Scoloplos verrilli, Blake, 2021

Blake, James A., 2021, New species and records of Orbiniidae (Annelida, Polychaeta) from continental shelf and slope depths of the Western North Atlantic Ocean, Zootaxa 4930 (1), pp. 1-123: 54-59

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4930.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:97110C21-173C-4552-96AC-4B5DC987FF1C

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4678533

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/72DA560F-2F73-4C2A-9D8D-D7BBE81DBA43

taxon LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:act:72DA560F-2F73-4C2A-9D8D-D7BBE81DBA43

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Scoloplos verrilli
status

new species

Scoloplos verrilli   new species

Figures 25–27 View FIGURE 25 View FIGURE 26 View FIGURE 27

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:72DA560F-2F73-4C2A-9D8D-D7BBE81DBA43

Scoloplos (Scoloplos) armiger: Pettibone 1963: 292–293   , fig. 76 h–I; Trott 2004: 280. Not Müller, 1776.

Scoloplos armiger: Blake et al. 1998   : C-1, C-2 (in part). Not Müller, 1776.

Material examined. (88 specimens) Northeastern USA, Massachusetts Bay, MWRA Harbor and Outfall Monitoring Program. 1995 August Survey : Sta. FF-13, 42°19.19′N, 70°49.38′W, 19 m, holotype ( MCZ 161633 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   and 4 paratypes ( MCZ 161634 View Materials )   . Sta. FF-9, 42°18.75′N, 70°39.40′W, 49 m, 11 paratypes ( MCZ 161631 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . Sta. FF-10, 42°24.84′N, 70°52.72′W, 27 m (1, MCZ 161632 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   .— 1992August Survey: Sta. NF-1, 42°20.35′N, 70°50.51′W, 42 m (2, MCZ 161614 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . Sta. NF-5, 40°25.62′N, 70°50.03′W, 28 m (2, MCZ 161615 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . Sta. NF-6, 42°24.30′N, 70°49.99′W, 31 m (2, MCZ 161616 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . Sta. NF-7, 42°24.60′N, 70°48.89′W, 32 m (5, MCZ 161617 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . Sta. NF-11, 42°23.39′N, 70°50.25′W, 31 m (1, MCZ 161619 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . Sta. NF-12, 42°23.40′N, 70°49.83′W, 33 m (6, MCZ 161620 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . Sta. NF-13, 42°23.40’N, 70°49.35’W, 33 m (1, MCZ 161621 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . Sta. NF-15, 42°22.93′N, 70°49.67′W, 32 m (3, MCZ 161622 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . Sta. NF-19, 42°22.30′N, 70°48.30′W, 32 m (5, MCZ 161623 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . Sta. FF-4, Rep. 2, 42°117.30′N, 70°25.50′W, 48 m ( MCZ 161624 View Materials )   . Sta. FF-9, Rep. 1, 42°18.75′N, 70°39.40′W, 48 m (9, MCZ 161625 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . Sta. FF-9, Rep. 2, 42°18.75′N, 70°39.40′W, 48 m (9, MCZ 161626 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . Sta. FF-10, Rep. 3, 42°24.84′N, 70°52.72′W, 27 m (2, MCZ 161618 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . Sta. FF-12, Rep. 1, 42°23.40′N, 70°53.98′W, 22 m (1, MCZ 161627 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; Rep. 2, 2 paratypes ( MCZ 161628 View Materials )   ; Rep. 3, 4 paratypes ( MCZ 161629 View Materials )   . Sta. FF-13, Rep. 1, 42°19.19′N, 70°49.38′W, 19 m (9, MCZ 161630 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   .— 1996 August Survey: Sta. MF-02, 42°20.331′N, 70°49.69′W, 30 m (3, MCZ 161647 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . Sta. MF-07, 42°24.60′N, 70°48.89′W, 33 m (2, MCZ 161648 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . Sta. MF-08, 42°24.00′N, 70°51.81′W, 32 m (3, MCZ 161649 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . Sta. MF-09, 42°23.99′N, 70°50.69′W, 29 m (3, MCZ 161650 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . Sta. MF-10, 42°23.57′N, 70°50.69′W, 35 m (2, MCZ 161651 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . Sta. MF-14, 42°22.70′N, 70°50.26′W, 29 m (1, MCZ 161652 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . Sta. MF-20, 42°22.69′N, 70°50.69′W, 28 m, 4 paratypes ( MCZ 161653 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . Sta. MF-22, 42°20.87′N, 70°48.90′W, 36 m (1, MCZ 161654 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . Sta. NF-15, 42°22.93′N, 70°49.67′W, 32 m; (1, MCZ 161655 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . Sta. NF-19, 42°22.30′N, 70°48.30′W, 32 m (4, MCZ 161656 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . Sta. NF-24, Rep. 1, 42°22.83′N, 70°48.10′W, 37 m (1, 161657); Rep. 2, 12 paratypes ( MCZ 161658 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . Rep. 3, 19 paratypes ( MCZ 161659 View Materials )   . Sta. FF-5, Rep. 3, 42°08.0084′N, 70°25.35′W, 61 m (1, MCZ 161635 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . Sta. FF-9, Rep. 1, 42°18.75′N, 70°39.40′W, 49 m (2, MCZ 161636 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; Rep. 2 (4, MCZ 161637 View Materials )   . Sta. FF-10, Rep. 1, 42°24.84′N, 70°52.72′W, 27 m (5, MCZ 161638 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; Rep. 2, 4 paratypes MCZ 161639 View Materials ); Rep. 3 (1, MCZ 161640 View Materials )   . FF-Sta. 12, Rep. 1, 42°23.40′N, 70°49.83′W, 22 m, 15 paratypes ( MCZ 161641 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; Rep. 2 (5, MCZ 161642 View Materials )   ; Rep. 3 (5, MCZ 161643 View Materials )   . Sta. FF-13, Rep. 1, 42°19.19′N, 70°49.38′W, 19 m (3, MCZ 161644 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; Rep. 2, 5 paratypes ( MCZ 161645 View Materials )   ; Rep. 3 (3, MCZ 161646 View Materials )   .— 1997 August Survey: Sta. FF-9, Rep. 1, 42°18.75′N, 70°39.40′W, 49 m (2, MCZ 161660 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . Sta. FF-10, Rep. 1, 42°24.84′N, 70°52.72′W, 27 m (5, MCZ 161661 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . Sta. FF-12, Rep. 1, 42°23.40′N, 70°49.83′W, 22 m (3, MCZ 161662 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; Rep. 2 (5, MCZ 161663 View Materials )   ; Rep. 3 (3, MCZ 161664 View Materials )   . Sta. MF-2, 42°20.31′N, 70°49.69′W, 29 m (1, MCZ 161665 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . Sta. MF-  

