Heteromeringia spinulosa D.K. McAlpine, 1960

Lonsdale, Owen, 2009, The Heteromeringia (Diptera: Clusiidae: Clusiodinae) of Australia, Records of the Australian Museum 61 (3), pp. 229-262 : 255-258

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https://doi.org/ 10.3853/j.0067-1975.61.2009.1531

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scientific name

Heteromeringia spinulosa D.K. McAlpine, 1960


Heteromeringia spinulosa D.K. McAlpine, 1960

Figs 1, 2, 5 View Figures 1–8 , 11 View Figures 9–16 , 73–80 View Figures 73–77 View Figures 78–87 , 104, 105

Heteromeringia spinulosa D.K. McAlpine, 1960:74 . Heteromeringia pulla D.K. McAlpine, 1960: 73 , new synonym.

Holotype [ Heteromeringia spinulosa ]: New South Wales: Below Govett’s Leap, Blue Mountains , 7.xii.1956, D.K. McAlpine (1♂, AMS) . Paratypes [ H. spinulosa ]. New South Wales: Otford , 12.x.1957, D.K. McAlpine (1♂, AMS), Sydney, ii.1925, Health Department (1♀, AMS) [allotype of H. australiae ] .

Holotype [ Heteromeringia pulla ]. New South Wales: National Park , 13.iv.1954, D.K. McAlpine (1♂, AMS) . Paratypes [ H. pulla ]. New South Wales: National Park, D.K. McAlpine, 13.iv.1954 (2♂♂, AMS) , 20.iv.1954 (4♂♂, AMS) , Otford , 26.i.1959, D.K. McAlpine (1♂, AMS) .

