of a new species of the genus Bufo, Zootaxa 2416, pp. 1-43: 4-7

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.194395

persistent identifier


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scientific name

Bufo (Duttaphrynus) totol Ohler

spec. nov.

Bufo (Duttaphrynus) totol Ohler   , spec. nov.

( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 )

Holotype by present designation. MNHN 2003.3373, adult female, between Lubukbasung and Maninjau, Province of Sumatera Barat, Sumatra, Indonesia.

Diagnosis. Small sized species of subgenus Duttaphrynus   with spotted dorsal pattern; no keratinisation on dorsal skin protuberances; presence of cantal, pre-, supra- and postorbital crests with kertinized covering; presence of glandular zone on shank; parotoid glands extending laterally to upper arms.

Description of holophoront. MNHN 2003.3373, adult female ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ).

(A) Size and general aspect. (1) Specimen of moderate size (SVL 46.8 mm), body rather robust.

(B) Head. (2) Head of moderate size, wider (16.0 mm) than long (HL 13.1 mm; MN 11.8 mm; MFE 9.4 mm; MBE 4.8 mm), flat. (3) Snout rounded, slightly protruding, its length (SL 4.7 mm) shorter than horizontal diameter of eye (EL 5.5 mm). (4) Canthus rostralis distinct, loreal region concave, vertical in relation to surface of upper head. (5) Interorbital space concave, larger (IUE 5.3 mm) than upper eyelid (UEW 3.4 mm), and than internasal distance (IN 2.8 mm); distance between front of eyes (IFE 7.3 mm) more than half distance between back of eyes ( IBE 13.1 mm). (6) Nostrils oval without flap of skin, closer to tip of snout (NS 1.0 mm) than to eye (EN 2.9 mm). (7) Pupil indistinct. (8) Tympanum ( TYD 2.9 mm) distinct, rounded; tympanum-eye distance (TYE 0.5 mm) less than fifth its diameter. (9) Pineal ocellus absent. (10) Vomerine ridge and teeth absent. (11) Tongue small, oval, entire; median lingual projection absent.

(C) Forelimbs. (12) Arm moderate, thin, (FLL 9.5 mm), shorter than hand ( HAL 10.6 mm), not enlarged. (13) Finger I long, rather strong; finger II short, rather thin; finger III long, (TFL 5.2 mm), thin; finger IV long, thin. (14) Relative length, shortest to longest: I <II <IV <III. (15) Tips of fingers pointed. (16) Dermal fringe on finger II; webbing absent. (17) Subarticular tubercles distinct, rounded, single, all present. (18) Prepollex oval, distinct; one round prominent palmar tubercle; numerous supernumerary tubercles irregularly set on palm.

(D) Hindlimbs. (19) Shanks four times longer (TL 17.2 mm) than wide (TW 4.7 mm), shorter than thigh (FL 18.1 mm), and about as long as distance from base of internal metatarsal tubercle to tip of toe IV (FOL 17.5 mm). (20) Toes long, thin, toe IV (FTL 9.8 mm) more than one third of distance from base of tarsus to tip of toe IV ( TFOL 25.5 mm). (21) Relative length of toes, shortest to longest: I <II <V <III <IV. (22) Tips of toes pointed. (23) Webbing small: I 1 – 2 1 / 2 II 1 – 2 III 1 1 / 2 – 3 IV 3 – 1 1 / 2 V. (WTF n. m.; WFF n. m.; WI n. m.; WII n. m.; MTTF 8.0 mm; MTFF 8.9 mm; TFTF 8.1 mm; FFTF 7.5 mm). (24) Dermal fringe along toe V absent. (25) Subarticular tubercles distinct, rounded, simple, all present. (26) Inner metatarsal tubercle short, prominent; its length ( IMT 2.3 mm) 1.35 times in length of toe I (ITL 3.1 mm). (27) Tarsal ridge indistinct. (28) Outer metatarsal tubercle rounded flat; numerous supernumerary tubercles; tarsal tubercle absent.

(E) Skin. (29) Dorsal and lateral parts of head and body: snout, between eyes, side of head smooth; anterior and posterior part of back with flat warts in middle part, with distinct glandular warts on sides; flanks with glandular warts bearing horny spinules, denser in lower part. (30) Latero-dorsal folds absent; lateral line system absent, “ fejervarya   ” line absent; supratympanic fold absent; canthal, pre-, supra- and post-orbital cephalic ridges present, covered by brown horny layer; co-ossified skin absent. (31) Dorsal parts of limbs: forelimb, thigh and tarsus with glandular warts, shank smooth. (32) Ventral parts of head, body and limbs: throat, chest, belly and thigh with fine glandular warts. (33) Macroglands: parotoid glands present, closely folded upon tympanum, reniform, prominent, perforate, three times longer (PL 13.0 mm) than wide (PW 4.8 mm), distance between them (PD 7.2 mm) about half their length; large area of glandular skin on shanks.

