Phanaeus funereus Balthasar, 1939

Moctezuma, Victor & Halffter, Gonzalo, 2021, Taxonomic revision of the Phanaeus endymion species group (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), with the descriptions of five new species, European Journal of Taxonomy 747, pp. 1-71 : 18-21

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2021.747.1333

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:3F0B6EAF-C616-4865-811A-414A094B590C

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4726221

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03CA87F2-FFEF-FFD5-FDB8-4443BDDC3F39

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Phanaeus funereus Balthasar, 1939
status

stat. rev.

Phanaeus funereus Balthasar, 1939   stat. rev.

Figs 1E View Fig , 2C View Fig , 5 View Fig , 17 View Fig , 18F View Fig , 19F View Fig

Phanaeus (s. str.) funereus Balthasar, 1939: 241   .

Phanaeus funereus   – Edmonds 1972: 830; 1994: 3, 9, 45–46 (as synonym of P. pyrois   ). — Howden & Young 1981: 137 (in part). — Arnaud 1982: 116 (as synonym of P. blanchardi   ); 2002b: 97 (as subspecies of P. pyrois   ). — Krajcik 2006: 152 (as synonym of P. pyrois   ). — Solís & Kohlmann 2012: 8 (as synonym of P. pyrois   ). — Edmonds & Zídek 2012: 3, 5, 13 (as synonym of P. pyrois   ). — Chamorro et al. 2019: 220–221 (as synonym of P. pyrois   ).

Phanaeus (Phanaeus) funereus   – Martínez & Pereira 1967: 53, 68 (as synonym of P. olsoufieffi   ).

Phanaeus (Notiophanaeus) pyrois funereus   – Arnaud 2002b: 97–98 (as subspecies of P. pyrois   ). — Chamorro et al. 2019: 220 (as synonym of P. pyrois   ).

Phanaeus pyrois funereus   – Kohlmann et al. 2018: 79, 93 (as subspecies of P. pyrois   ).

Phanaeus (s. str.) funereus   – Chamorro et al. 2019: 220–221 (as synonym of P. pyrois   ).

Non Phanaeus pyrois   (error) – Medina et al. 2001: 140 (in part). — Moctezuma & Halffter 2017: 55 (in part). — Moctezuma et al. 2017: 114, 130 (in part). — Chamorro et al. 2018: 98.

Diagnosis

Easily diagnosed species by the dull black colour with dull red sheen dorsally; and striae not strongly impressed basally ( Fig. 5 View Fig ). Additionally, the major male with a keel absent in the middle of anterior pronotal margin ( Figs 2C View Fig , 5A View Fig ); endophallite copulatrix as Fig. 1E View Fig . The major female with the pronotal process lacking concavity; middle pronotal tubercle more developed, slightly projected frontally than lateral tubercles; all pronotal tubercles rounded; and posterior pronotal midline completely effaced ( Fig. 5B View Fig ).

Type material (studied from photographs, 1 ♂)

Holotype

ECUADOR • ♂, Balthasar 1939: 242 ( Fig. 5C View Fig ); “ P. funereus   (illegible data). Dr. V. Balthasar det./ Mus. Nat. Pragae Inv. 26347 / ex coll. V. Balthasar National Museum Prague, Czech Republic/ Pucay F.O.I0.6.05. / ♂ / H. Blut determ. Phanaeus blanchardi Olsouf.   / Fesche det. Phanaeus pyrois Bts.   / TYPUS ”; NMPC.  

Non-type material revised (5 ♂♂, 7 ♀♀)

COLOMBIA – Chocó • 1 ♂; “ Quibdó. La Troje - Sept. 972. Coll. Martínez ”; VMC   .

ECUADOR – Esmeraldas • 1 ♂; “Tsejpí Ex. Pitfall heces humanas 17/02/01 I. Yépez ”; VMC   1 ♂; “ Tsejpí. Ex. Pitfall heces humanas. 18/02/01. I. Yépez ”; TAMU   1 ♀; “ Colón del Ónzole . Ex.Pitfall carroña. 04/05/01 I. Yépez ”; TAMU   .– Guayas • 1 ♂; “ Pucay ( Bucay ). F. Ohs. 14.7.05.”; GHC   . – Los Ríos • 1 ♂, 1 ♀; “ Quevedo, Pichilingue (75 m) V-76. A. Martínez col.”; TAMU   2 ♀♀; “ Quevedo, Pichilingue. V-76. A. Martínez, leg.”; GHC   1 ♀; same collection data as for preceding; VMC   . – Manabí • 1 ♀; “ 300 m, 90kmWSW Sto. Domingo. 73 km NE Chone. 6–9.vi.76. S. Peck. 3 for. dung traps 3–5”; IEXA   . – Pichincha • 1 ♀; “ Quito . III.915”; TAMU   .

Type locality

Ecuador, Pucay (probably Bucay).

Redescription

Major male

HEAD. Clypeus bidentate, dull black on anterior margin, dull red on posterior portion, roughened sculpture. Genae dull black, with dull red sheen, rough sculpture. Front dull black. Cephalic horn black, curved posteriorly over pronotum ( Figs 2C View Fig , 5A View Fig ).

