Paramacrobiotus intii, Kaczmarek, Łukasz, Cytan, Joanna, Zawierucha, Krzysztof, Diduszko, Dawid & Michalczyk, Łukasz, 2014

Kaczmarek, Łukasz, Cytan, Joanna, Zawierucha, Krzysztof, Diduszko, Dawid & Michalczyk, Łukasz, 2014, Tardigrades from Peru (South America), with descriptions of three new species of Parachela, Zootaxa 3790 (2), pp. 357-379: 369-374

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3790.2.5

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:564A86FD-557A-43CA-B015-6BA767E281F9

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03CAAB73-FFCD-8766-FF43-FD7BFDFA600F

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Paramacrobiotus intii
status

sp. nov.

Paramacrobiotus intii   sp. nov.

( Figs 18–32 View FIGURES 18 – 19 View FIGURES 20 – 25 View FIGURES 26 – 32 ; Tables 4–5)

Localities and number of specimens: I (125 + 42, 20 + 5 SEM). Material examined: Holotype (slide PE 2001 / 82) and 167 paratypes (124 animals and 42 eggs) (slides: PE 2001 /*, where the asterisk can be substituted by any of the following numbers: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 15, 17, 18, 19, 24, 31, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 55, 56, 57, 59, 60, 61, 62, 64, 65, 71, 73, 74, 75, 76, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83).

Description (measurements and statistics in Tables 4–5). Animals: Body colour transparent/white, eyes present in 87 of 125 (70 %) fixed specimens ( Figs 18–19 View FIGURES 18 – 19 ). Except for all legs, where well visible granulation is present ( Figs 24–25 View FIGURES 20 – 25 ), cuticle is smooth, i.e. without gibbosities, papillae, pores, spines or sculpturing.

Bucco-pharyngeal apparatus of the Macrobiotus   type, with the ventral lamina and ten peribuccal lamellae ( Fig. 20–23 View FIGURES 20 – 25 ). Mouth antero-ventral. The oral cavity armature composed of two posterior bands of teeth (similar on dorsal and ventral side) ( Fig. 21–23 View FIGURES 20 – 25 ). The first/anterior band of teeth is absent or not visible under PCM. The second band of teeth, comprising small granules arranged in a few irregular rows that run around the oral cavity wall ( PCM), is positioned at the rear of the oral cavity, between the ring fold and the third band of teeth. The third band of teeth is positioned just before the buccal tube opening and composed of large transverse ridges ( PCM). In this band, three ventral and three dorsal teeth are present (two lateral and one median). The median tooth is sometimes divided into a few smaller teeth. Pharyngeal bulb spherical, with triangular apophyses and three rodshaped macroplacoids. Macroplacoid length sequence 2 <1 <3 ( Fig. 20 View FIGURES 20 – 25 ). The first macroplacoid without constrictions but distinctly narrower anteriorly. The second macroplacoid of a uniform width and without constrictions. The third macroplacoid with a sub-terminal constriction. Microplacoid absent.

Claws of the hufelandi   type, stout ( Figs 24–25 View FIGURES 20 – 25 ). Primary branches with distinct accessory points. Lunules under claws I –III smooth ( Fig. 24 View FIGURES 20 – 25 ) and distinctly dentate on legs IV ( Fig. 25 View FIGURES 20 – 25 ). Thin cuticular bars under claws I –III present. Other cuticular thickenings on legs absent.

Eggs: Laid freely, white, spherical and ornamented ( Figs 19 View FIGURES 18 – 19 , 26–32 View FIGURES 26 – 32 ). Processes in the shape of blunt or slightly sharpened cones ( Figs 19 View FIGURES 18 – 19 , 26–27, 31– 32 View FIGURES 26 – 32 ). Labyrinthine layer between process walls is visible under PCM as a clear reticular pattern ( Fig. 28 View FIGURES 26 – 32 ). Egg shell areolated with a single ring of ten areolae around each process ( Figs 29–30 View FIGURES 26 – 32 ). Internal surface of areolae smooth and without pores ( PCM and SEM).

Etymology. The new species is named after Inti, the ancient Incan Sun god.

Type locality. Peru: 13 ° 25 'S; 71 ° 51 'W, ca. 3,000 m asl, Cusco Region, Pisac near Cusco, mixed mosses and lichens from rock, date: 28.10. 2010, coll. Dawid Diduszko.

Type depositories. Holotype (slide slide PE 2001 / 82) and 148 paratypes (slides: PE 2001 /*, where the asterisk can be substituted by any of the following numbers: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 15, 17, 18, 19, 24, 31, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 55, 56, 57, 59, 60, 61, 62, 64, 65, 71, 73, 74, 75, 76, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83) are deposited at the Department of Animal Taxonomy and Ecology, Institute of Environmental Biology, A. Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznań ( Poland), 10 paratypes (PE 2001 / 41, PE 2001 / 47, PE 2001 / 83) are deposited at the Natural History Museum, University of Copenhagen Universitetsparken 15, DK- 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark and 9 paratypes (PE 2001 / 40, PE 2001 / 49, PE 2001 / 76) are deposited at the Department of Entomology Institute of Zoology Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387, Kraków, Poland.

