Adraneothrips chinensis (Zhang & Tong) Zhang & Tong, 2013

Dang, Li-Hong, Mound, Laurence A. & Qiao, Ge-Xia, 2013, Leaf-litter thrips of the genus Adraneothrips from Asia and Australia (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripinae), Zootaxa 3716 (1), pp. 1-21 : 10-15

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.3716.1.1

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scientific name

Adraneothrips chinensis (Zhang & Tong)

comb. nov.

Adraneothrips chinensis (Zhang & Tong) View in CoL comb.n.

( Figs 2 View FIGURES 1 – 9 , 17 View FIGURES 16 – 21 , 34 View FIGURES 33 – 39 )

Stigmothrips chinensis Zhang & Tong, 1990: 196 .

This species is known only from China. The large pore plate on abdominal sternite VIII of males is unique within this genus ( Fig. 34 View FIGURES 33 – 39 ). Adraneothrips species are considered to be fungus-feeding, but the labels of the specimens listed below do not mention whether these thrips came from fresh plants or from dead leaves. It is not unusual to collect Adraneothrips specimens from grasses, or even from the leaves of living plants, but with no evidence about their source of food.

Specimens examined. CHINA, Yunnan Prov. (Jinghong Co.), paratype female and male on leaf-litter, 5.iv.1987, X.L. Tong (SMF); Yunnan Prov. (Mengla County, the type locality), 16 females, 9 males on Mosla chinensis , Houttuynia cordata , Phalaenopsis sp., bamboo and an unknown grass, 14–29.iv.1997 and 27.iii.1997, Y.F. Han (NZMC). MALAYSIA, Selangor, Gombak, 1 female from dead branch, 13.x.1973 (BMNH).

Adraneothrips coloratus (Mound) Comb. n. ( Figs 3 View FIGURES 1 – 9 , 18 View FIGURES 16 – 21 , 27 View FIGURES 26 – 32 )

Baphikothrips coloratus Mound, 1970: 91 .

This species was described from several sites in the Solomon Islands, but only from females. It is here newly recorded from Australia, but again only from females. The body colour of mature specimens is distinctive, mainly yellow but with the lateral margins of the head and thorax brown, tergite II mainly brown and tergites III, and V–VI brown laterally, also antennal segment III yellow but distinctly shaded in the basal third. The notopleural sutures are almost complete, the postocular setae capitate and arise behind the inner margins of the eyes ( Fig. 18 View FIGURES 16 – 21 ), the metanotum is distinctly reticulate ( Fig. 27 View FIGURES 26 – 32 ), and antennal segments III and IV both bear three sensoria. This species is similar to stannardi , but antennal segment III is more slender and differs in colour as indicated in the key above, and the campaniform sensilla on the pelta are particularly close together medially ( Fig. 27 View FIGURES 26 – 32 ).

Specimens examined. SOLOMON ISLANDS, Florida Island, Vatilau, paratype female, 2.xii.1965 (ANIC). AUSTRALIA, Queensland, Cape Tribulation, 4 females from grasses and dead Calamus fronds, vii.1995, 17 females from dead hard leaves, 7–8.x.2012 (ANIC). INDONESIA, Java, Bogor Botanic Gardens, 1 female from dead leaves, 26.x.1973 (BMNH).

Adraneothrips darwini sp. n. ( Figs 4 View FIGURES 1 – 9 , 19 View FIGURES 16 – 21 , 28 View FIGURES 26 – 32 , 40–47 View FIGURES 40 – 47 )

Female macroptera. Body uniformly light brown, with all femora, tibiae and tarsi clear yellow ( Fig. 4 View FIGURES 1 – 9 ); antennal segments I–II brown, III yellow, IV–VIII light brown with IV–V paler at base; fore wing pale; tube dark brown but paler distally; major setae hyaline.

Head 1.4 times as long as wide ( Figs 19 View FIGURES 16 – 21 , 40 View FIGURES 40 – 47 ), dorsal surface with no sculpture medially but weakly striate laterally; eyes about one third as long as head, postocular setae capitate, about half the length of eye; maxillary stylets about one fifth of head width apart, retracted to postocular setae. Antennal segment III with 2 sensoria, IV with 4. Pronotum with no sculpture medially, transversely reticulate near posterior margin; five pairs of capitate setae present; notopleural sutures complete or nearly complete. Prosternal ferna triangular, pointed medially; mesopraesternum irregular, lateral paired triangles weakly connected medially. Metanotum weakly reticulate, median setae acute ( Figs 28 View FIGURES 26 – 32 , 43 View FIGURES 40 – 47 ). Fore wing without duplicated cilia; three sub-basal setae long and capitate ( Fig. 44 View FIGURES 40 – 47 ). Pelta typical of genus, with paired campaniform sensilla ( Fig. 46 View FIGURES 40 – 47 ); tergites III–V with lateral setae stout and capitate, IX with setae S1 and S2 weakly capitate ( Fig. 45 View FIGURES 40 – 47 ); tube shorter than head, anal setae a little shorter than tube.