Additional material examined. Australian Capital Territory. Black Mtn., Malaise , site 1, D.H. Colless, 20.ii.1980 (1♂ 1♀, ANIC) , 18.ii.1980 (1♂, ANIC) , 4–5.iii.1980 (1♂, ANIC) , 29.xi.1979 (1♀, ANIC) , 30.xi–2.xii.1979 (1♀, ANIC) , 4.ii.1980 (1♀, ANIC) , 14.ii.1980 (1♂, ANIC) , 21.ii.1980 (1♂, ANIC) , 25.ii.1980 (1♂, ANIC) , 8–10.ii.1980 (1♀, ANIC) , 2–3.ii.1980 (1♀, ANIC) , 20.xi. 1980 (1♀, ANIC) , 19.xi.1979 (2♂♂, ANIC) , 28.ii.1980 (1♀, ANIC) , 17–18.xi.1979 (1♀, ANIC) , 29.ii.1980 (1♂ 1♀, ANIC) , 15–17. iii.1980 (1♀, ANIC) , 15–17.xii.1979 (2♂♂, ANIC) , 29.ii–2.iii.1980 (1♂ 1♀, ANIC) , Black Mtn. , xii.1987, M. Irwin, Malaise trap (2♂♂ 2♀♀, ANIC) , Blundells Ck. , ii.1987, D.H. Colless, Malaise trap (2♀♀, ANIC) . New South Wales: Katoomba , 19.xi.1963, G.H. Hardy (1♂, AMS) , 8.xii.1961 (2♀♀, AMS) , Sassafras Gully, Springwood , 23.ix.1972, D.K. McAlpine (1♂, AMS) , Wright’s Lookout, New England National Park , 1.iv.1961, D.K. McAlpine (1♀, AMS) , Roberts Creek near East Kurrajong , 1.i.1962, D.K. McAlpine (1♀, AMS) , Mooney Mooney Creek near Gosford , 20.xi.1975, D.K.McAlpine (1♂, AMS) , 25.xi.1975 (1♂, AMS) , 9.xi.1976, in copula (1♂ 1♀ [same pin], AMS) , 11.xii.1981, B.J. Day (1♀, AMS) , 16.xi.1978, D.K. McAlpine & B.J. Day (1♂, AMS) , 25.xi.1975, D.K. McAlpine & B.J. Day (1♂, AMS) , 6.xii.1977, D.K. McAlpine & B.J. Day (1♂, AMS) , 1.xii.1989, D.K. McAlpine & B.J. Day (1♂, AMS) , National Park , 19.. iii.1961, D.K. McAlpine (1♀ 1♂ [same pin], AMS) , Brown Mtn. nr. Nimmitabel , 13–19.ii.1987, 1200 m, warm temp. rf., D. Bickel (1♀, AMS) , Royal NP, 12.ii.1985, Bela Ck., closed for., D. Bickel (1♂, AMS) , Royal National Park , 19.xii.1970, D.K. McAlpine (1♂, AMS) , Careel Bay , 14.iii.1963, Casuarina swamp, D.K. McAlpine (1♂ 1♀, AMS) , ne Camden Head SEPP 26 site 122, littoral r’for, G.&T.Williams, Malaise trap, 24.xii.1999 – 4.i.2000 (1♀, AMS) , Sullivan Gap FR, nr. Buladelah , 3–16.i.1988, yellow pan trap, E. Tasker, 930 m, 24–30.iv.1998, sticky trap on E. cameronii, CS-FZ-048-5 (1♂, AMS) , 11–16.i.1998, sticky trap on E. obliqua, CC-FK-018-5 (2♀♀, USNM) , 11–16.i.1998, sticky trap on E. campanula, CC-CR-018-6 (1♀, AMS) , 3–8.xii.1997, sticky trap on E. viminalis, CS-RO-127-1 (1♀, AMS) , Deua NP, Wyanbene Caves Cpgd. , 800 m, 35°45'30"S 149°39'30"E, sticky trap, trunk, wet sclera. for., D. Bickel, 16.xii.2000 (1♀, AMS) GoogleMaps , 3km N Lansdowne via Taree, Lorien Wildlife Refuge , 50 m, 20–27.xii.1990, Malaise trap, D. Pollock & L. Reichert (1♂, USNM) , Royal Natl. Pk., Scientists’ Cabin trail, creek bed, sweep, 25.xii.2003, S.A. Marshal (2♀♀, DEBU) [one with abdomen missing], Upp.Kangaroo Riv., nr. Yeola , 200 m, J.F. Lawrence, ex. rotting stick on rainforest floor, coll 3–4.iii.1983, Emg. 11.iii.1983 (1♂, ANIC) , Emg. 9.iii.1983 (1♀, ANIC) , Emg. 20–30.iii.1983 (1♂ 2♀♀, ANIC) , Emg. 15–20.iii.1983 (1♀, ANIC) , Monga State Forest , 24.i.1984, L. Masner (1♀, CNC) , 19–24.i.1984 (1♀, CNC) . Queensland: Monto District, Bulburin ( Austral ), Site 3, 24°34'S 151°29'E, 580 m, creek bed, 20.iii.1975, D.K. McAlpine (1♂, AMS) GoogleMaps , Austral Forest via Bulburin, Site 3, 24°34'S 151°29'E, 22.iii.197, Malaise trap, D.K. McAlpine (1♂, AMS) GoogleMaps , Great Sandy Nat. Pk., Cooloola Section , 25°56'49"S 153°05'30"E, 1–5.x.1996, D.K.Yeates, G. Lambkin & S. Winterton, Malaise trap (2♂♂, UQIC) GoogleMaps , Cooloola NP, Freshwater Lake , 27.xi.1985, D. Bickel & G. Cassis (1♂, AMS) , Bunya Mtns NP. At Rd. to Nanaga , rainfor., 960 m, 26.xi.1992, yell. Pans, D.J. Bickel (1♀, AMS) , SE QLD, Mt.Glorious, Rainforest Circuit tr, 24.x.2002, 27.20S / 152.46E, rainforest, Merz, Földvari & McNeil (2♂♂, MHNG) GoogleMaps , SE QLD, Brisbane, Griffith Uni., Nathan Campus , 23.x.2002, 27.33S / 153.04E, dry&wet sclrophyll forest, ferns, B. Merz (1♂, MHNG) GoogleMaps , Mt Glorious, 27°19'54"S 152°45'29"E, Malaise , 24–30.i.1998, T. Hiller (2♂♂ 1♀, DEBU) GoogleMaps , 24–30.xi.1997 (1♂, DEBU) , 3–9.i.1998 (1♂ 2♀♀, DEBU) , Brisbane Forest Pk., Scrub Creek Rd. , 27°25'41"S 152°50'15"E, yellow pans, 29.ix.2002, C.R. Nelson (1♂, DEBU) GoogleMaps , SE QLD, Tamborine Mts., Eagle Heights, Palm Grove , 26.x.2002, 27.56S / 153.12E, rainforest, Merz & Földvari (1♂, MHNG) GoogleMaps , N QLD, the Crater near Herberton , 16.xii.1961, D.K. McAlpine (1♂, AMS) , Birthday Crk, near Paluma, N Qld , 18.i.1967, D.K. McAlpine & G. Holloway (1♂, AMS; 2♂♂, USNM), 14.i.1970, G.A. Holloway (1♂, AMS) , Skywindow Lookout, Eungella Nat. Pk. , 8–9.v.1980, I.D. Naumann & J.C. Cardale, Malaise trap (1♀, ANIC) , N Qld, Julatten, A. Walford-Huggins , edge of rainforest along creek, ex. intercept trap, 30.xi–13.xii.1987 (2♂♂ 1♀, ANIC) , 5.x.1987 (1♀, ANIC) , 13.32S 143.19E, McIlwraith Range , vi–vii.1989, I. Naumann (1♂, ANIC) GoogleMaps , Sirakan , ii.1924, G.H. Hardy (1♀, UQIC) , Atherton Tablelands, Lake Eacham , sweep, 5–8.iv.1999, S.A. Marshall (1♀, DEBU) , Brisbane Forest Pk, 27°25'5"S 152°50'13"E, Malaise over creek, 13–19.vi.1998, N. Power (1♂, DEBU) GoogleMaps , Mt Glorious, 27°19'54"S 152°45'29"E, Malaise , 24–30. xi.1998, T. Hiller (3♀♀, DEBU) GoogleMaps , 24–30.i.1998 (1♂, DEBU) , SE QLD, Brisbane, Griffith Uni., Nathan Campus , 23.x.2002, 27.33S / 153.04E, dry&wet sclrophyll forest, ferns, B. Merz (1♂, MHNG) GoogleMaps , N QLD, Mt. Spurgeon, wet sclera. For. , 1250 m, 18–19.iv.1994, B.J. Sinclair, 16°26'S 145°12'E (1♀, CNC) GoogleMaps , Monga State Forest , 19–24.i.1984, L. Masner (1♀, CNC) , Mt. Glorious , x.1978, A. Hiller, Malaise (1♀, ANIC) , Mt. Haig , 21km NE by E of Atherton, 18.xi.1981, D.H. Colless, Malaise trap (1♂, ANIC) , 15.50S 145.20E, Gap Ck., 5km ESE Mt. Finnigan , 15.v.1981, D.H. Colless, Malaise trap (1♀, ANIC) GoogleMaps , Great Sandy Nat. Pk., Cooloola Section , 25°56'49"S 153°05'30"E, 1–5.x.1996, D.K. Yeates, G. Lambkin & S. Winterton, Malaise trap (1♂, UQIC) GoogleMaps , Noosa Natl. Pk., Palm Trail , sweeping, 30.iv.1999, S.A. Marshall (1♂, DEBU) . Tasmania: Claytons , i.1991, Nielsen & Edwards (1♂ 1♀, ANIC) . Victoria: Sherbrook Forest near Melbourne Via. , 21.i.1966, D.K. McAlpine (1♀, AMS) .