Differential diagnosis. By the shape of egg processes and by the lack of a microplacoid, Paramacrobiotus intii   sp. nov. is most similar to the species of the areolatus   and huziori   groups within the genus Paramacrobiotus   , i.e. P. areolatus   ( Murray, 1907), P. centesimus (Pilato, 2000)   , P. crenatus ( Maucci, 1991)   , P. derkai ( Degma, Michalczyk & Kaczmarek, 2008)   , P. huziori   ( Michalczyk & Kaczmarek, 2006 b), P. klymenki Pilato, Kiosya, Lisi & Sabella, 2012   , P. tonollii ( Ramazzotti, 1956)   , and P. walteri   ( Biserov, 1997 / 8), but it differs from all of them by a different type of the oral cavity armature (i.e. the presence of only two posterior bands of teeth, teeth of the second row in the shape of granules) in the new species vs. the areolatus   oral cavity type (three bands of teeth present, teeth of the second row in the shape of small ridges parallel to the main axis of the buccal tube). Moreover, Paramacrobiotus intii   sp. nov. also differs from the abovementioned species:

Paramacrobiotus areolatus   , with a global distribution ( McInnes 1994), by: the shape of egg process (processes with blunt or slightly sharpened apices in the new species vs. processes with clearly sharp apices in P. areolatus   ), a different process height/base width ratio (processes wider than longer in the new species vs. processes longer than wider in P. areolatus   ), and by slightly wider egg processes (22.0–34.0 Μm in the new species vs. 19.0–22.0 Μm in P. areolatus   ).

Paramacrobiotus centesimus   , known only from Brazil (Pilato 2000), by: the presence of dentate lunules on claws IV, a different shape of apices of egg processes (blunt or slightly sharpened apices in the new species vs. sharp or indented apices in P. centesimus   ), slightly higher egg processes (15.4–24.4 Μm in the new species vs.

7.0–11.0 Μm in P. centesimus   ), and by a slightly lower number of egg processes on the egg circumference (9–10 in the new species vs. 11–12 in P. centesimus   ).

Paramacrobiotus crenatus   , known from Greenland and Russia ( Kaczmarek et al. 2005), by: a different shape of apices of egg processes (blunt or slightly sharpened apices in the new species vs. clearly sharp apices in P. crenatus   ), a different process height/base width ratio (processes wider than longer in the new species vs. processes longer than wider in P. crenatus   ), and by shorter egg processes (15.4–24.4 Μm in the new species vs. 40.0–44.0 Μm in P. crenatus   ).

Paramacrobiotus derkai   , known only from Colombia ( Degma et al. 2008), by: less protruding accessory points, the presence of dentate lunules on claws IV, a different shape of apices of egg processes (blunt or slightly sharpened apices in the new species vs. clearly sharp and flexible tips in P. de r k a i), a different type of egg areolation (the areolatus   type (a circle of large and unbranched areolae separates adjacent conical egg processes, the space between neighbouring areolae usually smaller than their width) in the new species vs. the huziori   type (small and branched areolae separate adjacent egg processes, the space between neighbouring areolae usually broader than their width) in P. derkai   ), and by a slightly lower number of egg processes on the egg circumference (9–10 in the new species vs. 12–16 in P. d e r k ai).

Paramacrobiotus huziori   known only from Costa Rica ( Michalczyk & Kaczmarek 2006 b, Kaczmarek et al. 2014) by: a different shape of apices of egg processes (blunt or slightly sharpened apices in the new species vs. sharp and elongated apices covered by small tubercles in P. h uz i or i), and by a different type of egg areolation (the areolatus   type (a circle of large and unbranched areolae separates adjacent conical egg processes, the space between neighbouring areolae usually smaller than their width) in the new species vs. the huziori   type (small and branched areolae separate adjacent egg processes, the space between neighbouring areolae usually broader than their width) in P. hu z i o r i.

Paramacrobiotus klymenki   , known only from Belarus ( Pilato et al. 2012), by: the presence of dentate lunules on claws IV, a different shape of egg processes (blunt or slightly sharpened apices with fully reticulated walls in the new species vs. sharp apices and with a small upper portion without wall reticulation in P. klymenki   ), and by slightly wider bases of egg processes (22.0–34.0 Μm in the new species vs. 16.4–18.2 Μm in P. klymenki   ).

Paramacrobiotus tonollii   , with a mainly North American distribution ( McInnes 1994, Meyer 2013), by: the absence of pores in the cuticle, the presence of dentate lunules on claws IV, the type of egg shell sculpture (areolation of the areolatus   type (a circle of large areolae around each process) in the new species vs. six ribs present at the bases of each process in P. tonollii   ), and by shorter egg processes (15.4–24.4 Μm in the new species vs. 32.0–35.0 Μm in P. tonollii   ).

Paramacrobiotus walteri   , known only from Russia ( Biserov, 1997 / 8) by: a different shape of apices of egg processes (blunt or slightly sharpened apices in the new species vs. clearly sharp and flexible bi- tri- or multifurcated apices in P. walteri   ).

PCM

Polish Collection of Microorganisms