Phanaeus endymion (Edmonds, 1994)

Moctezuma, Victor & Halffter, Gonzalo, 2021, Taxonomic revision of the Phanaeus endymion species group (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), with the descriptions of five new species, European Journal of Taxonomy 747, pp. 1-71 : 52-54

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2021.747.1333

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:3F0B6EAF-C616-4865-811A-414A094B590C

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4726243

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03CA87F2-FFCD-FFF4-FF15-4720BA053DD3

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Phanaeus endymion
status

 

Key to species of the Phanaeus endymion   species group

1. Sutural margin of each elytron upturned to form a sharp ridge, which is progressively more elevated posteriorly and prolonged into a small, sharp tooth at apical angle; elytral margin slightly excised adjacent to this tooth.......................................................................................................................... 2

– Sutural margin of elytra simple (running straight, not upturned)...................................................... 3

2. Male with dentiform keel in the middle of anterior pronotal margin, lateral lines of pronotal triangle straight. Southern Mexico State and Morelos ( Fig. 15 View Fig ).................... P. halffterorum Edmonds, 1979  

– Male with keel absent in the middle of anterior pronotal margin, lateral lines of pronotal triangle curved. Sierra Madre del Sur, central Guerrero ( Fig. 15 View Fig ) ................................................................... ............................................................. P. bravoensis Moctezuma, Sánchez-Huerta & Halffter, 2017  

3. Pronotal disc of male evenly and densely but finely granulate, granules in most specimens larger and becoming squamose along lateral margins of disc and extending onto posterolateral angles; sides of pronotum strongly roughened ( Figs 2L View Fig , 14A, C View Fig ). Female pronotum slightly roughened; with distinctly impressed midline ( Figs 14B View Fig , 18Q View Fig ). Sierra Madre del Sur and Sierra Norte, central Oaxaca ( Fig. 15 View Fig ) ................................................................................................. P. zapotecus Edmonds, 2006  

– Pronotal disc of male lacking distinct granulation, or, if granules present, these are minute and restricted along lateral margins of disc; sides of pronotum smooth. Female pronotum smooth; with superficially impressed to completely effaced midline...................................................................... 4

4. Elytral striae deeply punctate; all strial punctures forming a distinct fossa, giving a completely roughened surface to striae ( Figs 1K View Fig , 2G View Fig , 9 View Fig , 19L View Fig ). Pacific slope of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and El Salvador ( Fig. 15 View Fig )............................................................................................. P. pacificus   sp. nov.

– Elytral striae distinctly punctate to impunctate. If strial punctures distinctly impressed, forming a distinct fossa giving a completely roughened surface to first and second striae, or strial punctures forming a distinct fossa giving a partially roughened surface to basal half of striae ....................... 5

5. Pronotum of female with anteromedial concavity bounded anteriorly by three variable on shape tubercles ( Figs 4C View Fig , 11B View Fig , 13B View Fig , 18E, N, P View Fig ).......................................................................................... 6

– Pronotum of female evenly convex, lacking anteromedial concavity even in largest specimens, bearing three round, smooth tubercles in transverse line near anterior margin ( Figs 3B View Fig , 5B View Fig , 6B View Fig , 7B View Fig , 8B View Fig , 10B View Fig , 12C View Fig , 18C, F, I–K, M, O View Fig )................................................................................................... 10

6. Pronotum of female with concavity bounded anteriorly by a raised U- or V-shaped process; middle pronotal tubercle dentiform or rounded, always more developed and frontally projected than lateral tubercles; pronotal concavity interrupted posteriorly by a small rounded bump or strongly developed dentiform tubercle ( Figs 4C View Fig , 13B View Fig , 18E, P View Fig ). Endophallite copulatrix variable................................... 7

– Pronotum of female with concavity bounded anteriorly by three isolated, round, almost aligned tubercles; middle tubercle sometimes dentiform and more strongly developed than lateral tubercles ( Figs 11B View Fig , 18N View Fig ). Right and left lobes of endophallite copulatrix similar in size; right lobe obtusely triangular in shape, weakly developed superiorly; left lobe obtusely lobed, strongly developed; central ridge distinctly developed ( Fig. 1M View Fig ). Caribbean Honduras and Belize ( Fig. 16 View Fig ) .......................................................................................... P. porioni Arnaud, 2002   stat. rev.

7. Pronotal disc of male with superficially impressed midline ( Fig. 2K View Fig ). Right lobe of endophallite copulatrix more developed than left lobe; right lobe obtusely triangular in shape, sharply acute frontally, rounded superiorly; left lobe strongly developed, obtusely lobed; central ridge strongly developed ( Fig. 1O View Fig ). Sierra Madre del Sur, southern Michoacán ( Fig. 15 View Fig ) ...... P. rzedowskii   sp. nov.