9, 42°23.99′N, 70°50.69′W, 35 m (2, MCZ 161666 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . Sta. MF-10, 42°23.57′N, 70°59.29′W, 34 m (5, MCZ 161667 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . Sta. MF-12, Rep. 3 42°23.40′N, 70°49.83′W, 34 m (2, MCZ 161668 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . Sta. MF-20, 42°23.69′N, 70°50.69′W, 28 m, 1 paratype ( MCZ 161669 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   .

Description. A large species; holotype complete, partially coiled, 175 setigers, 42 mm long and 0.8 mm wide across thorax; paratype (MCZ 161634) with ca. 200 setigers, 42.2 mm long, 1.3 mm across thorax; both with 17 thoracic setigers and branchiae from setiger 14. Other large specimens with 16–17 thoracic setigers and branchiae from setigers 13–14. Thoracic segments dorsoventrally flattened, often with 6–8 anterior thoracic segments swollen dorsally due to location of internal retracted pharynx; Thoracic segments short, about six times wider than long ( Fig. 25A View FIGURE 25 ), transitioning to abdominal segments at least 2½ times longer than thoracic segments ( Fig. 27 View FIGURE 27 A–B). Transition from thorax to abdomen denoted by appearance of elongate, enlarged neuropodium, simple at first, becoming longer and with apex split over successive segments. Color in alcohol light tan; subpodial flanges of middle and posterior abdominal neuropodia with a few internal glands retaining stain red with Rose Bengal and reddish brown with Shirlastain A.