Measurements (holotype female, in microns). Total body length 1740. Head, length 200, width across cheeks 160; postocular setae length 40. Pronotum, length 110, width 225; setae: am 35, aa 25, ml 35, epim 40, pa 70; metanotal median setae 30. Fore wing, length 660; sub-basal setae S1 35, S2 45, S3 60. Pelta length 65; tergite IX posteromarginal setae S1 60, S2 55, S3 90; tube length 115; anal setae length 100. Antennal segments I–VIII length (width): 35 (35), 40 (25), 70 (24), 71 (25), 70 (25), 60 (25), 50 (20), 30 (10).

Male macroptera. Similar in colour and structure to female, but smaller; pronotum with notopleural sutures nearly complete; abdominal sternite VIII with a transverse, slender pore plate ( Fig. 42 View FIGURES 40 – 47 ); tergite IX setae S2 short and stout.

Measurements (paratype male, in microns). Total body length 1545. Head, length 215, width across cheeks 140; postocular setae length 40. Pronotum, length 90, width 195; setae: am 25, aa 25, ml 35, epim 45, pa 40; metanotal median setae 25. Fore wing, length 580; sub-basal setae S1 35, S2 37, S3 40. Pelta length 60, tergite IX posteromarginal setae S1 70, S2 35, S3 100; tube length 115; anal setae length 90. Antennal segments I–VIII length (width): 27(30), 40 (25), 60 (20), 65 (25), 65 (20), 55 (20), 45 (20), 30 (10).

Specimens examined. Holotype female, AUSTRALIA, Northern Territory, Darwin, Litchfield, on dead twigs & grasses, 31.vii.1995, LAM 2941 (ANIC).

Paratypes: 8 females, 2 males, with similar data to holotype (ANIC).

Remarks. This new species is similar to braccatus , but differs as follows: body light brown, femora yellow; fore wings without duplicated cilia; antennal segment III with two sensoria; male sternite VIII with slender transverse pore plate.

Adraneothrips disjunctus Ananthakrishnan ( Fig. 5 View FIGURES 1 – 9 )

Adraneothrips disjunctus Ananthakrishnan, 1972b: 439 .

Described from seven females and five males, two specimens from the type series have been studied. The available male has the median abdominal segments rather paler, but it is not possible to know whether this is because the specimen is slightly teneral or if the body is naturally slightly bicoloured. The original description and illustration referred to short postocular setae, but in the male listed below these setae are 40 microns long, extending well beyond the posterior margin of the eyes. The length of these setae in the female cannot be determined because their apices are obscured by the pigmented eyes. In both sexes the postocular setae arise laterally to the inner margin of the eyes, and are thus slightly further apart than the typical position found in this genus. There are three sensoria on the third and fourth antennal segments, and the dorsal length of the eyes is about one third of the head length.

Specimens examined. INDIA, Tirupathi, 1 female, 1 male from dry twigs, 22.i.1972, T.N. Ananthakrishnan (UMIC).

Adraneothrips elegans Ananthakrishnan

Adraneothrips elegans Ananthakrishnan, 1972a: 426 .

This species was described from four females and four males, taken from dry leaves at Aryankavu, India. The yellow body colour was considered similar to that of stannardi (and hence to bambusae ). However, the fore wings were described as having duplicated cilia, and it is the only yellow species known with such fore wings. Unfortunately, no mention was made of the number of sensoria on the antennae, and no specimens were available for study.

Adraneothrips hani sp. n. ( Figs 6 View FIGURES 1 – 9 , 20 View FIGURES 16 – 21 , 30 View FIGURES 26 – 32 , 38 View FIGURES 33 – 39 , 48–57 View FIGURES 48 – 57 )

Female macroptera. Body sharply bicoloured yellow and brown ( Fig. 6 View FIGURES 1 – 9 ); head brown, paler between eyes; prothorax and abdominal segments II and V–VI yellow; pterothorax and abdominal segments I, III–IV, VII–IX and tube brown; legs mainly yellow, mid and hind coxae brown, mid femora and apical half of hind femora shaded with brown; antennal segments I–II, and VII–VIII brown, III uniformly yellow, IV–VI brown with bases yellow; fore wing distinctly shaded brown at middle; major body setae mainly hyaline.

