Pauridia gracilipes (Schltr.) Snijman & Kocyan (2013: 27)
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|Pauridia gracilipes (Schltr.) Snijman & Kocyan (2013: 27)|
Bas.:— Hypoxis gracilipes Schlechter (1900: 88) ≡ Ianthe gracilipes (Schltr.) Williams (1901: 292) ≡ Spiloxene gracilipes (Schltr.) Garside (1936: 268) . Type (lectotype designated by Snijman & Kocyan 2013: 27):— SOUTH AFRICA. [Western Cape], PiqueniersKloof [QDS: 3218DB], 2000 ft [610 m], 29 June 1896, R. Schlechter 7957 (BOL!, isolectotypes, E, K! No. K000255996 [image], COI! [image], GRA!, LISC! [image], PRE!, S! [image])
Plants 2.5–23(–30) cm tall. Corm somewhat ovoid to globose, 7–27 mm diam., sometimes lightly fibrous distally, densely encircled by roots. Cataphylls membranous, dark brown distally, up to 30 mm long. Leaves 2–10, sheathing up to 30 mm, suberect to outspread, slightly arched, linear to broadly lanceolate, 30–220 × (1–)2–10(–27) mm, if broad then tapering evenly upwards, canaliculate proximally or up to ca. ⅔ of length, often carinate distally with obtuse midrib abaxially, dark to pale green, sometimes flushed beetroot-red proximally, firmto rarely thin-textured, margin sometimes minutely papillate, occasionally reddish. Inflorescences 1 or 2 in flower at a time, 1-flowered, ca. as long as or exceeding leaves; scape 20–190 × 1.5–2.0 mm, subterete, pale green, pale pink or pale reddish brown; bract 1, filiform, non-clasping, 1–9(–30) × 0.2–1.0 mm, colourless. Flower pedicellate, stellate, pale to deep yellow or pale to deep orange, backed with pale green or reddish brown in outer whorl, sometimes only distally, contrasting colouring less marked in inner whorl, unscented; pedicel suberect at anthesis, remaining erect or deflexing to spreading somewhat in fruit, 15–150 × 1–2 mm, subterete, pale green to pale pink to reddish brown; tepals 6, oblong-lanceolate to elliptical, 5–25 mm long, outer 2.0– 7 mm wide, minutely mucronate, inner 1.7–5.0 mm wide. Stamens 6, suberect to spreading, subequal or outer whorl slightly shorter than inner, yellow or orange; filaments inserted on ovary rim, outer 1.0– 2.5 mm long, inner 1.5–2.5 mm long, both whorls shorter than anthers; anthers narrowly oblong, latrorse, 2.5–7.0(–10.5) × 1.0– 1.5 mm, basal lobes up to 1.0 mm long; pollen yellow. Ovary narrowly to broadly obconical, 2–10 × 1.3–5.0 mm, predominantly 1-locular or sometimes partially 3-locular in proximal half; style 0.3–3.0 mm long, tapering upwards; stigma branches suberect to spreading, lanceolate, 2.5–6.0 × 0.7–1.7 mm, ca. shorter than to as long as stamens, yellow or orange, sometimes with basal lobes up to ca. 1 mm long and spreading between filaments, densely papillose. Capsule narrowly to broadly obconical, 3–14 × 2–8 mm, dehiscence circumscissile. Seeds depressed ovoid, 0.45–0.65 × 0.37–0.55 mm; testa brownish, of ca. 20 closely or somewhat moderately spaced, longitudinal rows of bluntly conical to rounded, hump-like projections, outline of anticlinal cell walls not evident. Flowering period: (June–)July–September(–November at high altitudes).
Distribution and habitat:— Pauridia gracilipes is widespread from the Kamiesberg in Namaqualand and the Bokkeveld Escarpment, close to Nieuwoudtville, through to the Matsikammaberg, Cederberg and Olifants River Valley, extending southwards to the Piketberg, West Coast and the outskirts of Cape Town as well as eastwards to the Gydouw Pass and Hex River Valley ( Fig. 33B).
