Caloxiphus cuicani, Barrientos-Lozano & Fernández-Azuara & Rocha-Sánchez & Zaldívar-Riverón & Sánchez-Reyes & Almaguer-Sierra, 2020

Barrientos-Lozano, Ludivina, Fernández-Azuara, Geovany J., Rocha-Sánchez, Aurora Y., Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro, Sánchez-Reyes, Uriel Jeshua & Almaguer-Sierra, Pedro, 2020, New species of the genus Caloxiphus Saussure & Pictet, 1898 (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) from the Huasteca Region, Hidalgo, Mexico, Zootaxa 4751 (2), pp. 333-344 : 337-340

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4751.2.8

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:B12915CB-882D-4B7D-A52C-A2CE853B9ABB

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3718197

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/03CF87A3-FFAF-FFFC-FF5A-6ED1FC3FB98F

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Caloxiphus cuicani
status

n. sp.

Caloxiphus cuicani   n. sp. Barrientos-Lozano & Fernández-Azuara

( Figs. 11 View FIGURES 11–20 –30)

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:77B65162-423D-461C-BDEC-FCB0139542CC

Examined material. Holotype ♂. Mexico, Hidalgo, Huazalingo, Tlamamala, 1300masl, 09.X.2015. 20°58’14.0’’N 98°32’52.3’’W, leg. Fernández-Azuara G. J. GoogleMaps   Paratypes. 1 ♂, 2 ♀, same data as holotype GoogleMaps   .

Diagnosis. C. cuicani   n. sp., may be compared also with C. championi   (see Cigliano et al., 2020; http://orthoptera.speciesfile.org/Common/basic/ShowAllImages.aspx). It differs from the latter species as follows: larger size (males 28.5 ± SD 0.2 mm: females 34.0 ± SD 1.7 mm vs. 25 mm C. championi   females) ( Figs. 11 View FIGURES 11–20 , 21: 22, 30). Tegmina are shorter (males 13.1 ± 0.05: females 14.6 ± 1.5 mm vs. 18.5 mm in C. championi   females) in lateral view they are lanceolate and the distal apex is more acute ( Figs. 11 View FIGURES 11–20 , 21, 22 View FIGURES 22–29 , 30). Pronotum ( Figs. 14a, 14b View FIGURES 11–20 , 25 View FIGURES 22–29 ) is broader, more densely granulated and granules are more conspicuous; both, the anterior and posterior margins are moderately produced and possess each a small size tubercle about mid-portion. Females’ cerci, subgenital plate, and carinae on ovipositor are also different ( Figs. 27–29 View FIGURES 22–29 ) from C. championi   (see Cigliano et al., 2020; http://orthoptera. speciesfile.org/ Common/basic/ ShowAllImages.aspx).

Male description ( Figs. 11–21 View FIGURES 11–20 ). General body color ( Figs. 11 View FIGURES 11–20 , 21) brownish with dark green marks on face, pronotum, abdomen, and legs. Fastigium of vertex ( Fig. 12 View FIGURES 11–20 ) sub-triangular, proximally broader, distally rounded, distal portion reaches about same length than the antennal sockets, broad and deeply sulcate along midline; fastigium frontalis ( Fig. 13 View FIGURES 11–20 ) yellowish sub-conical, proximal portion quite broad, distally produced. Antennae brownishcrème with dark brown-black segments intercalated. Head ( Figs. 12, 14a View FIGURES 11–20 , 21) dorsally light to dark brown with two postocular lateral crème bands, one each side. Pronotum ( Figs. 14a, 14b View FIGURES 11–20 , 21) rounded, dorsally dark brown-green color coarsely granulated, anterior and posterior margin weakly produced, moderately emarginated bearing each a tubercle about mid portion; posterior margin’s tubercle more prominent. The dorsal main sulcus cuts deeply the lateral carinae and the lateral lobes. Lateral lobes of pronotum ( Figs. 11, 14b View FIGURES 11–20 , 21) light-brown-crème color with dark green areas, strongly emarginated, head-angle almost rect, posterior rounded obtuse-angulated. Tegmina ( Figs. 11 View FIGURES 11–20 , 21) lanceolate, mostly brown color with crème veins and veinlets, short about mid-length of abdomen; stridulatory area ( Fig. 15 View FIGURES 11–20 ) dark-brown yellowish color with broad crème-brown veins; stridulatory file ( Fig. 16 View FIGURES 11–20 ) basal portion broad tapering gradually towards the anal end, length 3.6 mm, 98–102 teeth. Legs brownish-creme with dark-greenblack ornamentation. Femora spines: anterior inner face 3 spines, external face without spines; mid internal face without spines, external face 2 spines; posterior internal face without spines, external face 7 large spines on lower margin. Tibiae spines: anterior inner face 8 small spines, external face 8 spines on lower margin; mid internal face 5 spines on upper margin and 8 on lower margin, external face 8 spines on lower margin; posterior internal face 19 spines on upper margin and 13 on lower margin, external face 15 spines on upper margin and 13 on lower margin.. Cerci ( Figs. 17–18 View FIGURES 11–20 ) basally broader tapering gradually, curved inwards, black rounded apex. Supraanal plate ( Fig. 17 View FIGURES 11–20 ) sub-hexagonal, posterior margin sinuous, left and right angles broad, produced, and possess a small tubercle each. Subgenital plate and internal genitalia as shown in Figs. 18–20 View FIGURES 11–20 .