Head 1.2 times as long as wide, dorsal surface weakly striated ( Figs 20 View FIGURES 16 – 21 , 49 View FIGURES 48 – 57 ); eyes about half as long as head; postocular setae capitate, half as long as eye; antennal segment III with 2 sensoria, IV with 4. Pronotum without sculpture medially, transversely reticulate near posterior margin, with 5 pairs of capitate setae, notopleural sutures nearly complete ( Fig. 49 View FIGURES 48 – 57 ). Ferna triangular, pointed medially. Mesopraesternum broadly boat-shaped ( Fig. 51 View FIGURES 48 – 57 ). Metanotum weakly reticulate medially, median setae acute ( Fig. 50 View FIGURES 48 – 57 ). Fore wing with 4 or 5 duplicated cilia; subbasal setae capitate ( Fig. 52 View FIGURES 48 – 57 ). Pelta typical of genus, with paired campaniform sensilla ( Figs 30 View FIGURES 26 – 32 , 53 View FIGURES 48 – 57 ); tergite IX setae S1 and S2 narrowly blunt at apex, intermediate setae almost as long as S1 ( Fig. 57 View FIGURES 48 – 57 ); tube about 0.6 times as long as head, anal setae a little shorter than tube.

Measurements (holotype female, in microns). Total body length 2040. Head length 225, width across cheeks 205; postocular setae length 45. Pronotum, length 120; width 270, setae: am 40, aa 40, ml 40, epim 50, pa 50; metanotal median setae 35. Fore wing, length 735; sub-basal setae S1 40, S2 45, S3 75. Pelta length 75; tergite V, length 95, width 215; tergite IX, length 70, width 125, setae S1 75, S2 70, S3 100; tube length 130; anal setae 105. Antennal segments I–VIII length (width): 35 (40), 50 (30), 65 (25), 75 (25), 70 (20), 55 (20), 50 (20), 30 (10).

Male macroptera. Very similar in color and structure to female, but abdominal segment VIII yellow with brown shading anterolaterally; sternite VIII with paired pore plates ( Fig. 55 View FIGURES 48 – 57 ); tergite IX setae S2 short.

Measurements (paratype male, in microns). Total body length 1635. Head length 200, width across cheeks 180; postocular setae length 40. Pronotum length 100; width 230; setae: am 30, aa 35, ml 40, epim 45, pa 40; metanotal median setae 20. Fore wing length 630; sub-basal setae S1 35, S2 30, S3 50. Pelta length 60; tergite V length 80, width 160; tergite IX length 80, width 100, setae S1 70, S2 30, S3 100; tube length 105; anal setae 90. Antennal segments I–VIII length (maximum width): 35(33), 45 (30), 60 (25), 65 (25), 65 (20), 55 (20), 45 (15), 32 (10).

Specimens examined. Holotype female. CHINA, Taiwan Prov., Pingdong County, Nanjen Mountain, 22.10°N, 120.08°E, on dead leaves, 11.iii.2003, N.T. Zhang (NZMC). Paratypes: 1 female 2 males, with same data as holotype (NZMC).

Remarks. This new species is similar to limpidus in colour pattern ( Figs 6, 7 View FIGURES 1 – 9 ), but that has only three sensoria on the fourth antennal segment. The colour pattern is also similar to that of russatus and yunnanensis ( Figs 12, 15 View FIGURES 10 – 15 ), but they have no duplicated cilia on the fore wings, and only three sensoria on the fourth antennal segment. It differs from inflavus , according to the original description of that species, as indicated in the key.

Etymology. This species is named in honour of the thrips expert, Han Yun-Fa, in recognition of his contributions to thrips taxonomy in China.

Adraneothrips infirmus (Ananthakrishnan) comb.n.

Stigmothrips infirmus Ananthakrishnan, 1971: 181 .

Described from India, this species was recorded from Japan by Okajima (1976, 2006) who indicated that he had studied the holotype female. Okajima states that the tibiae are brown with the apex yellow, whereas the original description states that the tibiae are yellow. Moreover, the original description of the male claims that sternite VIII has a distinct, large pore plate, whereas Okajima (2006) illustrates this structure as a pair of pore plates. Also, the prothoracic notopleural sutures were complete in the original illustration, but Okajima states that these are incomplete. The specimens from Japan differ from the specimens from India as follows: pronotal anteromarginal setae pointed and small, and antennal segment III shaded brown; in contrast the description from India indicates that the pronotal anteromarginal setae are capitate and about as long as the anteroangulars, and antennal segment III is yellow. Either the species from Japan is not the same as infirmus from India, or there is considerable interpopulation variation, or the descriptive details given by Ananthakrishnan are not accurate. The characters given in the original description are similar to those of chinensis , with the following differences: all femora uniformly brown in female, but uniformly yellow in male ( chinensis —fore and mid femora brown with apex yellow, hind femora yellow with brown on apical half in both sexes); postocular setae much shorter than half length of eyes ( chinensis – postocular setae longer than half length of eyes).

