Bufo cf. viridis, Laurenti, 1768

Venczel, Márton & Stiuc, Emanoil, 2008, Late middle Miocene amphibians and squamate reptiles from Taut ,, Romania, Geodiversitas 30 (4), pp. 731-763: 746-749

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Bufo cf. viridis


Bufo cf. viridis   ( Fig. 10 View FIG )

MATERIAL EXAMINED. — One prooticooccipital ( ISER Tt-0400), one squamosal ( ISER Tt-0401), one premaxilla ( ISER Tt-0402), one maxilla ( ISER Tt-0403),

four prearticulars ( ISER Tt-0404/1-4), one atlas ( ISER Tt-0405), two presacral vertebrae ( ISER Tt-0406/1 and 2), four urostyles (ISERTt-0407/1-4), three humeri ( ISER Tt-0408/1-3), three ilia ( ISER Tt-0409/1-3).



The fragment preserves a fused prootic and exoccipital which might have belonged to a rather large individual ( Fig. 10A View FIG ). The medial margin, roughly parallel to the supraorbital canal, exhibits a fracture line where the frontoparietal was fused. The tectum supraorbitale is rather small and has a smooth dorsal surface. The supraorbital canal is rather shallow and somewhat constricted in its posterior portion.


The lamella alaris of the squamosal is square-shaped, while the zygomatic process is rather thin and tapering distally ( Fig. 10B View FIG ). The distal part of the posterolateral process is broken off but indicates that this structure was rather thin.


The bone is toothless with smooth and slightly convex pars dentalis ( Fig. 10C View FIG ). The alary process is relatively high and thin. In dorsal view, an arch-like crest runs from the anterodorsal part of the alary process to the lateral region of the pars dentalis. The lamina horizontalis is moderately wide.


The anterior part of the only specimen (ISERTt-0403) is broken off. The posterior portion has a relatively low pars facialis, but it is provided with a relatively wide lamina horizontalis with its lingual margin directed slightly dorsally ( Fig. 10D View FIG ). The pars dentalis is toothless but exhibits a sharp crista dentalis.


The bone is faintly S-shaped and in all the specimens the anterior and posterior parts are broken off. The coronoid process is moderately developed and has a concave dorsal surface ( Fig.10E View FIG ). The paracoronoid crest is relatively long and comparable in shape to that of recent Bufo viridis Laurenti, 1768   (see also Bailon & Hossini 1990). The Meckel’s groove is

rather shallow and faces laterally.

Late middle Miocene amphibians and reptiles from Taut,, Romania

Atlas The neural arch in the only specimen is broken off ( Fig. 10F View FIG ). The centrum is short and dorsoventrally flattened, and the two cotyles are separated comple-

tely, corresponding to type II of Lynch (1971). Presacral vertebrae

In both specimens the neural arch is broken off ( Fig. 10G, H View FIG ). Th e centrum is procoelous and dorsoventrally flattened. The transverse processes

are broken off distally.

Venczel M. & Ştiucă E.


The distal portion of the only specimen is lacking. The proximal part is somewhat enlarged and provided with two well-separated and oval-shaped cotyles ( Fig. 10J View FIG ). The dorsal margin of the neural

crest is slightly damaged but was presumably of moderate height. The neural canal was moderately large.


The single available specimen preserves only the

distal part of the diaphysis ( Fig. 10K View FIG ). The distal humeral ball is strongly widened and slightly shifted laterally; there is a shallow ventral cubital fossa.The lateral crest is reduced to a keel.


Both the supraacetabular and preacetabular regions are moderately extended ( Fig. 10I View FIG ). The tuber superior is compressed mediolaterally and divided in two or three tubercles situated above the anterior margin of the acetabular rim. The preacetabular fossa is well defined.


The earliest bufonid in the Old World is known from the late Palaeocene (MP 6) of Cernay, France (Rage 2003). Afterward they apparently disappeared from Europe but reappeared again in the early Miocene ( Rage & Roček 2003) and have become more frequent since the middle Miocene onwards ( Böhme & Ilg 2003). The earliest fossil record of B. viridis   is known from the late early Miocene (MN 4) of Spain ( Sanchiz 1998b), France ( Bailon & Hossini 1990) and Germany ( Böhme & Ilg 2003). Bufo gessneri (Tschudi, 1838)   and B. priscus Špinar, Klembara & Meszaros, 1993   are other representatives of the socalled narrow-headed toads, known from the middle Miocene of Central Europe ( Špinar et al. 1993; Sanchiz 1998b).According to Rage & Roček (2003), the latter forms are closely similar to B. viridis   and therefore synonymy cannot be excluded.


Institutul Speologie Emil G. Racovita