Paraclastoptera erwini, Paladini & Thompson & Bell & Cryan, 2020

Paladini, Andressa, Thompson, Vinton, Bell, Adam J. & Cryan, Jason R., 2020, A remarkable new species of spittlebug and a second living New World genus in the Clastopteridae (Hemiptera: Cercopoidea), Zootaxa 4852 (3), pp. 361-371 : 364-365

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Paraclastoptera erwini

sp. n.

Paraclastoptera erwini sp. n.

( Figs 1–18 View FIGURES 1–13 View FIGURES 14–18 )

Type locality. Ecuador, Orellana Province, 1 km south of Onkone Gare Camp, Reserva Etnica Waorani , 00°39’25.7”S, 076°27’10.8”W GoogleMaps .

Diagnosis. Head creamy white with five black markings; postclypeus black, without a median carina; pronotum hexagonal, multicolored, with pronounced wrinkles, transverse on anterior, longitudinal on posterior; tegmina black, pilose, costal margin cream white, apical reticulate cells cream white; hind wing with closed preapical cell; pygofer short and stout; parameres (styles) subrectangular with a bifid elongated apex; aedeagus stout with a globose apex, curved dorsally.

Description. Head ( Figs 1–4 View FIGURES 1–13 , 14–15 View FIGURES 14–18 ), in dorsal view creamy white with five black markings: three on the anterior margin and one mark starting between the ocelli and forward to anterior margin of tylus, posterior margin with two black stripes located on the middle portion, elevated like a flap over anterior margin of pronotum; head moderately pilose with about 20 hairs between each ocellus and eye and a row of comb-like hairs located posterior to eye overlapping posterior margin of head continuing ventrally but not reaching the inner margin of eye; eyes greyish, rounded with a slight teardrop shape toward bottom; ocelli closer to each other than to eyes; tylus rectangular with anterior margin slightly curved, two thirds of central area black, lateral portions creamy white; vertex rectangular, creamy white, pilose; antennae brownish inserted on a deep pit with basal body of flagellum cylindrical and a long arista; postclypeus black with ventral portion and lateral ridges creamy white, hexagonal, without a median carina, dorsal margin straight, ventral margin concave in the middle portion, twelve lateral ridges on each side, anteclypeus black with cream spots on posterior margin, anterior margin cream white, pilose; rostrum with second article cream and third one black brown, not reaching the mesocoxae. Thorax ( Figs 1–2, 4 –5 View FIGURES 1–13 , 14–15 View FIGURES 14–18 ): blackish; pronotum hexagonal, multicolored: a blackish band extending across the anterior margin with two small symmetrical extensions toward the median portion, one creamy white band extending across the pronotum in a shallow curve toward the humeral angles, posterior to this band are two triangular black areas to either side of median carina separated by a vertical white cream band in the middle, posterior region with a gold orangish luminescent canoe-shaped band about one fifth the length of pronotum, posterior margin creamy white, median carina strongly marked, anterior half slightly sinuous, becoming one of many longitudinal wrinkles in posterior half, pronotum covered in pronounced wrinkles, disposed transversally in the anterior half, longitudinally in the posterior half, with some individual wrinkles forming a right angle, anterior margin markedly convex, lateral margins slightly concave toward posterior, posterior margin deeply concave in the middle raising like a flap toward the anterior margin of scutellum; scutellum black, triangular with a cream apex and two small cream spots at midpoint, pilose with a pair of rounded lateral carina on anterior portion delineating a rounded cavity covering about half the length of scutellum; tegmina black, pilose, costal margin cream white, apical reticulate cells cream white, four closed cells located above apical callus, veins R2 and R3 creamy white, basal portion of second anal vein with a pronounced elevation, adjacent to pronounced cavity; pro and metathoracic legs black brown, hind legs black brown with a cream lateral area at point of articulation with tibia, tibia with two lateral spines, basal spine smaller, both tipped with black, apical spines of tibia disposed on a single row. Abdomen plain black.

Genitalia: Male: Pygofer short and stout, higher than wide with a bilobate process between the anal tube and subgenital plates ( Figs. 7–8 View FIGURES 1–13 ); subgenital plates turned upward, fused at base, apex bilobate with round lobes ( Figs. 7–8 View FIGURES 1–13 ); parameres (styles) subrectangular with a bifid elongated apex, upper lobe with a small spine located approximately on the middle portion in external view, dorsal process curved and well developed with a subapical spine in external view ( Figs.9–11 View FIGURES 1–13 ), aedeagus stout with a globose apex, curved dorsally in lateral view, apex slightly bilobate and gonopore oval, subapical; shaft covered by scale-like spines. ( Figs. 12–13 View FIGURES 1–13 ); Female: Morphologically similar to the male, pygofer higher than wide ( Fig.16 View FIGURES 14–18 ); first valvulae of ovipositor ( Fig. 17 View FIGURES 14–18 ) long and slender tapering toward apex, basal process inconspicuous, rounded and turned backwards, second valvulae of ovipositor ( Fig. 18 View FIGURES 14–18 ) short and wide with dorsal margin undulate.

Tegminal color variation: The single male specimen from Brazil differs slightly from the Ecuadorian specimens in tegminal coloration. Markings by costal margin, near apex and straddling claval suture whiter and a bit more pronounced, with net effect of making the white tegminal markings more conspicuous.

