Macrobiotus pisacensis, Kaczmarek, Łukasz, Cytan, Joanna, Zawierucha, Krzysztof, Diduszko, Dawid & Michalczyk, Łukasz, 2014

Kaczmarek, Łukasz, Cytan, Joanna, Zawierucha, Krzysztof, Diduszko, Dawid & Michalczyk, Łukasz, 2014, Tardigrades from Peru (South America), with descriptions of three new species of Parachela, Zootaxa 3790 (2), pp. 357-379: 364-369

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3790.2.5

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:564A86FD-557A-43CA-B015-6BA767E281F9

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6134305

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03CAAB73-FFC6-877B-FF43-FE37FC1B65E8

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Macrobiotus pisacensis
status

sp. nov.

Macrobiotus pisacensis   sp. nov.

( Figs 6–17 View FIGURES 6 – 10 View FIGURES 11 – 13 View FIGURES 14 – 17 ; Tables 2–3 View TABLE 2 View TABLE 3 )

Localities and number of specimens: I (105 + 26 eggs) (15 + 4 SEM). Material examined: Holotype (slide PE 2001 / 81) and 130 paratypes (104 animals and 26 eggs) (slides: PE 2001 /*, where the asterisk can be substituted by any of the following numbers: 5, 6, 7, 9, 12, 13, 16, 20, 21, 24, 30, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 43, 45, 47, 53, 54, 55, 56, 58, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 73, 74, 75, 76, 78, 80, 81, 82, 83).

Description (measurements and statistics in Tables 2–3 View TABLE 2 View TABLE 3 ). Animals: Body light yellow in living specimens and transparent after fixation ( Fig. 6 View FIGURES 6 – 10 ). Eyes present. Except for well visible granulation present on all legs ( Figs 10–13 View FIGURES 6 – 10 View FIGURES 11 – 13 ), cuticle is smooth, i.e. without gibbosities, papillae, spines or sculpturing but with well visible round and oval pores (0.5–1.0 Μm in diameter), scattered randomly over the entire body (not arranged in bands or other patterns, Figs 8–11 View FIGURES 6 – 10 View FIGURES 11 – 13 ).

Bucco-pharyngeal apparatus of the Macrobiotus   type, with the ventral lamina and ten peribuccal lamellae ( Fig. 7 View FIGURES 6 – 10 ). Mouth antero-ventral. The oral cavity armature with three bands of teeth (all visible only in SEM; under PCM only dorsal teeth of the third band are detectable). The first band of teeth are extremely small cones situated at the anterior portion of the oral cavity, just behind the base of the peribuccal lamellae. The second band of teeth are slightly larger cones, positioned at the rear of the oral cavity, between the ring fold and the third band of teeth comprises two small, lateral teeth in the shape of granules, positioned at the rear, dorsal side of the oral cavity, just before the buccal tube opening ( Fig. 7 View FIGURES 6 – 10 ). Ventral teeth of the third band absent or not visible in PCM (not examined under SEM).

Pharyngeal bulb spherical, with triangular apophyses, two rod-shaped macroplacoids and a triangular microplacoid. Macroplacoid length sequence 1> 2. The first macroplacoid with a central constriction, the second without constrictions ( Fig. 7 View FIGURES 6 – 10 ).

Claws large, of the ariekammensis   type ( Figs 11–13 View FIGURES 11 – 13 ). Primary branches with distinct accessory points. Lunules under claws on legs I–III smooth ( Fig. 12 View FIGURES 11 – 13 ) and distinctly dentate on legs IV ( Fig. 13 View FIGURES 11 – 13 ). Thin cuticular bars under claws I–III present. Other cuticular structures on legs absent.

Eggs: Laid freely, very light yellow, spherical and ornamented. Processes in the shape of truncated cones without discs ( Figs 14–17 View FIGURES 14 – 17 ). In the apical parts of some processes from one to a few septa are visible in a midsection ( PCM, Fig. 14 View FIGURES 14 – 17 , arrow). Surface between processes smooth, without areolation, pores or wrinkles ( Figs 15–16 View FIGURES 14 – 17 ). In the majority of the eggs examined, surface and processes were usually covered by small, particulate debris and thus poorly visible ( Fig. 16 View FIGURES 14 – 17 ).

Remarks. The oral cavity armature in this species is very poorly visible (the first and the second band of teeth are visible only under SEM), thus the buccal apparatus has to be examined very carefully in order to ensure a proper identification.

Etymology. The new species is named after the small city of Pisac (near Cusco) where the species was collected.