Diagnostic features:—One of the more common species of Pauridia in the northwestern and southwestern Cape, Pgracilipes belongs to what Nel (1914b) referred to as the Ovatae Group, defined by a globose corm encircled by persistent roots, a solitary-flowered inflorescence with just one filiform bract, and a flower with a unilocular ovary. Here P. gracilipes is circumscribed to include plants of widely varying sizes but diagnosed and readily separated from the closely allied white-flowered S. ovata from the Overberg in the east by its yellow to orange flowers.
Variation:— Pauridia gracilipes shows small shifts in the size and proportions of the leaves and flowers in different parts of its range. This variation is mostly continuous, but a few populations show small but discrete differences which are worthy of mention.
On the Kamiesberg and the Bokkeveld Escarpment in the north of the range flowers of Pauridia gracilipes have equally long outer and inner stamens. In contrast, plants from the Matsikamma Massif extending southwards into the southwestern Cape have distinctly biseriate stamens with the outer whorl clearly shorter than the inner. The filaments throughout the geographic range, nevertheless, are invariably shorter than the anthers.
Also on the Kamiesberg, and the Cape Fold Mountains in the northwestern and southwestern Cape, 300 km to the south, are small, localized groups of broad-leaved plants which are restricted to shaded, seasonally wet rock crevices and moss-covered rocky banks. When seen as isolated herbarium specimens these plants, with leaves expanded up to 8–27 mm wide, often appear to be distinct, but field studies show that their dimensions grade into those of plants found in slightly more exposed positions nearby. Thus in herbaria these localized broad-leaved plants have often been misidentified as white-flowered S. ovata , which is restricted to the lowland renosterveld in the east.
In shallow soils throughout the entire range there are large populations of dwarfed plants in which the inflorescence extends only a short distance above ground. Of these diminutive plants, those from along the Olifants River Valley match the type of Spiloxene cuspidata (Nel) Garside , which Nel (1914b) inaccurately described as having two filiform bracts per inflorescence, although only one bract is evident on the type specimen.
Some of the tallest plants of P. gracilipes are concentrated around the granite outcrops near Langebaan on the Atlantic Coast. Apart from their size these plants are also unusual in having pedicles that reflex so strongly that the capsules are inverted through 1800 while maturing. Unfortunately the taxonomic significance of this habit cannot be gauged until the character is better understood elsewhere in its range.
Most notable amongst the variable populations within P. gracilipes are several small, localized groups of plants found on the high-lying granite domes of the Kamiesberg, Namaqualand. These have particularly large flowers with broad outer tepals and the flowers are most often solid orange apart from an attractive reddish blush on the abaxial surface. It is notable that no other plants within Pauridia have orange stamens and stigmas, as well as orange tepals. Being morphologically and ecologically distinct from the remaining populations of P. gracilipes I recognize these uniquely coloured high altitude populations as a separate taxon, subsp. speciosa .
Key to subspecies
1. Flower yellow; tepals 5–16(–19) mm long, outer tepals 2.0– 5.5 mm wide, inner tepals 1.7–5.0 mm wide ........................... ....................................................................................................................................................................... subsp. gracilipes
- Flower orange; tepals (10.5–) 14–25 mm long, outer tepals 4–7 mm wide, inner tepals 3–5 mm wide .......... subsp. speciosa
a. subsp. gracilipes = Ianthe cuspidata Nel (1914b: 294) ≡ Spiloxene cuspidata (Nel) Garside (1936: 268) ≡ Hypoxis cuspidata (Nel) Geerinck (1969: 78) . Type (holotype):— SOUTH AFRICA, [Western Cape], Brakfontein [QDS: 3218BD], Ecklon & Zeyher [Hypoxid 19] (B! No. 100089225 [image], isotype W)
Plants 2.5–23(–30) cm tall. Leaves 2–10, sheathing up to 30 mm, suberect to slightly arched, rarely outspread, linear to lanceolate, 30–175 × 1–27 mm, tapering evenly upwards, or rarely abruptly expanded above neck, canaliculate proximally to carinate distally, midrib prominent abaxially, firm- or rarely thin-textured, margin sometimes minutely papillate. Flower yellow, backed with pale green in outer whorl, sometimes reddish brown towards tips, contrasting colouring less marked in inner whorl; pedicel suberect at anthesis, deflexing somewhat laterally in fruit, terete, 15–112 × 1 mm; tepals oblong-lanceolate to elliptical, 5–16(–19) mm long, outer 2.0– 5.5 mm wide, inner 1.7–5.0 mm wide. Stamens suberect, rarely subequal, outer whorl shorter than inner, yellow; filaments shorter than anthers, outer 1.0–2.0 mm long, inner 1.5–2.5 mm long; anthers 2.5–6.5 × 1.0– 1.5 mm; pollen yellow. Ovary narrowly obconical, 2.0–5.0 × 1.3–2.5 mm; style 0.3–2.5 mm long; stigma branches erect, 2.5–6.0 × 0.7–1.7 mm, ca. shorter than to equalling stamens, yellow. Capsule narrowly to broadly obconical, 3–14 × 2–6 mm. Seeds depressed ovoid, 0.45–0.62 × 0.37–0.54 mm; testa dark brown, of ca. 21 widely separated rows of hump-like projections, outline of anticlinal walls not evident. Flowering period: (June–)July–September(–November at high altitudes).