Male ( Figs 1, 2, 5 View Figures 1–8 ). Body length 2.7–5.2 mm. Anepisternal disc present. First flagellomere orbicular. Bristles black. Arista pubescent. Vibrissa relatively long and curved. Ocellar bristle thin and approximately as long as tubercle. Two dorsocentral bristles with small bristle in front of anterior dorsocentral. Gena relatively high and sometimes with inward bend at mid-height (not as distinct as in H. laticornis ). Face and buccal cavity velvety and meeting at slightly rounded angle. Head yellow with posterior 2 ⁄ 3 of frons (usually excluding lateral and posterior margins) dark brown (remainder orange) and back of head above foramen dark brown; first flagellomere sometimes with narrow infuscation along anterior margin or around base of arista; USNM specimen with distal 2 ⁄ 3 of first flagellomere dark brown; occiput brown (venter often yellow in southern specimens) and gena yellow with posterior half sometimes brown (more frequently brown in northern specimens); clypeus brown; anterior half of frons pilose and dorsal margin of gena silvery tomentose. Thorax dark brown with proepisternum yellow and posterolateral margin of scutum to anterolateral margin of scutellum sometimes with variably yellow to orange tint (more common northwards). Legs yellow with fore coxa white, fore tarsi dark brown and laterally compressed, fore tibia brownish (lighter to base), and fore femur with long, illdefined spot on inner apex. Abdomen dark brown. M 1+2 ratio 3.7–5.3. Wing with basal band confluent with second band through cells br and bm; second and third bands (confluent through first radial cell) separated evenly by thin clear strip. Halter white with base and side of stalk infuscated.

