Pedaliodes manis ivica Viloria & Pyrcz

Viloria, Angel L., Pyrcz, Tomasz W. & Orellana, Andrés, 2010, A survey of the Neotropical montane butterflies of the subtribe Pronophilina (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) in the Venezuelan Cordillera de la Costa, Zootaxa 2622, pp. 1-41: 17-18

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.198119

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03CC4D11-FFDB-D162-FF00-5D0303B2FEAD

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Pedaliodes manis ivica Viloria & Pyrcz
status

n. ssp.

Pedaliodes manis ivica Viloria & Pyrcz   n. ssp.

( Figs. 3, 4 View FIGURES 1 – 10 , 61 View FIGURES 58 – 63. a )

[ Pronophila pisonia Hewitson   , var.; Hewitson, 1862: 7, pl. 3, fig. 20].

[ Pronophila ereiba   C. & R. Felder, var.; C. & R. Felder, 1867: 469].

Pronophila manis   C. & R. Felder, 1867: 469. 1 male, Bogotá, Uricoechea, Felder Colln., (Rhop. slide No. 11668) [LECTOTYPE of Pronophila manis   C. & R. Felder, herein designated], RB, BMNH; 4 males, [no data], Felder Colln., (1 genit. prep. ALV 148 - 96) [PARALECTOTYPES of P. ma nis C. & R. Felder, herein designated], RB, BMNH.

Pedaliodes manis   (C. & R. Felder); Butler, 1868: 174.

Diagnosis: P. manis ivica   differs from the nominate subspecies and other, as yet undescribed races of P. manis   occurring throughout the Andes from the CM to the Bolivian Yungas (more than 200 invididuals examined), in the considerably smaller size, the much lighter HWV ground color with more prominent greyish white postmedian markings. Consistent differences between ivica and other subspecies of P. manis   are also found in the male genitalia ( Figs. 58, 59, 60, 61 View FIGURES 58 – 63. a ). Specifically, the dorsal process of the valvae is short and acute, whereas in the nominate subspecies, as emphasised by Adams (1986), it is long, nearly as long as the apical process, wide and serrate. On the genitalic level, P. manis ivica   closely resembles P. croizatorum Viloria & Camacho   occurring in the ST. The latter has, however, conspicuous orange HWV markings which are absent in P. manis   .

Description: MALE ( Fig. 3 View FIGURES 1 – 10 ): Head, thorax and abdomen as in the nominate subspecies. FW length: 21.5– 24 mm: mean: 23.1 mm, n = 21. FWD: Chocolate brown, slightly lighter and lustrous in outer one-third. HWD: Uniform chocolate brown. FWV: Dull brown, slightly darker in median area and along outer margin; dirty white scales along outer edge of postmedian line, denser towards costa, forming a short diffuse streak; a series of four tiny subapical yellow dots R 5 -M 1 to M 3 -Cu 1. HWV: Chestnut brown suffused with orange along anal margin and tornus; fine, greyish white scaling forming a broken median line; greyish white suffusion along distal edge of the postmedian line forming a white costal patch, a fine postmedian line from M 1 to M 3, and a widening band from M 3 to tornus; a white submarginal dot in Cu 1 -Cu 2. Male genitalia ( Fig. 61 View FIGURES 58 – 63. a ): Primary valval process thin, pointed process, secondary process short and pointed; other sclerits not differing notably from other subspecies.

FEMALE ( Fig. 4 View FIGURES 1 – 10 ): FW length: 22.5– 24 mm; 23.9 mm; n= 5. Similar to male, but lighter brown on the upperside and with somewhat more prominent greyish white elements on the underside. Female genitalia: not examined.