Distribution and habitat:— Pauridia gracilipes subsp. gracilipes is found in Northern Cape and Western Cape Provinces, extending from the Kamiesberg in Namaqualand southwards to the outskirts of Cape Town ( Fig. 33B). Over this range plants are found in localized populations in soils derived from decomposed granite and sandstone, usually along the edges of seasonal streams and seepage areas, and often partially shaded by rocks.
Diagnostic features:—Unless dwarfed by growing in shallow soils, like those matching the type of Spiloxene cuspidata , most plants of subsp. gracilipes are erect with distally arching and usually firm leaves. This subspecies, however, also includes several broad-leaved plants, with thin-textured leaves, typically found in wet rock crevices and shaded rock banks. It is distinguished from subsp. speciosa by its generally smaller flowers which are invariably yellow.
Additional specimens examined:— SOUTH AFRICA. Northern Cape: Kamiesberg, Modderfontein Farm, below Sneeukop (QDS: 3017BB), 10 November 2008, Rourke 2288 (NBG!); Namaqualand, Farm Pendoringhoek, top of Kamiesberg Pass (QDS: 3018AA), 23 September 2006, Cole 3 (NBG!); Kamiesberg, 10 km NE of Sneeukop (QDS: 3018AA), 3 September 2004, Helme 3265 (NBG!); Olienfontein, Kamiesberg (QDS: 3018AA), 18 September 1934, Markötter sub Herb. Uniw. Stellenbosch 19401 (NBG!); NE of Farm De Kuilen towards Pedroskloof (QDS: 3018AA), 12 September 2007, Snijman 2155 (NBG!, PRE!); Leliefontain, foot of Kamiesberg Mountain (QDS: 3018AC), 12 October 1981, Le Roux & Ramsey 666 (NBG!); Stalberg, Sof Farm Welkom, Kamiesberg (QDS: 3018AC), September 2002, Rourke 2231 (NBG!); just Wof the Kruispad-Langkloof road on Farm Karas, Wof Rooiberg (QDS: 3018AC), 29 August 2002, Paterson-Jones & Hopper 876 (NBG!); Farm Damsland, Wslopes of Rusbospoort, foot of Rooiberg (QDS: 3018AC), 3 June 1980, Snijman 272 (NBG!); Kamiesberg, Farm Karas (QDS: 3018AC), 6 September 2006, Snijman 2072 (NBG!); Farm Damsland, base of Rooiberg (QDS: 3018AC), 11 September 2007, Snijman 2130 (NBG!); Farm Damsland, Nof ruined homestead (QDS: 3018AC), 29 October 2009, Snijman 2188 (NBG!, PRE!); Kamiesberg Pass, Eof Kamieskroon (QDS: 3018BB), 12 September 1993, Goldblatt & Manning 9721 (NBG!); Kamiesberg, Grasberg, Paulshoek (QDS: 3018CB), 22 August 1999, Desmet 156 (NBG!); Toringberg, 27 km Wof Bitterfontein, Louisfontein 44 (QDS: 3117BB), 26 July 2009, Helme 6361 (NBG!); Toringberg, 25 km Wof Bitterfontein, Louisfontein 44 (QDS: 3118AA), 26 July 2009, Helme 6362 (NBG!); Oorlogskloof (QDS: 3119AC), September, Leipoldt 