Female. As described for male except as follows: pale spots on scutum faded or absent; anterior and inner-distal margins of first flagellomere infuscated, sometimes with distal 2 ⁄ 3 of inner face dark; frons shiny or with small pilose anteromedial patch; only anterior and lateral margins of frons with orange tint; face and gena with piceous tint; fore tibia and tarsi evenly brown; terminalia yellow.

Male terminalia ( Figs 73–77 View Figures 73–77 ). Length of epandrium slightly more than half width and height. Surstylus 2 ⁄ 3 height of epandrium, very thin and pointed, with few inner-apical tubercle-like bristles and outer face bare. Cerci approximately as high as surstylus, heart-shaped and heavily setose. Hypandrium+pregonite bilobed (anterior lobe with two stout bristles and posterior lobe setulose at apex and base). Phallapodeme shorter than hypandrium. Distiphallus with membrane on basal half strongly spinulose; with small serrated process medially (vestigial, shallow, slightly longer than wide, or very long and blade-like); wide and heavily elaborated apically with serrated subapical ridge.

Female terminalia (Figs 104, 105). Ventral receptacle rounded apically and flagellum very long, thin and coiled (coils tighter to apex). Spermatheca barrel-shaped (widest subapically) and long with several basal wrinkles.

Comments. Based on external and internal examination of male and female specimens of Heteromeringia spinulosa and H. pulla from across both of their ranges, it now appears that these two taxa belong to the same species. Their colouration is nearly identical, as are the female genitalia, surstylus and most of the hypandrial complex. The absence of a serrated blade-like process on the phallus and its associated bell-shaped apical lobe ( Fig. 77 View Figures 73–77 ) was previously considered diagnostic of H. pulla (although D.K. McAlpine (1960) noted some polymorphism), but these are actually present in a number of males, although the blade is rarely much longer than wide if present and the lobe is frequently underdeveloped ( Fig. 75 View Figures 73–77 ). The other character previously considered diagnostic of either species was whether or not the venter of the gena was entirely ( H. spinulosa ) or only partially ( H. pulla ) yellow. While the presence of either character is generally indicative of whether or not the phallic blade is present, it is sometimes not, and specimens collected in and south of the Australian Capital Territory almost always have an entirely yellow gena (the occiput is also predominantly yellow) regardless of whether the blade is developed or not. The presence of a strong yellow patch extending from the side of the scutellum to the posterolateral corner of the notum is slightly more correlated with the presence of a well developed phallic blade, but the intensity of this patch often varies and is sometimes associated with the “opposite” genitalic state, particularly to the north. Since all of the specimens examined appear to belong to a single (albeit unusually polymorphic) species, H. pulla is here treated as a junior synonym of H. spinulosa under the first reviser principle (ICZN Article 24.2.1).

In addition to the material listed above, there are several specimens that range from the Australian Capital Territory to Queensland that vary as follows: first flagellomere entirely white; ventral margin of gena and occiput entirely yellow; notum with faint yellowish posterolateral tint; wing pattern relatively indistinct; surstylus much longer than epandrium ( Figs 78, 79 View Figures 78–87 ); phallus branched at midpoint, with branch short, smooth and directed distally ( Fig. 80 View Figures 78–87 ). The elongate surstylus is the most striking feature of these males, but given the amount of genitalic variability already discussed for this species, they will be treated as H. spinulosa for the time being. Label data:ACT: 35.22S 148.50E, Blundells Ck., ii.1987, D.H. Colless, Malaise trap (3♂♂, ANIC) GoogleMaps . NSW: Carrai SF, 30°54'35"S 152°16'26"E, 1090 m, E. Tasker, 11–16.i.1998, sticky trap on E. obliqua, CC-FK-018-5 (1♂, AMS) GoogleMaps . QLD: 18.55S 146.10E, S2 Mt. Spec , 880 m, 5.vi–3. vii.1995, M. Cermak, Fl trap, JCU (East) (1♂, ANIC) GoogleMaps .


Australian National Insect Collection


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Ontario Insect Collection, University of Guelph


Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes


University of Queensland Insect Collection


Museum d'Histoire Naturelle














Heteromeringia spinulosa D.K. McAlpine, 1960

Lonsdale, Owen 2009

Heteromeringia spinulosa D.K. McAlpine, 1960:74

McAlpine, D 1960: 74
McAlpine, D 1960: 73