Pre-setiger region triangular, wider than long, as long as first 2½ setigers ( Fig. 25 View FIGURE 25 A–C). Prostomium conical, tapering to pointed tip ( Figs. 25 View FIGURE 25 A–C; 27A–B); nuchal organs semi-circular slits on posterior lateral margin ( Fig. 25C View FIGURE 25 ); eyespots absent. Peristomium as long as first setiger, with a single smooth annular ring dorsally ( Fig. 25A View FIGURE 25 ), surrounding mouth ventrally, forming upper and lower lips ( Fig. 25B View FIGURE 25 ); upper lip of mouth with two narrow transverse curved lobes; ventral lip of mouth with 8–10 narrow elongate lobes. Proboscis with three long, narrow lobes seen when everted ( Fig. 27B View FIGURE 27 ).

Anterior thoracic notopodia with digitiform postsetal lobe, base arising directly from body wall; lobe triangular, short at first ( Fig. 26A View FIGURE 26 ), then becoming longer, narrow in posterior thoracic segments ( Fig. 26B View FIGURE 26 ). Thoracic neuropodia with broad base, bearing medial postsetal lobe, short and rounded at first ( Fig. 26A View FIGURE 26 ), then becoming conical in shape in posterior thoracic setigers; posterior thoracic neuropodia from setigers 14–15 developing a second short postsetal lobe and a short subpodial papilla ( Fig. 26B View FIGURE 26 ). Transition to abdominal segments abrupt, with neuropodia becoming thick, elongate and with fewer neurosetae ( Figs. 25A View FIGURE 25 , 26C View FIGURE 26 ); notopodial postsetal lobes becoming narrow and elongate along rest of body ( Figs. 26 View FIGURE 26 C–E, 27E). Abdominal neuropodia of anterior and middle setigers elongate, narrow, divided into two parts separated by notch ( Fig. 26 View FIGURE 26 C–D); medial lobe long, pointed; ventral lobe shorter, rounded apically, directed laterally; ventral lobe lost in far posterior neuropodia that taper to a pointed tip ( Fig. 26E View FIGURE 26 ). Interramal cirrus absent, but distinct low, rounded interramal swelling bearing cilia present at base of notopodium ( Fig. 26 View FIGURE 26 B–E). Abdominal neuropodia with narrow subpodial flange throughout ( Figs. 26 View FIGURE 26 D–E, 27E); anteriormost abdominal neuropodia with subpodial flange transitioning from second postsetal lobe of thoracic neuropodia ( Fig. 27C View FIGURE 27 ); a single subpodial papilla retained on a few anterior abdominal segments. Subpodial flanges of middle and posterior abdominal setigers with few large internal pigmented glands.

Branchiae from thoracic setiger 13 or 14; branchiae short, triangular at first ( Figs. 25A View FIGURE 25 , 26B View FIGURE 26 ), becoming longer, leaflike; branchiae full size by first abdominal segment ( Fig. 26C View FIGURE 26 ). Branchiae of middle and posterior setigers elongate, narrow, weakly asymmetrical ( Figs. 26 View FIGURE 26 D–E, 27E). Each branchia thickly ciliated along lateral and medial margins ( Figs. 26 View FIGURE 26 C–E, Fig. 27E View FIGURE 27 ).

Thoracic notosetae numerous thick, long, camerated capillaries arranged in 2–3 rows. Thoracic neurosetae with about four rows of capillaries and a few hooked uncini first occurring as a group in ventral most part of fascicle and then over subsequent setigers extending dorsally as single curved row of 7–8 uncini between third and fourth row of capillaries ( Fig. 25D View FIGURE 25 ). Uncini difficult to observe among more numerous capillaries, always shorter and observed in ventral part of fascicle. Uncini best observed in first 7–10 setigers, becoming reduced to 3–4 uncini in lower part of setal fascicle; either absent or not observed in posterior thoracic setigers. Individual uncini with shafts smooth on convex side, tapering to narrow, rounded tip; concave side of shaft flattened, bearing barbs along most of shaft ( Fig. 25E View FIGURE 25 ). Abdominal notosetae thin, camerated capillaries and 1–2 furcate setae. Furcate setae with unequal tynes; long tyne with blunted tip and apical notch; shorter tyne with narrow rounded tip; each with row of thin needles extending medially ( Fig. 25 View FIGURE 25 F–G). Abdominal neurosetae with up to 4–6 thin capillaries, each with short barbs along one edge, and 1–2 narrow curved aciculae, sometimes protruding, with rounded tip ( Fig. 26D View FIGURE 26 inset). Flail setae not observed.