830 (NBG!); Oorlogskloof Nature Reserve, 15 km SSW of Nieuwoudtville, Grid O16 (QDS: 3119AC), 13 September 1995, Pretorius 281 (NBG!); Oorlogskloof Nature Reserve (QDS: 3119AC), 15 September 2005, Turner 1373 (NBG!); southern edge of Oorlogskloof Nature Reserve, Annex Uitkomst (QDS: 3119CA), 4 September 2006, Helme 4243 (NBG!); Oorlogskloof Nature Reserve, Grid A6 (QDS: 3119CA), 3 August 19888, Pretorius 53 (NBG!, PRE!); Farm Papkuilsfontein, SE of Nieuwoudtville (QDS: 3119CA), 4 September 1985, Snijman 895 (NBG!); Nieuwoudtville, Farm Uitkoms (QDS: 3119CA), 9 August 1983, Van Wyk 1370 (NBG!, PRE!). Western Cape: top of Gifberg Pass (QDS: 3118DC), 7 October 1973, Bayliss 6182 (NBG!); Gifberg (QDS: 3118DC), September 1911, Phillips sub Herb Austro-Africani 3276 (SAM!); Gifberg, top of Pass (QDS: 3118DC), 10 June 1965, Thompson 106 (NBG!); Gifberg, summit above van Taakskom (QDS: 3118DD), 13 July 1974, Thompson 2073 (NBG!); at turnoff to van Taakskom at summit of Gifberg (QDS: 3118DD), 3 August 1987, Snijman 1146 (NBG!); Pilaarsberg, Nof Pakhuis Pass (QDS: 3218BB), September 1967, Kerfoot 5905 (NBG!); Pakhuis Pass (QDS: 3218BB), 13 July 1964, Thompson 38 (NBG!, PRE!); Pakhuis Pass, near Leipoldt’s Grave (QDS: 3218BB), 15 September 1976, Thompson 2935 (NBG!); Algeria, moist slopes 12 km from Algeria on Clanwilliam road (QDS: 3218BD), 20 July 1976, Goldblatt 3622 (PRE!); 15 km Sof Clanwilliam on old national road (QDS: 3218BD), 29 August 1979, Le Roux 2493 (NBG!); Olifants River Valley near Nardouw Road (QDS: 3218BD), September 1945, Lewis 1460 (SAM!); opposite Farm Klein Remhoogte (QDS: 3218BD), 10 August 1984, Snijman 816 (NBG!); [Farm] Alpha (QDS: 3218BD), 28 July 1963, Barker 9903 (NBG!); 23 km from Clanwilliam along road to Citrusdal (QDS: 3218BD), 1 September 1993, Strid 37361 (NBG!); 11 miles [17.7 km] Sof Clanwilliam on old road to Citrusdal (QDS: 3218BD), 6 September 1966, Thompson 210 (NBG!, PRE!); Pikeniers Pass (QDS: 3218DB), 22 August 1966, Barker 10441 (NBG!); Grey’s Pass (QDS: 3218DB), 19 July 1941, Compton 10926 (NBG!); PiqueniersKloof (QDS: 3218DB), 17 July 1948, Compton 20589 (NBG!); Piketberg (QDS: 3218DB), 22 August 2009, Ebrahim s.n. ( NBG 267838 View Materials !) ; Grey’s Pass (QDS: 3218 DB) , 2 September 1938, Hafstrom & Acocks 249, ( PRE!) ; Pikeniers Kloof Pass (QDS: 3218 DB) , 11 July 1974, Thompson 2034 ( NBG!) ; Piquetberg (QDS: 3218 DD) , October 1892, Bodkin sub Herb Austro-Africanae 7559 ( NBG!) , Guthrie 2707 ( NBG!) ; foot of Pakhuis Pass , Eside (QDS: 3219 AA) , July 1948, Lewis 3015 ( SAM!) ; Boontjieskloof , just Eof Pakhuis Pass (QDS: 3219 AA) , 12 October 1969, Oliver 3001 ( NBG!) ; Nieuwoudt Pass (QDS: 3219 AC) , 27 July 1963, Barker 9897 ( NBG!) ; Geelkrans on Farm Vlakrug (QDS: 3219 CA) , 12 September 1970, Thompson 1096 ( NBG!, PRE!) ; Saldanha Bay (QDS: 3317 BB) , July 1918, Marloth 8363 ( PRE!) ; Hopefield District , Naval Academy Grounds (QDS: 3318 AA) , 18 June 1965, Barker 10235 ( NBG!) ; Langebaan , Akkers Farm (QDS: 3318 AA) , 16 August 1966, Barker 10403 ( NBG!) ; Langebaan (QDS: 3318 AA) , 14 July 2000, Snijman 1753 ( NBG!) ; ibidem, 13 August 2006, Snijman 2042 ( NBG!) ; Nof Bottelfontein, Sof Kalabaskraal Village (QDS: 3318 DA) , 19 July 2002, Low 7448 ( NBG!) ; Milnerton (QDS: 3318 DC) , 29 June 1942, Barker 1777 ( NBG!) ; Modderfontein (QDS: 3318 DC) , 23 August 1894, Schlechter 4975 ( BOL!, PRE!) ; Stellenbosch flats (QDS: 3318 DD) , 16 July 1918, Garside s.n. ( BOL 31828 View Materials !) ; Nof Tulbagh , Welbedacht Farm (QDS: 3319 AA) , 13 August 2009, Koopman s.n. ( NBG! 267837); Saron (QDS: 3319 AA) , 22 June 1896, Schlechter 7867 ( BOL!, PRE!) ; Agter Witzenberg pass on Modder Rivier’s Kloof (QDS: 3319 AB) , 7 October 2006, Oliver 12407 ( NBG!) , Oliver 12409 ( NBG!) ; Nuwekloofpas , Wof Tulbaghweg (QDS: 3319 AC) , Snijman 2121 (NBG!); Ceres Division , Laaken Vlei (QDS: 3319 AD) , September 1924, Levyns 1035 ( BOL!) ; Mitchells [Michell’s] Pass (QDS: 3319 AD) , 8 October 1981, Mauve & Hugo 77 ( PRE!) ; Ceres District , Gydouw Pass (QDS: 3319 AD) , 18 August 1934, Salter 4700 ( BOL!) ; Mitchells [Michell’s] Pass (QDS: 3319 AD) , 19 August 1934, Salter 4710 ( BOL!) ; ibidem, August 1942, Walgate 376 ( NBG!) ; Michells Pass (QDS: 3319 AD) , 22 August 1963, Walters 173 ( NBG!) ; ibidem, Walters 808 ( NBG) ; Hex River Valley (QDS: 3319 BC) , October 1881, Tyson 629 ( BOL!, SAM!) ; Paarl Division , Sebastian’s Kloof (QDS: 3319 CA) , 14 September 1941, Esterhuysen 6109 ( BOL!) ; Lower Krom River off Du Toit’s Pass (QDS: 3319 CA) , 6 November 1969, Thompson 986 ( NBG!) ; Worcester , Audensberg (QDS: 3319 CB) , 6 October 1940, Compton 9748 ( NBG!) ; ibidem, Esterhuysen 3159 ( BOL!) ; Bergvliet Farm , Constantia (QDS: 3418 AB) , 19 May 1917, Purcell s.n. ( SAM 91246 View Materials !) .
b. subsp. speciosa Snijman , subsp. nov. Figs. 3F & 34
New subspecies resembling subsp. gracilipes but differing by the habit of somewhat stiff leaves, flowers deep to pale orange and large, tepals (10.5–) 14–25 mm long, outer tepals 4–7 mm wide, and seeds with testa covered by closely arranged, longitudinal rows of hump-like projections.