(F) Coloration in alcohol. (34) Dorsal and lateral parts of head and body: head, dorsum and upper part of flanks grey with black fine markings forming disruptive network; lower part of flank bluish grey with whitish spots; loreal region grey with black markings; tympanic region dorsally grey, ventrally with whitish warts; tympanum grey; upper lip whitish. (35) Dorsal parts of limbs: gray with black marks. (36) Ventral parts of head, body and limbs: whitish, only throat whitish with few black spots.

(G) Female sexual characters. Oviduct not observed; dark brown and whitish ovocytes.

Comparison with other species. As a member of Duttaphrynus   it can be distinguished by the species of Ingerophrynus   by the absence of parietal ridges on head.

The two poorly known species, Bufo sumatranus Peters, 1871   and Bufo valhallae Meade-Waldo, 1908   , have no cranial crests. Bufo valhallae   is based on two adult females from Pulo Whe Island, now Pulau We, off North Sumatra ( Meade-Waldo, 1908). Original description gives a color drawing of one of the syntypes. These specimens are distinctly larger and have larger tympanum than the new species decribed here. The web on feet of this species is distinctly larger. Shape of parotoid gland is less elongate in Bufo valhallae   and the two glands are separated by approximately their width, whereas the distance of the two glands is about half length or about 1.5 times their witdth in Bufo totol   . The figured syntype of Bufo valhallae   shows a line of large warts on the flank; these warts are not present in the new species.

Bufo sumatranus   was described by Peters (1871) on a single specimen, obviously a young from “aus dem inneren Sumatra” [from the interior Sumatra], and never collected since. We carefully studied the holotype ( ZMB 6292, young; SVL 34.1 mm; fig. 2) and give description in Appendix 1. The holotype of Bufo sumatranus   shows after detailed examination no cephalic ridges. The glandular region on shank is completely absent in Bufo sumatranus   . The dorsum is regularly covered by distinct glandular warts in B. sumatranus   , whereas only flat, indistinct warts con be found in Bufo totol   . The shape of parotoids is oval, twice as long as wide in B. sumatranus   and the two glands are parallel, distance between them is equal to their length; while the parotoid of B. totol   is much longer than wide, the two glands are diverging posteriorly and distance is only half their length. Subarticular tubercles can be paired in Bufo sumatranus   , wheras those of Bufo totol   are always single. Bufo sumatranus   shows a dark spot on upper lip below the eye; no such spot is present in the new species where the upper lip is of uniformly white colour.

The new species is clearly a member of Bufo   ( Duttaphrynus   ) subgenus as it has cranial crests but no parietal crests. The only other member of this subgenus in Sumatra is Bufo melanostictus Schneider, 1799   . Comparison with the lectotype ( ZMB 3462, adult male) shows numerous differences concerning tympanum, hand morphology, foot morphology webbing and skin structures ( Dubois & Ohler 1999). The size of adult female is smaller in the new species than in Bufo melanostictus   ( Manthey & Grossman 1997: 66–116 mm; Fei et al. 1991: 95–112 mm; Inger 1966: 65.6–83.8 mm). The tympanum of the new species is slightly relatively smaller than the tympanum of Bufo melanostictus   lectotype. Relative length of fingers is II<IV<I<II in melanostictus   , but I<II<IV<III in the new species. Finger tips are rounded, no fingers have dermal fringe and subarticular tubercles on hand may be double in Bufo melanostictus   . Bufo totol   has pointed finger tips, a dermal fringe on finger II and all subarticular tubercles are single. Shanks are more stocky and foot longer than shank in B. melanostictus   , but more elongate and only as long as foot in Bufo totol   . The webbing is less developed in Bufo melanostictus   , where 3 ½ phalanges are free of web whereas only 3 phalanges are free of web in the new species. Inner metatarsal tubercle is relatively shorter (half length of inner toe) in B. melanostictus   , but 2 / 3 of length of inner toe in B. totol   . In Bufo totol   the large middorsal warts typical of B. melanostictus   are absent and the dorsal warts are not covered by horny layer. Parotoid in Bufo melanostictus   is kidney shaped and only slightly extends down behind tympanum; the shape of the parotoid in Bufo totol   is very particular as it largely extends downwards behind tympanum touching almost the upper arm.

Etymology. The specific epithet is the Indonesian word “ totol   ” which, in Bahasia Indonesia, means “spotted”. It is an adjective that we treat here as a noun in apposition and hence invariable.

Distribution on Sumatra. Known only from the type locality.

Biology. The sole available specimen is a female in breeding condition found on a road in forest.

Nomenclatural note. The authorship of this new species should appear as “Ohler in Teynié, David & Ohler”.


Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle


Institut de Biologia Evolutiva, (CSIC-UPF)




Wildlife Institute of India, Department of Habitat Ecology


Micoteca do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo


Museum für Naturkunde Berlin (Zoological Collections)