Measurements (mm) mean/sd/range, ♀ N=4, ♂ N=4 for forewing length and 5 for all other measurements. Body length: ♂ 3.69/0.27/3.40–4.20, ♀ 3.75/0.31/3.30–4.15; head length: ♂ 0.28/0.02/0.25–0.3, ♀ 0.28/0.02/0.25–0.30; head width: ♂ 1.66/0.11/1.46–1.75, ♀ 1.75/0.13/1.60–1.95; pronotal length: ♂ 0.91/0.07/0.82– 1.00, ♀ 1.04/0.04/0.98–1.10; pronotal width: ♂ 1.69/0.10/1.52–1.78, ♀ 1.83/0.10/1.73–1.95; scutellum length: ♂ 1.18/0.08/1.03–1.25, ♀ 1.20/0.07/1.1–1.30; scutellum width: ♂ 0.83/0.08/0.70–0.95, ♀ 0.86/0.03/0.83–0.90; forewing length: ♂ 3.02/0.14/2.84–3.20, ♀ 3.03/0.16/2.85–3.25; forewing width: ♂ 1.43/0.03/1.40–1.45, ♀ 1.6/0.09/1.50–1.75.

Distribution. Ecuador, Brazil ( Fig. 19 View FIGURE 19 ).

Remarks. The single specimen from Brazil was taken about 1,800 km east of the Ecuadoran specimens. It appears to differ only in tegminal markings. Dorsal coloration is variable in many Clastoptera species (see examples in Doering 1928, plates I–II; Hamilton 1982, pp. 83–84). Given the geographical distance, we cannot exclude the possibility that the Brazilian specimen represents a distinct species but, based on its otherwise indistinguishable morphology, we include it in P. erwini .

Diagnostic characters separating P. erwini from Clastoptera and Iba are its pronounced and uniquely configured pronotal wrinkles ( Figs 1–2, 4 View FIGURES 1–13 , 14–15 View FIGURES 14–18 ) and the closed preapical cell on the hind wing ( Fig. 6 View FIGURES 1–13 ). Most Clastoptera have wrinkles covering the pronotum, always transverse, sometimes fine and indistinct, sometimes more pronounced, and serving as an important character differentiating species ( Doering 1928). In Iba , the wrinkles are inconspicuous and “obliquely striate” ( Hamilton 2015, fig. 6B) or absent (VT observations on several species). The pronounced and partly longitudinal wrinkles of P. erwini immediately distinguish it from every known species of Clastoptera and Iba . The closed hind wing preapical cell also distinguishes it from these genera. Hindwing venation is invariant in Clastoptera ( Doering 1928, p. 15) and includes an open preapical cell that is also characteristic of Iba ( Hamilton 2015, figs. 3C and 4C). In addition, P. erwini ’s scaly aedeagus ( Figs. 12–13 View FIGURES 1–13 ) is markedly distinct from the aedeagi of all 28 Clastoptera species illustrated in Doering (1928, plates XXV–XXVII).

Etymology. The Latin species name “ erwini ” honors the late Terry Erwin, whose pathbreaking canopy work made this study possible.

Material examined. Type material: Holotype (♂, dissected, deposited at USNM), with labels: “ 1232, Ecuador, Orellana / Transect Ent. 1 km S. / Onkone Gare Camp / Reserva Etnica Waorani ; 216.3m, 7-Oct-1995 / 00°39’25.7”S, 076°27’10.8”W / T. L. Erwin et al., t-7....2 / Fogging terre firme forest”; and “ HOLOTYPE / Paraclastoptera erwini / Paladini, Thompson, Bell, Cryan” GoogleMaps ; Paratypes, each including the additional label “PAPATYPE / Paraclastoptera erwini / Paladini , Thompson , Bell , Cryan ”: (♂, deposited at AMNH) with same label information as holotype, except: “6-Oct-94” and “t-10….5”; (♀, deposited at USNM) with same label information as holotype except: “22-Jun-96” and “t-5…3”; (2♀, 1 dissected and deposited at AMNH, 1 deposited at USNM) with labels: “2059, Ecuador, Orellana / Tiputini Biodiversity Sta. / nr Yasuni Nat. Park / Erwin Transect—T/6; 220–250m, 7- Feb-1999 / 00º37’55”S, 076º08’39”W / T. L. Erwin et al., t-6....10 / Fogging terre firme forest”; (♂, deposited at USNM) with same label information, except: “t6….3”; ”; (♀, deposited at USNM) with same label information except: “5-Feb-99” and “t9….1”; GoogleMaps (♂, USNM), with label information: “ ECUADOR: NAPO Res. Ethnica / Waoroni, 1km S. Onkone Gare / Camp, Trans.Ent. 20 Jan 1994 / 220m, 00 o 38’S 076 o 36’W / T. L. Erwin, et. Al; Insecticidal fogging of the mostly bare / green leaves, some with covering / of lichenous or bryophytic plants / Project MAXUS at x-trans 7,58 m / Lot 615” GoogleMaps ; Other material: (♂, USNM), with label information: “ BRASIL: / Amazonas / Hwy BR174 / N of Manaus, km 20/ 19 August 1979 / Terra firme; CANOPY FOGGING PROJECT / TRS #101 Tray 736 / Adis, Erwin, Montgomery, / et. al. collectors; Terra firme forest / canopy fogged with / Pyrethrum” .


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics


American Museum of Natural History