Phascolosoma (Phascolosoma) puntarenae

Silva-Morales, Itzahí & Gómez-Vásquez, Julio D., 2021, First records and two new species of sipunculans (Sipuncula) from the Southern Mexican Pacific, European Journal of Taxonomy 740 (1), pp. 77-117: 91

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2021.740.1283

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:07F1B593-9F4F-4B32-88D9-ADC5CA0BEB84

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4644410

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03CA87A4-D37E-802C-78EA-4517FD4560CD

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Phascolosoma (Phascolosoma) puntarenae
status

 

Phascolosoma (Phascolosoma) puntarenae   (Grube & Örsted in Grube, 1858), reinstatement

Fig. 7 View Fig

Phascolosoma puntarenae Grube & Örsted   in Grube, 1858: 13 (type locality: Puntarenas, Costa Rica).

Phascolosoma puntarenae   – Fisher 1952: 430–432, pl. 36, figs 1–2, pl. 37, figs 1–3, pl. 39, fig. 3 (from Gulf of California to Panama, in rocks).

Phascolosoma puntarena   – Brusca 1980: 127 (Gulf of California, in rocks).

Phascolosoma nigrescens   (non Keferstein, 1865) – Cutler et al. 1992: 154–156 ( Costa Rica, in tidal pools and under rocks). — Dean 2001: 63 (Pacific of Costa Rica). — Dean et al. 2010: 63 (Cocos Island, Costa Rica, in calcareous rock, 0–15 m).

Material examined

MEXICO – Guerrero • 1; Roqueta Island ; 16°49′19″ N, 99°54′17″ W; 21 Sep. 2006; in sabellariid tubes; UMAR-SIPU 021 GoogleMaps   1; La Quebrada ; 16°50′44″ N, 99°54′54″ W; 26 Sep. 2007; depth 15 m, in Pinctada mazatlantica   ; SGM leg.; UMAR-SIPU 022 GoogleMaps   3; Barra de Potosí ; 17°32′19″ N, 101°26′36″ W; 3 Dec. 2010; SGG leg.; UMAR-SIPU 023 GoogleMaps   . – Oaxaca • 1; Puerto Escondido ; 15°51′34″ N, 97°03′50″ W; 4 Jul. 2004; SS leg.; UMAR-SIPU 0242 GoogleMaps   Estacahuite Beach ; 15°40′05″N, 96°28′53″W; 10 Sep. 2005; in dead coral; UMAR-SIPU 025 GoogleMaps   1; Chachacual Bay, Jicaral Beach ; 15°42′39″ N, 96°12′11″ W; 14 Dec. 2006; TRC leg.; depth 1 m, in dead coral; UMAR-SIPU 026 GoogleMaps   1; San Agustín Bay ; 15°41′21″ N, 96°14′11″ W; 10 Feb. 2007; depth 15.3 m, in Porites   ; UMAR-SIPU 027 GoogleMaps   3; Puerto Ángel Bay ; 15°39′56″ N, 96°29′29″ W; 28 Apr. 2008; TFG leg.; in dead coral; UMAR-SIPU 028 GoogleMaps   1; Panteón Beach ; 15°39′50″ N, 96°29′42″ W; 27 May 2008; MLY leg.; depth 3 m; UMAR-SIPU 030 GoogleMaps   1; La Montosa Island ; 15°45′57″ N, 96°05′03″ W; 22 Feb. 2010; RGF and SGG leg.; depth 3.5 m; UMAR-SIPU 031 GoogleMaps   3; Camarón Beach ; 15°39′45″ N, 96°31′33″ W; 6 Apr. 2013; in dead coral; UMAR-SIPU 032 GoogleMaps   3; Cerro Hermoso Beach ; 15°58′08″ N, 97°32′06″ W; 29 Apr. 2014; UMAR-SIPU 033 GoogleMaps   .

Description

Trunk 10 mm in length ( Fig. 7A View Fig ). Light brown trunk with uniform dome-shaped papillae, some with black pigment randomly distributed ( Fig. 7D–E View Fig ). Introvert with bands of dark pigmentation and more than 100 complete and incomplete rings of hooks. Hooks with clear streak expanded near midpoint of vertical and middle of horizontal portions ( Fig. 7F–G View Fig ). Secondary tooth almost indistinct, protuberance of streak short. Fourteen tentacles encircling nuchal organ ( Fig. 7C View Fig ). Longitudinal muscles of body wall gathered into anastomosing bands. Four retractor muscles. Nephridia about 40% of trunk length, open at same level as anus ( Fig. 7B View Fig ). Spindle muscle attached posteriorly.

Remarks

Cutler & Cutler (1990) considered Phascolosoma (P.) puntarenae   from Puntarenas, Costa Rica, as a synonym of P. (P.) nigrescens   from Fiji. Nevertheless, we found a difference between the hooks of the type material of P. nigrescens   illustrated by Selenka (1883) and those in the illustrations of Fisher (1952) of P. puntarenae   from Baja California, Costa Rica and Panama. The hooks of P. nigrescens   have a conspicuous secondary tooth and the protuberance of the streak is a sharp point, whereas the hooks of P. puntarenae   do not have a well-developed secondary tooth and the protuberance of the streak is a flattened point ( Fig. 8F–G View Fig ).

Habitat

Intertidal to subtidal (15 m); in sabellariid tubes, as epibionts of Pinctada mazatlanica   , in dead coral and in Porites   .

Distribution

From the Gulf of California to Panama.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Sipuncula

Class

Phascolosomatidea

Order

Phascolosomatiformes

Family

Phascolosomatidae

Genus

Phascolosoma

Loc

Phascolosoma (Phascolosoma) puntarenae

Silva-Morales, Itzahí & Gómez-Vásquez, Julio D. 2021
2021
Loc

Phascolosoma nigrescens

Dean H. K. & Sibaja & Cordero J. A. & Cortes J. & Vargas R. & Kawauchi G. Y. 2010: 63
Dean H. K. 2001: 63
Cutler N. J. & Cutler E. B. & Vargas J. A. 1992: 154
1992
Loc

Phascolosoma puntarena

Brusca R. C. 1980: 127
1980
Loc

Phascolosoma puntarenae

Fisher W. K. 1952: 430
1952
Loc

Phascolosoma puntarenae Grube & Örsted

Grube E. 1858: 13
1858