Types: Holotype (male): Altos de Pipe-IVIC, 1600–1650 m, 07.III. 2010, T. Pyrcz leg., MIZA; Paratypes (49 males and 6 females): DISTRITO FEDERAL: 6 males: Parque Nacional Avila, Sabas Nieves, 1400 m, 24.IV. 1993, P. Rouche leg., 3 MZUJ, 3 TWP; 2 males: Parque Nacional Avila, Rio Catuche, 1200 m, 07.XI. 1993, P. Rouche leg., TWP; 1 male: Parque Nacional Avila, Quebrada Anauco, VII. 1985, 1400 m, T. Pyrcz leg., TWP; 7 males: P. N. El Avila, El Edén, 15.V. 1975, R. Dietz leg., MIZA; 1 male: Los Venados, Avila, 1500 m, 03.III. 1981, M. Costa leg., MCC; 1 male: same data but 11.X. 1982, MCC; 1 male: Avila, 1800 m, 19. VII. 2003, M. Costa leg., MCC; 1 male: P. N. El Avila, Qda. Chacaito – Sabas Nieves trail, 31.XII. 1980, A. Neild leg., AFNL; 1 male: same data but VII. 1989, AFNL; 2 males: same data but 7.XI. 93, AFNL; 5 males: Caracas, Berg Avila, 1500 m, v- 1937, P. Cor. Vogl; 1 male, Caracas, Avila, 05.III. 1961, R. Feige leg., ZSBS; MIRANDA: 1 male: Altos de Pipe – IVIC, 1550–1650 m, 13.X. 2002. A. Neild leg., AFNL; 3 males: Altos de Pipe - IVIC, 1600–1650 m, 24.XI. 2004, T. Pyrcz leg., TWP; 1 male: same data but 26.VI. 2006, TWP; 1 male: same data but 24.XI. 2004, MZUJ; 5 males: same data but 07.III. 2010, MZUJ; 2 males: same data but 08.III. 2010, MZUJ; ARAGUA: 1 male: Rancho Grande, 800 m, 10.VII. 1952, F. Fernández Y. leg., MIZA; 1 male: Rancho Grande, 1100 m, 22.V. 1952, F. Fernández Y. leg.. MIZA; 1 male: Rancho Grande, 1100 m, 10.VIII. 1952, F. Fernández Y. leg., MIZA; 1 male: Rancho Grande, 1100 m, 28.VI. 1954, F. Fernández Y. leg., MIZA; 1 male: Rancho Grande, 1100 m, 30.V. 1953, F. Kern leg., MIZA; 1 male: Rancho Grande, 1100 m, 18.V. 1952, Fernández Y. leg., MIZA; 1 male: carretera Maracay-Choroní, 1400 m, 04.VIII. 1952, J. Requena leg., MIZA; 1 male: carretera Maracay-Choroní, 1300 m, 24.VI. 1952, F. Fernández Y. leg., MIZA; 1 female: Rancho Grande, 1100 m, 25.IX. 1952, F. Fernández Y. leg., MIZA; 1 male: Rancho Grande, 1100 m, 15.VII. 1952, F. Fernández Y. leg., MIZA; 1 male: Rancho Grande, 1100 m, 02.X. 1974, J. Salcedo and J. Clavijo leg., MIZA; 1 female: Rancho Grande, 1100 m, 13.IX. 1976, F. Fernández and J. Clavijo leg., MIZA; 1 female: Rancho Grande, 1100 m, 21.X. 1953, J. Requena leg., MIZA; 1 female: Rancho Grande, 1100 m, 10.V. 1952, F. Fernández Y. leg., MIZA; 1 male: Colonia Tovar, 1900 m, 27.VII. 2002, M. Costa leg., MCC; 1 male: Colonia Tovar, 1800–2000m. 12.X. 2002, A. Neild leg., AFNL; 1 male: carretera Maracay-Choroní, 1000 m, VII. 1995, F. Romero leg., FRR; 1 male: same data but 1250 m, IV. 1975, FRR; 1 male: same data but II. 1978, FRR; 1 female: Rancho Grande, Portachuelo, 1100 m, VIII. 1978, FRR.