Type locality. Peru: 13 ° 25 'S; 71 ° 51 'W, ca. 3,000 m asl, Cusco Region, Pisac near Cusco, a mixed sample of mosses and lichens from rock, date: 28.10. 2010, coll. Dawid Diduszko.

Type depositories. Holotype (slide PE 2001 / 81) and 121 paratypes (slides: PE 2001 /*, where the asterisk can be substituted by any of the following numbers: 5, 6, 7, 9, 12, 13, 16, 20, 21, 24, 30, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 43, 45, 47, 53, 54, 55, 56, 58, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 73, 74, 75, 76, 78, 80, 81, 82, 83) are deposited at the Department of Animal Taxonomy and Ecology, Institute of Environmental Biology, A. Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Umultowska 89, 61–614 Poznań ( Poland), 5 paratypes (PE 2001 / 47, PE 2001 / 58, PE 2001 / 83) are deposited at the Natural History Museum, University of Copenhagen Universitetsparken 15, DK- 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark and 4 paratypes (PE 2001 / 63, PE 2001 / 76) are deposited at the Department of Entomology Institute of Zoology Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387, Kraków, Poland.

Differential diagnosis. In the shape and size of the claws Macrobiotus pisacensis   sp. nov. is most similar to Macrobiotus kirghizicus Tumanov, 2005   and Macrobiotus ariekammensis Węglarska, 1965   , but it differs specifically from:

Macrobiotus kirghizicus   , known only from Kirghizia ( Tumanov 2005), by: the body colour (yellow in the new species vs. white in M. kirghizicus   ), the presence of pores in the cuticle, well developed accessory points, shorter anterior claws IV (15.6–22.2 Μm in the new species vs. 35.5–45.9 Μm in M. kirghizicus   ), a smaller difference in the length of claws I and IV (claws IV at most 30 % longer than claws I in the new species vs. claws IV ca. 45 % longer than claws I in M. kirghizicus   ), a different shape of egg processes (short truncated cones without spines in the new species vs. short dome-shaped basal parts and rigid spine-like apical parts with irregularly distributed minute spines, clearly separated from the bases by a single internal septum in M. kirghizicus   ), the absence of pores and granules near the bases of egg processes, and by shorter egg processes (6.8–13.0 Μm in the new species vs. 15.2–28.7 Μm in M. kirghizicus   ). It is also worth noting that the egg surface and processes of both M. kirghizicus   and the new species are often covered by small, particulate debris making observation difficult.

Macrobiotus ariekammensis   , known from China, Norway ( Spitsbergen), Poland and Russia (listed in McInnes 1994 as M. adelges, Yang 2008   ), by: the presence of pores in the cuticle, well developed accessory points, a different shape of egg processes (short truncated cones without spines in the new species vs. bottle-shaped or conical processes with strongly narrowed apical parts covered by tiny spines in M. ariekammensis   ), the absence of dots near the bases of egg processes, shorter egg processes (6.8–13.0 Μm in the new species vs. 16.0–19.0 Μm in M. ariekammensis   ), and by larger distances between egg processes (2.6–6.8 Μm in the new species vs. 1.0–1.5 Μm in M. ariekammensis   ).

Genus: Minibiotus R. O. Schuster, 1980  

Minibiotus intermedius ( Plate, 1888)   *

Localities and number of specimens: III (3 + 1)

Remarks: The species has previously been reported from many localities throughout the world (including South America, although not Peru) and was considered cosmopolitan ( McInnes 1994). However, many older reports of this species need to be confirmed as new taxonomic traits, not considered important in earlier studies, have resulted in a number of new species descriptions in recent decades. These new species have been described from around the world (e.g. Claxton 1998, Li et al. 2008, Fontoura et al. 2009 a, b, Meyer & Hinton 2009, Rossi et al. 2009, Meyer & Domingue 2011, Meyer et al. 2011, Meyer 2012), indicating that Minibiotus intermedius sensu   stricto may not be cosmopolitan.

Genus: Paramacrobiotus Guidetti, Schill, Bertolani, Dandekar & Wolf, 2009  

PCM

Polish Collection of Microorganisms

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Tardigrada

Class

Eutardigrada

Order

Parachela

Family

Macrobiotidae

Genus

Macrobiotus

Loc

Macrobiotus pisacensis

Kaczmarek, Łukasz, Cytan, Joanna, Zawierucha, Krzysztof, Diduszko, Dawid & Michalczyk, Łukasz 2014
2014
Loc

M. adelges

Yang 2008
2008
Loc

Minibiotus R. O . Schuster, 1980

R.O. Schuster 1980
1980
Loc

Minibiotus intermedius (

Plate 1888
1888