Pygidium short, with two dorsal lobes each subdivided into 2–3 parts and two large ventrolateral lobes surrounding anal opening; with two long anal cirri arising dorsally ( Figs. 26F View FIGURE 26 , 27D View FIGURE 27 ).

Remarks. Scoloplos verrilli   n. sp. was commonly collected in Massachusetts Bay as part of the long-term monitoring program associated with an offshore outfall. The species differs from S. pettiboneae   n. sp. and S. pseu- doarmiger n. sp., which are also present offshore Massachusetts, in having only a few uncini in thoracic neuropodia instead of numerous uncini in multiple rows. Along the U.S. Atlantic coast, S. verrilli   n. sp. from off New England is most similar to S. papillatus   n. sp., which occurs in upper slope sediments off North Carolina. Details regarding the differences between these two species were reviewed in the account for S. papillatus   n. sp. (see above).

Scoloplos armiger sensu Pettibone (1963)   is believed to be the same as S. verrilli   n. sp. because she noted that only a few spines, together with numerous capillaries, were present in thoracic neuropodia. However, her account suggests that other species were likely present in her material as well.

Etymology. This species is named for Professor Addison Emery Verrill, eminent 19 th century zoologist at Yale University. Professor Verrill’s surveys and subsequent publications on the marine invertebrates of offshore New England included descriptions of numerous polychaetes including orbiniids. Currently three common species of Leitoscoloplos   and one species of Phylo   that occur along the U.S. Atlantic coast were originally described by Verrill (1873).

Distribution. Massachusetts Bay, 19– 51 m.

Genus Leodamas Kinberg, 1866  

Type-species: Leodamas verax Kinberg, 1866   , by monotypy.

Synonym: Branchethus Chamberlin, 1919b   . Type-species: Branchethus latum Chamberlin, 1919b   , by monotypy. Fide Hartman 1957.

Diagnosis. (after Blake 2017). Prostomium pointed on anterior margin, usually prolonged; most species with a single achaetous peristomial segment; immature adults of some species with two achaetous peristomial segments and adults of at least one species with vague indication of two achaetous segments. Branchiae single or multiple branches, either from anterior thoracic setigers 4–7 or from posterior thoracic setigers or first abdominal setigers. Posterior thoracic setigers with 0–2 postsetal lobes and 0–2 subpodial lobes, never more than four lobes of both types combined; lobes not forming ventral fringes. Thoracic neuropodial uncini large, conspicuous, arranged in one to many distinct vertical rows, with accompanying capillaries few or entirely lacking; heavy spear-like spines and bristle-topped setae absent. Abdominal neuropodia with projecting aciculae, either thin and inconspicuous or large and curved apically. Abdominal noto- or neuropodial flail setae present or absent.

Remarks. Blake (2017) redefined Leodamas   and referred 29 species to the genus; two additional species were subsequently qdescribed by Sun et al. (2018) from the East China Sea and Blake (2020) from the South China Sea. Blake (2017) divided the species into two groups: (Group A) species with branchiae from an anterior thoracic setiger (4–7) and thoracic neuropodial uncini typically in three or more rows and (Group B) species with branchiae from a posterior thoracic or anterior abdominal setiger (12–29) and with thoracic neuropodial uncini typically in 1–2 rows. The species assigned to Group B were previously referred to the genus Scoloplos   , but redefined as a separate group of Leodamas   species by Blake (2017). Only species belonging to Group A were found in the present study.

Based on Blake (2017, 2020) and Sun et al. (2018), 21 species of Leodamas   are known, of which only four have been reported from depths greater than 500 m. In the present study, three additional species have been found: (1) L. cuneatus   n. sp. in lower slope depths of New England and mid-Atlantic sites off New Jersey and Delaware, (2) L. mucronatus   n. sp. from upper slope depths off South Carolina, and (3) L. notoaciculatus   n. sp. from inner shelf depths off New Jersey. The two deep-water species have unusual pre-setal morphology.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Annelida

Class

Polychaeta

Family

Orbiniidae

Genus

Scoloplos

Loc

Scoloplos verrilli

Blake, James A. 2021
2021
Loc

Scoloplos armiger:

Blake 1998
1998
Loc

Scoloplos (Scoloplos) armiger:

Pettibone 1963: 292 - 293
1963