Miconia bractiflora Gamba & Almeda

Gamba, Diana & Almeda, Frank, 2014, Systematics of the Octopleura Clade of Miconia (Melastomataceae: Miconieae) in Tropical America, Phytotaxa 179 (1), pp. 1-174: 69-73

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.11646/phytotaxa.179.1.1

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5156306

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03C887CB-FB14-FFCE-FACB-EC3DFAF45AAD

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Miconia bractiflora Gamba & Almeda
status

nom. nov.

12. Miconia bractiflora Gamba & Almeda   , nom. nov. Basionym: Ossaea bracteata Triana (1871: 147)   . Type: COLOMBIA (Nouvelle Grenade). Nariño: Barbacoas, Arrastradero, 10 m, April 1853, Triana s.n. (holotype: BMinternet image!; isotypes: BR-2 sheets-internet images!, COL-internet image!, NY-2 sheets!). Nec Miconia bracteata (de Candolle) Triana (1871: 111)   .

Shrub or small tree (0.7–) 1–8 m tall with erect, rigid branching. Upper internodes compressed-rounded, (1–) 3.2–7.1 cm long, cauline nodes terete, bearing a well-defined nodal ridge forming a deflexed flaplike outgrowth confluent with the abaxial bases of the petioles. Indumentum on branchlets, primary and secondary leaf veins abaxially, inflorescence axes, bracts and bracteoles, sparsely composed of caducous somewhat translucent dendritic trichomes 0.15–0.2 mm long with short thin-walled (flattened) arms. Leaves of each pair isophyllous; the semiterete petiole 1.5–4(–6) cm long, widely and deeply canaliculate adaxially, glabrous; blades 15–28(–35) × 5.5–16 cm, oblong-elliptic to obovate, the base acute to cuneate, narrowly decurrent on the petiole, the margin entire or obscurely undulate-crenate to crenate, the apex acute to short-acuminate, chartaceous; mature leaves adaxially with surface, primary, secondary, tertiary and higher order veins glabrous; abaxial surface occasionally red-flushed, glabrous like the tertiary and higher order veins; 5-(7-) plinerved, including the tenuous marginals, innermost pair of secondary veins diverging equilaterally or inequilaterally from the primary vein 0.6–1.2 cm above the base, areolae 0.5–1 mm, adaxially the primary, secondary, tertiary and higher order veins impressed, abaxially the primary and secondary veins elevated and terete, the tertiary and higher order veins slightly elevated. Inflorescences a pseudolateral multiflorous thyrsoid 3–7 cm long, including a peduncle 1–1.5(–2) cm long, the flowers congested in the paracladia, with a secund/scorpioid arrangement, pendant, divaricately branched from the peduncle apex among the upper foliar nodes; bracts and bracteoles 3–5 × 2–4 mm, the bracts ovate to suborbicular, acute at the apex, each pair imbricate, commonly more than one pair present, the bracteoles ovate-oblong to suborbicular, bluntly and widely acuminate at the apex, both concave, with conspicuous parallel venation, greenorange, glabrescent to sparsely furfuraceous on both surfaces, persistent to tardily deciduous in fruit. Flowers 5- merous, sessile. Hypanthia at anthesis 2.5–2.7 × 1.3–1.5 mm, free portion of hypanthium 1–1.2 mm long,

SYSTEMATICS OF THE OCTOPLEURA   CLADE OF MICONIA  

Phytotaxa 179 (1) © 2014 Magnolia Press 69 campanulate to subglobose, bluntly 10-ribbed, greenish to orange, with a copious matted indumentum of dendritic trichomes 0.15–0.2 mm long with moderately long thin-walled arms, ridged and glabrous on the inner surface, the torus sparsely ciliate to glabrous adaxially. Calyx open in bud and persistent in fruit, green; tube 0.4–0.5 mm long, with the same vestiture as the torus adaxially and as the hypanthium abaxially; lobes 0.5–0.7 × 0.7–0.9 mm, broadly depressed triangular, the margin vaguely undulate, the apex bluntly acute, moderately to copiously covered on both surfaces with the same type of vestiture as the hypanthium; exterior calyx teeth up to 0.25 mm long in fruit, short-linear and blunt, with the same vestiture as the hypanthium, inserted at the base of the calyx lobes and not projecting beyond them. Petals 2–3.2 × 0.75–1 mm, oblong-lanceolate, the margin entire, the apex bluntly acute, white to translucent white, glabrous adaxially, abaxially with a copious central band of matted dendritic trichomes to 0.25 mm long with moderately long thin-walled (flattened) arms, reflexed at anthesis. Stamens 10; filaments 2–2.5 × 0.25 mm, white, glabrous; anther thecae 1.5–2.2 × 0.3–0.4 mm, linear-oblong, slightly clavate and emarginate at the apex, opening by two dorsally inclined pores, 0.11–0.13 mm in diameter, white to pale yellow; connective pale yellow, its prolongation and appendage (0.25–) 0.3–0.4 mm long, the appendage deltoid, bluntly acute at the apex, copiously gland-edged, the glands short-stalked, also present on the dorsal side of the appendage and connective. Ovary 5-locular, 2/3 to 3/4 inferior, 1.9–2.1 mm long at anthesis, the apical collar absent, the apex 0.25–0.35 mm in diameter, conic-truncate, sparsely glandular-puberulent; style 3.8–4.5(–5) mm long, parallel sided (i.e. terete), white, glabrous; stigma expanded truncate to capitellate at anthesis. Berries 1.8–2.5 × 2.5–3 mm when dry, globose-oblate, initially green, then orange, ripening red-orange to red-purple, the hypanthial indumentum persistent at maturity. Seeds 0.37–0.4 × 0.13–0.17 mm, ovoid, angled, brownish; lateral and antiraphal symmetrical planes ovate, the highest point toward the chalazal side; raphal zone triangular to suboblong, nearly as long as the seed, somewhat ventrally expanded toward the micropyle; appendage absent but a small protuberance present; individual cells elongate, anticlinal boundaries channeled, undulate, with Ω- and U-type patterns; periclinal walls convex, low-domed to nearly flat, microrelief inconspicuously striate.