Female description ( Figs. 22 View FIGURES 22–29 –30). General appearance similar to the male. Body color ( Figs. 22 View FIGURES 22–29 , 30) brownpinkish, dark green marks on face, pronotum, legs, and abdomen. Fastigium of vertex ( Fig. 23 View FIGURES 22–29 ) light brown-crème sub-triangular, distally rounded, surpassing slightly the antennal sockets, broad and deeply sulcate along midline; fastigium frontalis ( Fig. 24 View FIGURES 22–29 ) yellowish sub-conical, broad and rounded proximally. Antennae brownish-crème with dark brown-black segments intercalated. Head dorsally brown with two delicate postocular lateral crème bands, one each side. Pronotum ( Figs. 25–26 View FIGURES 22–29 ) rounded, dorsally light brown-pinkish color, dense and coarsely granulated, anterior and posterior margin weakly produced, moderately emarginated bearing each a tubercle about mid portion; anterior margin’s tubercle smaller. The dorsal main sulcus cuts deeply the lateral carinae and the lateral lobes. Lateral lobes of pronotum ( Fig. 26 View FIGURES 22–29 ) pinkish to light-brown color with dark green areas, lower margin strongly emarginated, head angle almost rect posterior rounded obtuse-angulated. Tegmina ( Figs. 22 View FIGURES 22–29 , 30) lanceolate (lateral view) brownish-pink color, short about mid-length of abdomen. Legs pinkish-crème color with dark-green ornamentation. Femora spines: anterior inner face 3 spines, external face without spines; mid internal face without spines, external face 2 spines; posterior internal face without spines, external face 7 spines on lower margin (6 large: 1 small). Tibiae spines: anterior inner face 8 small spines, external face 8 spines on lower margin; mid internal face 4 spines on upper margin and 8 on lower margin, external face 8 spines on lower margin; posterior internal face 22 spines on upper margin and 13 on lower margin, external face 12 spines on upper margin and 15 on lower margin. Cerci ( Figs. 27, 29 View FIGURES 22–29 ) basally broad, tapering gradually, the distal third curved inwards, spine like acute apex. Supraanal plate ( Fig. 27 View FIGURES 22–29 ) sub-quadrate. Subgenital plate and ovipositor as shown in Figs. 28–29 View FIGURES 22–29 .

Measurements (mm). Males. Body length, from vertex anterior margin mid portion to end of abdomen, 28.5 ± 0.15. Pronotum length, from anterior to posterior margin along midline, 5.0. Tegmina length, 13.1 ± 0.01. Femora anterior, mid, and posterior length, respectively: 9.9 ± 0.09, 9.3 ± 0.01, 18.1 ± 0.02. Females. Body length, from vertex anterior margin mid-portion to end of abdomen, 34.0 ± 1.7. Pronotum length, from anterior to posterior margin along midline, 5.5 ± 0.2. Femora length, anterior, mid, and posterior, respectively: 10.6 ± 0.2, 10.3 ± 0.2, 21.1 ± 2.8. Length of tegmina, 14.6 ± 1.5. Length of ovipositor, 16.2 ± 0.03.

Distribution (Fig. 31). C. cuicani   n. sp., is known only from its type Locality “Tlamamala, Huazalingo” at the Huasteca Region in the State of Hidalgo, Mexico.

Habitat. C. cuicani   n. sp., inhabits the Biogeographical Province of the Eastern Sierra Madre (ESM) at the Huasteca Region in the State of Hidalgo, Mexico. Climate in the area is warm-humid, average annual temperature and precipitation are 21°C and 2,350 mm, respectively. The main plant association is cloud forest, intermediate ecosystem between tropical and temperate forest. Specimens of C. cuicani   n. sp., were collected on leaves of Conostegia xalapensis (Bonpl.) D. Don   ex D.C., also known in the region as “capulín de monte” ( Melastomataceae   ), a plant from which they also feed on.

Etymology. Specific epithet “ cuicani   ” derives from the “Náhuatl”, one of the indigenous languages spoken at the Huasteca Region in the State of Hidalgo, Mexico. “Cuicani” means “singer”; specimens of C. cuicani   n. sp., rest on branches and leaves of host plants, and it is because of its acoustic signal that they are located and collected mostly at night.

Acoustic Signal (Figs. 32–34). Males of Caloxiphus cuicani   n. sp., produces a short, low intensity calling song (Fig. 32). Males may sing for a few seconds or minutes and stop to resume singing after a short or a long interval. The acoustic signal is made up of echemes of one, two, or three syllables. We analyzed 26 min recording of the calling song and obtained 97 echemes (53 of one syllable, 34 of two syllables, and 10 of three syllables). Echemes repetition rate (ERR) was 3.7 echemes/min. Duration of echemes made up of one, two, and three syllables is as follows: 6.6 ± (SD) 0.8 ms, 2.3 ± 0.5 s, 6.6 ± 1.9 s, respectively. There is no major variation amongst duration of syllables in echemes of one, two, and three syllables; so syllables duration averaged 6.7 ± 0.3 ms (n = 149). Major interval (MaI) duration averaged 76 ± 14 s (2–111 s) (n = 59), this variation may be explained by the fact that when males produce two or three syllable-echemes the MaI between echemes is shorter, similarly the males may sing for a few seconds and stop to resume singing after a considerable interval of time. Minor Interval (MiI) between syllables in echemes of two or three syllables was 2.1 ± 0.8 s (n = 63). Frequency range is>100 kHz with three peaks in this frequency spectrum, and a fi peak between 12–26 kHz (Figs. 33–34).