Phanaeus zapotecus Edmonds, 2006

Moctezuma, Victor & Halffter, Gonzalo, 2021, Taxonomic revision of the Phanaeus endymion species group (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), with the descriptions of five new species, European Journal of Taxonomy 747, pp. 1-71 : 47-50

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2021.747.1333

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:3F0B6EAF-C616-4865-811A-414A094B590C

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4726241

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03CA87F2-FFD0-FFF0-FD97-40BDBE763F02

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Phanaeus zapotecus Edmonds, 2006
status

 

Phanaeus zapotecus Edmonds, 2006  

Figs 1P View Fig , 2L View Fig , 14–15 View Fig View Fig , 18Q View Fig , 19Q View Fig

Phanaeus zapotecus Edmonds, 2006: 31–32   View Cited Treatment , 35–37, figs 1, 3, 5, 7.

Phanaeus dionysius Kohlmann et al., 2018: 67–70   View Cited Treatment , 76, 78, 82, 88–89, figs 1b, 3a–b, d, 4–7. Syn. nov.

Phanaeus zapotecus   – Edmonds & Zídek 2012: 1, 7–8. — Moctezuma & Halffter 2017: 52, 54–55, fig. 23. — Moctezuma et al. 2017: 114, 130, 132; 2019: 253.

Phanaeus (Notiophanaeus) zapotecus   – Edmonds & Zídek 2012: 3, 13, figs 139, 141, 143, 148–151.

Phanaeus (Notiophanaeus) dionysius   – Kohlmann et al. 2018: 68 View Cited Treatment , 70.

Non Phanaeus endymion   – Edmonds 1994: 44 (referred to as “ Oaxaca ” population).

Non Phanaeus (Notiophanaeus)   “ Oaxaca ” endymion   – Edmonds 1994: fig. 221.

Type material of Phanaeus zapotecus   revised (3 ♂♂, 5 ♀♀)

Holotype (not studied, temporarily lost)

MEXICO – Oaxaca • ♂, Edmonds 2006: 32; 8 km south of San Miguel Sola de Vega; IEXA   ?

Paratypes

MEXICO – Oaxaca • 1 ♂, 1 ♀; “ 8 km Sola de Vega, 1850 m, 7–17 ix 05, Pine oak forest, D. Curoe col. Mushroom-baited trap ”; CEMT   1 ♂, 1 ♀; same collection data as for preceding; TAMU   1 ♂, 2 ♀♀; same collection data as for preceding; VMC   1 ♀; “ 8 km Sola de Vega, 1850 m, 4–9 vii 05, Pine oak forest, D. Curoe col. Mushroom-baited trap ”; TAMU   .

Type material of Phanaeus dionysius   revised (2 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀)

Holotype

MEXICO – Oaxaca • “ La mesita San Pablo Etla , 23–VI–17, coprotrampa, x- 96°44’18.91’’O, y- 17°9’54.36’’N, bosque de Encino, 1976 m, Arriaga A. & Arenas A. Col. ”; IEXA. GoogleMaps  

Paratypes

MEXICO – Oaxaca • 2 ♀♀; same collection data as for holotype; IEXA GoogleMaps   1 ♂; “ La mesita San Pablo Etla, 14–VII–17, coprotrampa, x- 96°44’53.55’’O, y- 17°9’53.55’’N, bosque de Encino, 1954 m, Arriaga A. & Arenas A. Col. ”; IEXA GoogleMaps   .

Non-type material revised (1 ♂)

MEXICO – Oaxaca • 1 ♂; “ San Pablo Etla , Reserva San Pablo Etla , 20/X/2016, C.D. 17°10’1.23’’N, 96°44’14.25’’O, 1994 m, Alfosina Arriaga Col.”; VMC GoogleMaps   .

Type locality

Mexico, Oaxaca, 8 km south of San Miguel Sola de Vega.

Phanaeus dionysius  

Kohlmann et al. (2018) recently described P. dionysius   based upon specimens from San Pablo Etla, Oaxaca, Mexico and suggested that P. zapotecus   and P. dionysius   were sister taxa. The following character combination helps to separate both species according to Kohlmann et al. (2018): P. dionysius   has long and slender pronotal posterolateral angles, whereas P. zapotecus   has short and rounded posterolateral angles. The basal border of the tergite VIII in P. dionysius   forms a small indentation at its middle, whereas it runs completely straight in P. zapotecus   . Additionally, the apex of the parameres of P. dionysius   is more projected, than that from P. zapotecus   . Moreover, the middle sinuation of the parameres in lateral view is much more pronounced in P. dionysius   . Nevertheless, we consider that the description and diagnosis of P. dionysius   exemplify some of the frequent problems occurring in taxonomical work ( Komarek & Beutel 2006) as follows.

Insufficient study of types Kohlmann et al. (2018) did not indicate how many specimens of P. zapotecus   they revised, but they commented that the paratypes housed at CNIN were checked by them. Taking into account this information and the original description of P. zapotecus ( Edmonds 2006)   , we assume that Kohlmann

et al. (2018) revised two paratypes at most.