– Pronotal disc of male with completely effaced midline ( Fig. 2B View Fig ). Central ridge of endophallite copulatrix distinctly developed ( Fig. 1D, G, Q View Fig ) ................................................................................ 8

8. Pronotum of male uniformly dark blue, dark metallic blue-green or dark metallic green ( Figs 2B View Fig , 4A–B View Fig ). Weakly developed keel close to anterior margin of pronotum, or keel completely effaced ( Fig. 2b View Fig ). Right lobe of endophallite copulatrix more developed than left lobe; right lobe obtusely triangular in shape; left lobe obtusely lobed inferiorly, obtusely triangular superiorly; central ridge less developed than central column ( Fig. 1D View Fig ). Lowlands and midlands of the Gulf of Mexico slope, Yucatán Peninsula, Belize, northern Guatemala ( Fig. 15 View Fig )......................... P. endymion Harold, 1863  

– Pronotum of male uniformly bright metallic green, bright metallic green-blue, sometimes showing a red or golden sheen. Keel always absent on anterior margin of pronotum. Endophallite copulatrix variable .............................................................................................................................................. 9

9. Anterior metasternal angle obtuse in lateral view. Lateral metasternal angles well defined and slightly curved. Left lobe of endophallite copulatrix almost completely lobed ( Fig. 1Q View Fig ). Temperate mountains of Los Chimalapas, eastern Oaxaca and western Chiapas ( Fig. 15 View Fig ).................................. ................................................................................................. P. zoque Moctezuma & Halffter, 2017  

– Anterior metasternal angle almost right angled but with rounded apex in lateral view. Lateral metasternal angles evanescent. Left lobe of endophallite copulatrix straight posteroinferiorly ( Fig. 1G View Fig ). Jalisco, northern Michoacán, Nayarit, southern Sinaloa ( Fig. 15 View Fig ) ..................................... .................................................................. P. huichol Moctezuma, Sánchez-Huerta & Halffter, 2017  

10. Elytral interstriae evenly convex and glossy midlongitudinally; striae impressed basally as distinct fossae ( Figs 3 View Fig , 6 View Fig , 7 View Fig , 18C, I–J View Fig ) ...........................................................................................................11

– Elytral interstriae distinctly flattened and uniformly dull; striae not strongly impressed basally ( Figs 5 View Fig , 8 View Fig , 10 View Fig , 12 View Fig , 18F, K, M, O View Fig )...................................................................................................... 14

11. Almost completely bright black dorsally ( Figs 2E View Fig , 7 View Fig ). Pacific slope of the Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica and Panama ( Fig. 16 View Fig ) ..................................................................... P. malyi Arnaud, 2002  

– Pronotum typically bright metallic green, blue-green or dark metallic blue ( Figs 2A, D View Fig , 3 View Fig , 6 View Fig )...... 12

12. Distinctly developed keel on central anterior margin of pronotum of male; right lobe of endophallite copulatrix tapering superiorly and straight apically ( Fig. 1C View Fig ). Sierra Madre del Sur, southern Oaxaca ( Fig. 15 View Fig ) ............................................................... P. edmondsi Moctezuma, Deloya & Halffter, 2019  

– Always with keel absent on central anterior margin of pronotum of male ( Fig. 2A, D View Fig ). Endophallite copulatrix variable ........................................................................................................................... 13

13. Larger species, frequently attaining 19–20 mm in length. Posterolateral angles of male widened, slightly projected posteriorly ( Figs 2A View Fig , 3 View Fig ). Central highlands of Chiapas ( Fig. 15 View Fig ) ........................... ........................................................................................................................ P. chiapanecus   sp. nov.

– Smaller species, never attaining 19 mm in length. Posterolateral angles of male sharply acute, strongly projected posteriorly ( Figs 2D View Fig , 6 View Fig ). Inner slope of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas, south-central Guatemala and southeastern Chiapas ( Fig. 15 View Fig ) ................................................... P. jackenioi   sp. nov.

14. Pronotal disc of male completely bright metallic ( Figs 2J View Fig , 12 View Fig )....................................................... 15

– Pronotal disc of male distinctly black, without metallic reflection ( Figs 2E, J, L View Fig , 5A, C View Fig , 8A View Fig , 10A View Fig ) .. ........................................................................................................................................................ 16

15. Pronotal disc typically bright metallic green, rarely dark metallic blue. Pronotal process of female with central tubercle more developed and anteriorly projected than lateral tubercles. Ecuador ( Figs 17 View Fig , 18A View Fig ).............................................................................................. P. arletteae Arnaud, 2002  

– Pronotal disc typically bright metallic red, green, or dark metallic blue ( Figs 2J View Fig , 12 View Fig ). Pronotal process of female with tubercles almost aligned, central tubercle not projecting anteriorly ( Figs 12C View Fig , 18O View Fig ). Nicaragua and north Caribbean Costa Rica ( Fig. 16 View Fig )......................................... P. pyrois Bates, 1887  

16 Pronotum distinctly bright metallic red frontolaterally. Head bright metallic red with green-yellow metallic sheen ( Figs 2F, H View Fig , 8 View Fig , 10 View Fig ).................................................................................................... 17

– Pronotum distinctly dull metallic red frontolaterally. Head dull metallic red without green-yellow metallic sheen ( Figs 2C View Fig , 5 View Fig ). Pacific slope of the Andes, north-central Ecuador and Colombia ( Fig. 17 View Fig ) ..................................................................................... P. funereus Balthasar, 1939   stat. rev.

17. Larger species, frequently attaining from 22 to 24 mm in length. Carinate, distinctly developed keel on central anterior margin of pronotum of male ( Fig. 2F View Fig ). Pronotal posterolateral angles of male strongly developed, projected laterally ( Fig. 8A View Fig ). Pacific slope of the Andes, south-central Colombia and northern Ecuador ( Fig. 17 View Fig )................................................ P. olsoufieffi Balthasar, 1939   stat. rev.

– Smaller species, rarely attaining 20 mm in length. Always with keel absent on central anterior margin of pronotum of male ( Fig. 2H View Fig ). Pronotal posterolateral angles of male weakly developed, widened, and slightly projected posteriorly ( Fig. 10A View Fig ). Caribbean Costa Rica and Panama ( Fig. 16 View Fig ) ........................................................................................................... P. panamensis   sp. nov.