Additional material: CARABOBO: 16 males: 15 km N Bejuma, Cerro San Isidro, 1550–1600 m, 10.VIII. 2003, T. Pyrcz leg., TWP; MIRANDA: 1 female: Qda. Pasaquire, 04.VII. 1982, J. DeMarmels leg., MIZA; 1 male: P.N. Guatopo, Agua Blanca (Macanillas), 410 m (1000 m), 14–27.IV. 1987, T. Pyrcz leg., MIZA; ARAGUA: 3 males: Tiara, 1200 m, 12.XI. 1992, J. Clavijo, J. DeMarmels and J. L García leg., MIZA; 1 male: same data but 25–27.XI. 1992, J. Clavijo and A. Chacón leg., MIZA; 2 males: same data but 24.V. 1994, J. Clavijo, A. Chacón and Q. Arias leg., MIZA; 1 male: same data but 26.V. 1994, J. Clavijo, J. DeMarmels and A.Chacón leg., MIZA; 3 males: same data but 17.V. 1994, A. Chacón and R. Grance leg., MIZA; 2 males: same data but 10.X. 1994, J. DeMarmels y A. Chacón leg., MIZA; 2 males: Tiara, Campamento Rangel, 1200 m, 20.II. 1986, F. Fernández Y. and J.Clavijo leg., MIZA; 5 males: Villa de Cura, Est. Exp. Cataurito, 27.X. 1981, J. DeMarmels leg., MIZA; 1 male: Tasajera, al sur de La Victoria El Consejo, 06.II. 1983, J. A. Clavijo leg., MIZA; 1 female: Tiara, 1200, 23. VI. 1994, J. DeMarmels y A. Chacón leg., MIZA; 1 female: Villa de Cura, Est. Exp. Cataurito, 1200 m, 21.VII. 1982, J. DeMarmels leg., MIZA; GUARICO: 18 males and 2 females: Cerro Platillón, 1450–1900 m, 24. II. 2007, T. Pyrcz leg., TWP.

Etymology: The epithet of this subspecies is derived from the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientficas because the holotype and a series of paratypes were collected in the area of Altos de Pipe in a small cloud forest patch belonging to IVIC.

Geographic range: SL (central and eastern).

Altitudinal range: 1100–1900 m.

Remarks: This is the first subspecies of P. m a n i s (other than the nominate) to be formally recognized and described. However, P. m a n i s is clearly polytypic with several well differentiated subspecies that can be identified by their color patterns, ecology and mostly by their male genital morphology, as can be appreciated in figures 58–61. The nominate subspecies was described from the area of Bogotá and it occurs throughout the EC. Several local populations deserve a separate subspecific status, particularly those found in the northernmost part of Peru (Pyrcz, 2004), the SNSM, and CM. The individuals collected in Bejuma (westernmost SL) and in the Serranía del Interior (most from Cerro Platillón) are excluded from the type series of ivica. They are morphologically slightly different from typical individuals of ivica from central SL. The specimens from Bejuma are darker, less patterned on the HWV, and differ in the shape of the dorsal process of the valvae. Those from Cerro Platillón are even smaller than typical ivica, and have particularly conspicuous HWV grey-white markings. They also come from widely isolated geographic units. Pedaliodes manis   presents interesting ecological adaptations. The EC and CM populations are adapted to secondary growths, and are commonly found in pastures and cultivated land. They occur far away from bamboo stands and, although their early stages have not been investigated so far, their larvae probably feed on nonbamboosoid exotic Poaceae   , such as Festuca   and Poa   . In Ecuador and Peru P. m a n i s are always associated with cloud forests and are always found in the vicinity of bamboos. The same applies for P. manis ivica   in the SL and the SI populations. Even though they commonly occur in disturbed areas, they are invariably associated with bamboo clumps, their plausible host plants. P. manis ivica   is found at low elevations, most often at 1400–1600 m asl. The Cerro Platillón population extends its elevational range to the top of this isolated mountain at above 1900 m asl. Isolated individuals of P. manis ivica   were recorded at particularly low elevations, at 1100 m in the Portachuelo Pass, Henrí Pittier National Park, and Macanillas in Guatopo National Park. P. manis ivica   is found in small, localized but high density populations. Adults are found on the wing throughout the year. P. manis ivica   is microsympatric with Pronophila obscura   , Pseudomaniola phaselis   and Lymanopoda caucana   .

HWD

Hollinwood Botanists' and Field Naturalists' Society

MIZA

Museo del Instituto de Zoologia Agricola Francisco Fernandez Yepez

ZSBS

Zoologische Sammlung des Bayerischen Staates

IVIC

Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas

FRR

Food Science Australia, Ryde

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Lepidoptera

Family

Nymphalidae

Genus

Pedaliodes

Loc

Pedaliodes manis ivica Viloria & Pyrcz

Viloria, Angel L., Pyrcz, Tomasz W. & Orellana, Andrés 2010
2010
Loc

Pedaliodes manis

Butler 1868: 174
1868
Loc

Pronophila ereiba

Felder 1867: 469
1867
Loc

Pronophila manis

Felder 1867: 469
1867
Loc

Pronophila pisonia

Hewitson 1862: 7
1862