PRONOTUM. Keel absent in the middle of anterior pronotal margin. Disc triangular, flat; with two elongate, weakly developed tubercles on anterior portion. Triangle dull black, scabriculous, with almost effaced punctures, smooth sculpture. Sides dull black-red; scabriculous, with smooth sculpture, almost effaced punctures. Lateral lines of triangle straight. Posterolateral angles short, slightly widened. Lateral fossae distinctly impressed. Basal fossae absent or almost effaced. Posterior margin with almost effaced punctures ( Figs 2C View Fig , 5A View Fig ).

ELYTRA. Striae fine, smooth, dull black, scabriculous, not strongly impressed basally; with dull green or blue-green sheen, almost effaced punctures. Interstriae dull black, scabriculous, with smooth surface, almost effaced to effaced punctures. Sutural margin without apical tooth ( Fig. 5A View Fig ).

PROTIBIAE. Quadridentate with apical spine.

TERGITE VIII. Dull black, with dark red to dark brown sheen; scabriculous sculpture; rough, distinctly impressed punctures. Basal margin with setae variable in size.

GENITALIA. Right lobe of endophallite copulatrix larger in size than left lobe. Right lobe obtusely triangular in shape, with superior portion projected frontally. Left lobe lobed inferiorly, bent superiorly. Central ridge less developed than central column ( Fig. 1E View Fig ).

Minor male

Like the major male, except for the attenuation of the secondary sexual characters (i.e., cephalic horn, pronotal triangle and tubercles, and pronotal posterolateral angles; Fig. 5C View Fig ).

Female

Similar to the male, except for the head showing a cephalic trituberculate carina, with similar in size, conical tubercles; middle tubercle more frontally projected than lateral tubercles; frons with almost effaced punctures; pronotal sculpture completely smooth, impunctate or with almost effaced punctures; pronotum almost completely dull black, dark metallic red laterally and posteriorly; pronotal process trituberculate lacking concavity; middle pronotal tubercle more developed, slightly projected frontally than lateral tubercles; all tubercles rounded; posterior pronotal midline completely effaced ( Fig. 5B View Fig ).

Variation

Mean length 19.3 mm (16–21.9 mm). The male specimen from Colombia has acute posterolateral pronotal angles that are posteriorly projected.

Distribution

Pacific slope of the Andes, north-central Ecuador and Colombia ( Fig. 17 View Fig ). The Colombian specimen represents the first record of P. funereus   from Colombia.

Remarks

Phanaeus funereus   was considered by previous authors as a synonym of P. pyrois   ( Martínez & Pereira 1967; Edmonds 1994; Edmonds & Zídek 2012; Solís & Kohlmann 2012; Chamorro et al. 2019). Nevertheless, a diagnosis and a key to separate both species are provided by us. As a consequence, full species status is confidently assigned to P. funereus   . The lectotype (a minor male) and some specimens from Ecuador (n=12) were used for the redescription of P. funereus   . The only specimen studied from Colombia differed in the posterolateral angles of pronotum, but not in colour pattern, pronotal and elytral sculpturing, or genital morphology.

NMPC

Czech Republic, Prague, National Museum (Natural History)

TAMU

USA, Texas, College Station, Texas A & M University

NMPC

National Museum Prague

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Coleoptera

Family

Scarabaeidae

Genus

Phanaeus

Loc

Phanaeus funereus Balthasar, 1939

Moctezuma, Victor & Halffter, Gonzalo 2021
2021
Loc

Phanaeus (s. str.) funereus

Chamorro W. & Marin-Armijos D. & Asenjo A. 2019: 220
2019
Loc

Phanaeus pyrois funereus

Kohlmann B. & Arriaga-Jimenez A. & Ros M. 2018: 79
2018
Loc

Phanaeus (Notiophanaeus) pyrois funereus

Chamorro W. & Marin-Armijos D. & Asenjo A. 2019: 220
Arnaud P. 2002: 97
2002
Loc

Phanaeus pyrois

Chamorro W. & Marin-Armijos D. & Granda V. & Vaz-de-Mello F. Z. 2018: 98
Moctezuma V. & Halffter G. 2017: 55
Medina C. A. & Lopera A. & Vitolo. A. & Gill B. 2001: 140
2001
Loc

Phanaeus funereus

Chamorro W. & Marin-Armijos D. & Asenjo A. 2019: 220
Solis A. & Kohlmann B. 2012: 8
Edmonds W. D. & Zidek J. 2012: 3
Krajcik M. 2006: 152
Edmonds W. D. 1994: 3
Arnaud P. 1982: 116
Howden H. F. & Young O. P. 1981: 137
Edmonds W. D. 1972: 830
1972
Loc

Phanaeus (Phanaeus) funereus

Martinez A & Pereira F. S. 1967: 53
1967
Loc

Phanaeus (s. str.) funereus

Balthasar V. 1939: 241
1939