Plants (7.5–) 11–30 cm tall. Leaves 3–6, sheathing proximally up to ca. 25 mm, often clasping in lower ⅓, suberect to arched distally, linear, 65–220 × (2–) 5–9 mm, tapering evenly upwards, canaliculate for ca. ⅔ of length, ca. carinate distally, midrib obtuse abaxially, often dark green, sometimes flushed beetroot-red proximally, firmtextured, margin entire, occasionally reddish. Flower pale to deep orange, backed with reddish brown in outer whorl, restricted to median band in inner whorl; pedicel suberect, remaining so in fruit, subterete, 70–150 × 1–2 mm; tepals oblong-lanceolate, (10.5–) 14–25 mm long, outer 4–7 mm wide, inner 3–5 mm wide. Stamens slightly spreading, subequal, orange; filaments 1.0– 2.5 mm long, much shorter than anthers; anthers (5.5–)7.0–10.5 × 1.0– 1.5 mm; pollen yellow. Ovary broadly obconical, 4–10 × 3–5 mm, style 2–3 mm long, tapering upwards; stigma branches erect to spreading, (2.5–)3.5–4.5 × 0.7–1.5 mm, shorter than stamens, orange, sometimes with basal lobes ca. 1 mm long. Capsule obconical, up to 10 × 8 mm. Seeds depressed ellipsoid, ca. 0.65 × 0.55 mm; testa brownish, of ca. 20, closely arranged, longitudinal rows of hump-like projections. Flowering period: September–early November.
Distribution and habitat:— Pauridia gracilipes subsp. speciosa is endemic to the Kamiesberg, Namaqualand, where it is found at high elevations of 1100 to 1300 meters ( Fig. 33B). Populations are localized in shallow loamy soil in seepage areas near the base of massive granite domes and in deeper soils along the banks of upland seasonal streams which flow from high peaks in the southwest. Lacking large shrubs, these small wetlands and seepage areas are rich in geophytes, especially in the family Iridaceae , many of which are endemic to the area.
Diagnostic features:— subsp. speciosa has a firm, somewhat fleshy habit in which the leaves partially clasp each other and the scape for about a third of their length. Although the orange colour of the flowers varies in intensity from deep, pure orange to yellowish orange, the flowers are distinguished by concolorous tepals, stamens and style ( Fig. 3F), a combination which is unique in the genus. In addition, the outer tepals are usually richly flushed dorsally with reddish brown, making this one of the most attractive taxa within Pauridia . Subtle differences between the subspecies are also found in the seeds. These have hump-like projections arranged in close, longitudinal rows on the testa in subsp. speciosa , unlike the widely spaced rows in the seeds of subsp. gracilipes .
Several early collections of this Kamiesberg endemic have erroneously been named Spiloxene linearis (Andrews) Garside (now P. linearis ), a pale orange-flowered species from the Atlantic Coast, in the vicinity of of Paternoster and Langebaan, Western Cape. Although solitary flowered, it has two filifom bracts per inflorescence, the tepals are green dorsally and the ovary is apparently fully trilocular. The ensuing confusion over the identity of the Kamiesberg plant probably accounts for the taxon not having been described until now, despite the first collection dating back to 1830 when it was recorded by Drège.
Additional specimens examined (paratypes):— SOUTH AFRICA. Northern Cape: Khamiesberg, Khamsoap [soub] Ravine (QDS: 3017 BB), 15 September 1911, Pearson 6535 ( BOL!) ; NW slopes of Ezelkop (QDS: 3017 BD), 7 September 1966, Lorenzo s.n. ( NBG!) ; bei Leliefontein moistens den Höhen am Fuss des Ezelskop (QDS: 3018 AC), November 1830, Drège 2657 ( TCD!) ; Welkom , SE of Kamiesberg (QDS: 3018 AC), 14 September 1970, Oliver 3170 ( PRE!) ; Kamiesberg, at base of granite dome, Farm Karas, Kamiesberg (QDS: 3018 AC), 29 August 2002, Paterson-Jones & Hopper 879 ( NBG!) ; Namaqualand, Lilyfontein (QDS: 3018 AC), 1 October 1947, Rodin 1453 ( NBG!) ; Farm Damsland, base of Rooiberg, Kamiesberg Mtns (QDS: 3018 AC), 11 September 2007, Snijman 2131 ( NBG!) ; Farm Damsland , Nof ruined homestead (QDS: 3018 AC), 29 October 2007, Snijman 2187 ( NBG!, PRE!) .
South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI)
South African National Biodiversity Institute
Forest Research Institute, Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education
Ministry of Science, Academy of Sciences
South African Museum
Amherst College, Beneski Museum of Natural History
Chicago Academy of Sciences
Buffalo Bill Museum
University of Cape Town
State Herbarium of South Australia
Institut Botànic de Barcelona
The CB Rhizobium Collection
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