Additional specimens studied:— COLOMBIA. Boyacá: (Puerto Boyacá), corregimiento de Puerto Romero, Hda. Los Balcones , 5°50’30.1”N, 74°22’22.2”W, 350 m, 18 September 1996, Rangel et al. 13398 ( COL) GoogleMaps   . Caldas: (Samaná), Florencia, P.N.N. Selva de Florencia, Sendero a San Lucas , Cordillera Central , vertiente oriental, 5°30.96’N, 75°3.59’W, 1206 m, 3 March 2011, Alvear et al. 1474 ( CAS, COL) GoogleMaps   . Chocó: Vicinity of Guayabal , 21 April 1982, Prance 28023 ( NY)   ; New road being built from Sof Yuto to Lloró, 100 m, 17 August 1976, Gentry & Fallen 17831 ( MO); ( San José del Palmar )   , La Italia, San Antonio , Alto de Galápagos , Serranía de Los Paraguas , Sendero to Cascada San Antonio, 4°50.53’N, 76°12.991’W, 1700 m, 15 February 2011, Almeda et al. 10357 ( CAS, COL); ( Tadó ) GoogleMaps   , Marmolejo, 15 km adelante de Guarató (Risaralda) en la carretera Cecilia-Tadó ( Chocó ), 450 m, 25 April 1991, Fernández et al. 8786 ( NY); ( Quibdó )   , Tutunendo, Alto del Veinte , 25 km Nde Quibdó, 450 m, 19 October 1986, Callejas & Jangoux 2663 ( HUA, MO, NY)   ; km 17 road from Quibdó to Istmina, 23 April 1982, Prance 28039 ( COL, NY); ( San José del Palmar )   , El Tabor, 1540 m, 18 January 1983, Franco et al. 1477 ( COL, NY); ( Nóvita )   , Llanadas, Ladera Ndel Cerro Torrá, Filo al Wdel Río Surama, Camino al Alto del Oso, 600–900 m, 22 February 1977, Forero et al. 3103 ( COL, MO, NY); ( San José del Palmar )   , Hoya del Río Torito (afluente del Río Hábita ), declive occidental, Finca ”Los Guaduales", 730–830 m, 2 March 1980, Forero et al. 6494 ( COL, MO)   ; 7 km Wof Tutenendo on road to Quibdó , 100 m, 12 August 1976, Gentry & Fallen 17589 ( COL, MO)   ; 11 km Eof Tutunendo on Quibdó-Medellín road, 100–200 m, 12 August 1976, Gentry & Fallen 17570 ( COL, MO); ( Quibdó )   , Carretre Quibdó-Yuto , km 6, 31 March 1984, García-Cossio 51 ( CHOCO, MO)   ; Vicinity of”La Equis" mine, short road Nof Bolivar-Quibdó hwy, around km 182–3, 300 m, 31 October 1983, Juncosa 1167 ( MO); ( San José del Palmar )   , Portachuelo, Hacienda Barro Blanco, 1350 m, 15 January 1983, Franco et al. 1386 ( COL, MO); ( Quibdó )   , Carretera San José de Purre , 25 April 1987, Moreno   6 ( CHOCO, MO)   ; Along road between Quibdó and Istmina , at 14 km Sof Quibdó, 5°32’N, 67°37’W, 100 m, 17 December 1980, Croat & Cogollo 52192 ( MO) GoogleMaps   ; Quebrada Peña Negra   , 8 km W of Quibdó-Istmina road on new Pan American Hwy, 90 m, 10 January 1979, Gentry & Renteria 23936 ( COL, MO)   ; Serranía del Baudó, along road between Las Animas and Pato on Río Pato , ca 4 km SW of Pato on property of Sr. Gutierrez, 5°30’N, 76°46’W, 150 m, 18 April 1983, Croat 56117 ( MO); ( San José del Palmar ) GoogleMaps   , Hoya del Río Torito (afluente del Río Hábita), declive occidental, 850–950 m, 16 March 1980, Forero et al. 7412 ( COL, MO); ( Quibdó )   , Carretera Quibdó-Medellin, entre el Veinte y la Playa, 28 August 1985, García- Cossio 131 ( CHOCO, MO)   ; Comunidad Indígena Waunana, Región del Río Pichimá, 4°25’N, 77°17’W, 100 m, 11 November 1976, Forero 634 ( COL, MO); ( Quibdó ) GoogleMaps   , Carretera Yuto-Lloró, 80 m, 30 June 1983, Forero et al. 9693 ( COL, MO); ( Quibdó )   , Tutunendo, Carretera Quibdó , 6 September 1976, Forero 2529 ( COL, MO)   ; Margen