Insufficient assessment of the range of character variation

Kohlmann et al. (2018) were not able to adequately assess the morphological variation of P. zapotecus   , as a consequence of the reduced number of paratypes studied by them. The pronotal posterolateral angles were found by us to be long and slender in some paratype major males of P. zapotecus   ( Fig. 14A View Fig ). The basal border of the tergite VIII is highly variable: four paratypes of P. zapotecus   revised by us show the small indentation at the middle of the basal border of the tergite VIII ( Fig. 14D View Fig ), whereas it runs completely straight in two paratypes. The small indentation is present in the basal border of the tergite VIII of three specimens of P. dionysius   revised by us, whereas it runs completely straight in two paratypes ( Fig. 14E View Fig ).

Kohlmann et al. (2018) illustrated the endophallite copulatrix of P. dionysius   (available from https://zookeys.pensoft.net/article/23029/zoom/fig/13/) but they overlooked its comparison with P. zapotecus   ( Fig. 1P View Fig ). We noticed that the morphology of both P. zapotecus   ( Fig. 1P View Fig ) and P. dionysius   is identical when we compared the endophallites under the microscope. Furthermore, the endophallite copulatrix of the holotype of P. dionysius   has suffered deformation and abrasion, maybe as a result of the preparation methods (soaking for 5 min in a solution of 5% boiling KOH) and/or storage (dry preservation in a plastic microvial). This structure was not found by us to be stored in a microvial with glycerol as mentioned by Kohlmann et al. (2018). The morphology of the cephalic carina and the pronotal tubercles of the females of P. zapotecus   ( Fig. 14B View Fig ) and P. dionysius   (see https://zookeys.pensoft.net/article/23029/zoom/fig/14/) did not differ. Moreover, the body colour in the paratypes of P. zapotecus   varied from jet black or bright dark blue to jet black with a green-blue sheen ( Fig. 14A–C View Fig ), falling within the variation of P. dionysius ( Kohlmann et al. 2018)   .

Kohlmann et al. (2018) commented that a major male was designated as holotype. Nevertheless, we found out that the holotype of P. dionysius   housed at IEXA is the minor male illustrated by Kohlmann et al. (2018) in the original description (available from https://zookeys.pensoft.net/article/23029/zoom/fig/15/). As a consequence, we assume that the original description of P. dionysius   was not based on the holotype. We found that a paratype minor male of P. zapotecus   ( Fig. 14C View Fig ) and the holotype of P. dionysius   (https://zookeys.pensoft.net/article/23029/zoom/fig/15/) were morphologically almost identical.

Characters not suitable for a study at a given taxonomic rank

The revision of a majority of species within the P. endymion   species group led us to conclude that the morphology of the aedeagus is not taxonomically informative to separate species, as suggested by previous authors ( Edmonds 1994; Price 1995; Arnaud 2002b; Moctezuma & Halffter 2017; Moctezuma et al. 2017, 2019).

In the light of the findings presented herein, we conclude that the description and diagnoses provided by Kohlmann et al. (2018) do not justify the splitting of P. dionysius   and P. zapotecus   in two different species. As a consequence, a new junior subjective synonymy is recognized herein: Phanaeus zapotecus Edmonds, 2006   = Phanaeus dionysius Kohlmann, Arriaga-Jiménez & Rös, 2018   syn. nov.

Distribution

Sierra Madre del Sur and Sierra Norte, central Oaxaca ( Fig. 15 View Fig ).

Remarks

Mean length 16.4 mm (14.8–18.5 mm). To the original description of this species, we add that the elytral striae are impressed basally as distinct fossae ( Fig. 14 View Fig ); right lobe of endophallite copulatrix more developed than left lobe; right lobe obtusely triangular in shape, strongly developed superiorly; left lobe strongly reduced, lobed, slightly concave inferiorly; central ridge more developed than central column ( Fig. 1P View Fig ). For the female, the head shows a cephalic trituberculate carina; with almost aligned, conical tubercles; middle tubercle slightly more developed than lateral tubercles; frons with almost effaced punctures; pronotal process trituberculate, with posterior concavity; rounded pronotal tubercles; with middle tubercle slightly more developed than lateral tubercles; posterior pronotal midline distinctly impressed ( Fig. 14B View Fig ).

Edmonds (2006) commented that the holotype and three paratypes (1 ♂, 2 ♀♀) of P. zapotecus   were housed at IEXA. However, the type material was not found by us at IEXA in a recent search. Therefore, the holotype and these paratypes are considered temporarily lost. It is possible that the former collection manager of IEXA, Professor Miguel Angel Morón Ríos, knew the location of the holotype and paratypes of P. zapotecus   , but, unfortunately, we were not able to confirm this assumption because of his recent death.

CEMT

CEMT

TAMU

USA, Texas, College Station, Texas A & M University

CNIN

Coleccion Nacional de Insectos, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Coleoptera

Family

Scarabaeidae

Genus

Phanaeus

Loc

Phanaeus zapotecus Edmonds, 2006

Moctezuma, Victor & Halffter, Gonzalo 2021
2021
Loc

Phanaeus (Notiophanaeus) dionysius

Kohlmann B. & Arriaga-Jimenez A. & Ros M. 2018: 68
2018
Loc

Phanaeus zapotecus

Moctezuma V. & Halffter G. 2017: 52
Edmonds W. D. & Zidek J. 2012: 1
2012
Loc

Phanaeus (Notiophanaeus) zapotecus

Edmonds W. D. & Zidek J. 2012: 3
2012
Loc

Phanaeus zapotecus

Edmonds W. D. 2006: 32
2006
Loc

Phanaeus endymion

Edmonds W. D. 1994: 44
1994
Loc

Phanaeus (Notiophanaeus)

Edmonds 1994 : fig. 221.