Adraneothrips inflavus (Okajima) comb.n.

Stigmothrips inflavus Okajima, 2006: 591 .

Described from almost 100 specimens, of both sexes, this species was collected from dead leaves in the Ryukyu Islands of southern Japan, close to Taiwan. Judging from the original description, this species is similar to hani sp. n., from which it is distinguished in the key above.

Adraneothrips laticeps (Okajima) comb.n.

Adraneothrips laticeps Okajima, 1987: 297 .

Described from two females collected in Kalimantan, Borneo, this species has three sensoria on antennal segment III and four on IV. The fore wing bears several duplicated cilia, but the description of colour suggests that the body and legs are varying shades of light brown with no striking differences.

Adraneothrips limpidus (Ananthakrishnan) comb.n. ( Figs 7 View FIGURES 1 – 9 , 37, 39 View FIGURES 33 – 39 )

Stigmothrips limpidus Ananthakrishnan, 1964: 231 .

This is the type-species of Stigmothrips , although the original description did not indicate how to distinguish that genus from Adraneothrips . The type material was given as three females and two males from Bamboo spindles at Calicut, 4.ix.1963, but none of these specimens has been available for study. However, the seven specimens listed below were all identified and labeled by Ananthakrishnan as limpidus (one he clearly misidentified, as it has antennal segment III of different shape and with three sensoria, despite being similar to limpidus in body colour). All of these specimens have the prothoracic notopleural sutures incomplete ( Fig. 37 View FIGURES 33 – 39 ), contrary to the illustration with the original description. The number of sensoria on the antennae was not given, but each of the six specimens has two on segment III and three on IV. A further problem is that the original description does not indicate if the original male had pore plates on sternite VIII. However, Ananthakrishnan (1971: 176) states in a key to species that the male of limpidus is “without glandular areas” in contrast to pteris . But, all three of the available males identified by Ananthakrishnan as limpidus have a clearly defined pair of pore plates on VIII similar to those of makilingensis , pteris and russatus ( Figs 35, 36 View FIGURES 33 – 39 ).

Specimens examined. INDIA, Kallar, 2 females from decaying Areca , 10.ix.1967, 2 males from grass, 22.ii.1966; Madras, 2 females from bamboo, 12.x.1964 (one of these is a different species – see above); Papanassam, 1 male from grass, 24.vii.1965 (BMNH); Bannerghatta, 2 females from Cassia dead leaves, x.2005 (ANIC).

Adraneothrips madrasensis Ananthakrishnan

Adraneothrips madrasensis Ananthakrishnan, 1968: 41 .

Described from 25 females collected on grass in Madras, this species is known only from wingless individuals. It is a brown species, with antennal segment III and all tibiae and tarsi brownish-yellow. The original description lacks details concerning the body structure, but the original illustration indicates that the notopleural sutures are complete. Unfortunately, the specimen studied and listed below is too imperfectly cleared to see the condition of this suture. The pronotal anteromarginal setae are less than 0.5 the length of the anteroangular setae, although this is contrary to the description. Antennal segments III and IV apparently each bear only two sensoria (see comment above under bambusae ).

Specimen examined. INDIA, Madras, 1 female from grass, 29.viii.1966 (SMF).

Adraneothrips makilingensis (Reyes) comb.n. ( Figs 8 View FIGURES 1 – 9 , 21 View FIGURES 16 – 21 , 35 View FIGURES 33 – 39 , 58–65 View FIGURES 58 – 65 )

Apelaunothrips makilingensis Reyes, 1994: 362 .

Described from five females and two males, the type specimens listed below do not have the relatively broad maxillary stylets that are typical of Apelaunothrips species, as discussed in Mound et al. (2013). Contrary to the original illustration, the prothoracic notopleural sutures are incomplete ( Fig. 58 View FIGURES 58 – 65 ). This character state, together with the capitate postocular setae that are close together ( Figs 21 View FIGURES 16 – 21 , 58 View FIGURES 58 – 65 ), and the presence of paired pore plates on sternite VIII of the male ( Figs 35 View FIGURES 33 – 39 , 65 View FIGURES 58 – 65 ), indicates that this species is best placed in Adraneothrips . Within this genus it appears to be a member of the A. alternatus species-group.

Specimens examined. THE PHILIPPINES, Luzon, holotype female and paratype male, in leaf-litter,, C.P. Reyes (ANIC).

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