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izquierdo del Río Atrato, Carretera Tutunendo-El Carmen , Alrededores del campamento “El 12”, 600 m, 27 April 1979, Forero et al. 5970 ( COL, MO); (Istmina)   , Quebrada Raspadura, entre Raspadura y Quibdó, Divorcio de aguas de las Hoyas del Río Atrato y del Río San Juan , 5°15’N, 76°38’W, 18 April 1979, Forero & Jaramillo 5311 ( COL, MO) GoogleMaps   ; Río Serrano, afluente del Río Atrato , 4–6 km arriba de Guayabal, 50 m, 29 April 1975, Forero et al. 1332 ( COL, MO)   ; Río Serrano, afluente del Río Atrato, 4–6 km arriba de Guayabal, 50 m, 30 April 1975, Forero et al. 1390 ( COL, MO); ( Alto de Buey )   , Alto de Buey , 1200–1800 m, 8 January 1973, Gentry & Forero 7301 ( MO)   ; Río Serrano, afluente del Río Atrato, Arriba de Guayabal , 40 m, 26 April 1975, Forero et al. 1306 ( COL, MO); ( Bahia Solano )   , P.N.N. Ensenada de Utría, En la trocha que va de la ensenada a Boroboro, 6°21’N, 76°26’W, 0–100 m, 22 April 1990, Espina et al. 3815 ( CHOCO, MO); ( Quibdó ) GoogleMaps   , Carretera Yuto-Lloró , 80 m, 30 June 1983, Forero et al. 9641 ( COL, MO); (Pizarro)   , Km 24–26 de la carretera Pie de Pepé-Berrecul , 18 November 1985, Espina 1948 ( MO)   ; Alongroad between Quibdó and Yuto , 12 km Sof Quibdó, 5°38’N, 76°40’W, 60 m, 21 April 1983, Croat 56242 ( MO) GoogleMaps   ; Along ropad between Quibdó and Lloró ca 5 km Eof turnoff along Quibdo-Las Animas road ca 1 km Sof ferry over Río Atrato , 5°29’N, 76°35’W, 150 m, 16 April 1983, Croat 56002 ( MO) GoogleMaps   ; Hoya del Río San Juan, Río Fujiadó, afluente del Río San Juan , 4°36’N, 76°54’W, 7 April 1979, Forero et al. 4806 ( COL, MO) GoogleMaps   . Chocó-Valle: Río Calima (región del Chocó ), margen izquierda, bosques junto a Quebrada de la Brea, 25–40 m, 19 May 1946, Cuatrecasas 21132 ( NY)   . Nariño: ( Tumaco ), La Guayacana, 24 June 1951, Romero-Castañeda 2857 ( NY); (Ricaurte)   , Along road between Altaquer and Tumaco , between Altaquer and Junín , 7 km Wof Altaquer, Río Ñambí , 1°18’N, 78°4’W, 1100 m, 21 March 1990, Croat 71680 ( MO) GoogleMaps   . Risaralda: (Mistrató), Jeguadas, Cordillera Occidental , Vertiente Occidental , 5°26’N, 76°2’W, 1500 m, 28 March 1992, Betancur et al. 3185 ( NY) GoogleMaps   . Valle: La Trojita, Río Calima (región del Chocó), 5–50 m, 19 February 1944, Cuatrecasas 16384 (F, NY); ( Buenaventura )   , San Isidro , La Trojita, 7 March 1989, Devia   & Prado 2702 ( CAS, MO, TULV)   ; Rio Calima, Quebrada de La Brea, 30–40 m, 19 May 1946, Schultes & Villareal 7365 ( NY); ( Buenaventura )   , Bajo Calima, Within Forestry Concession of Cartón de Colombia, between Buenaventura and Río Calima , 6.3 km Nof Frente La Brea, km 18 on main road, about 6 km SE of San Isidro village on Río Calima , 40°2’N, 77°3’W, 50 m, 7 July 1986, Croat 61346 ( CAS, MO) GoogleMaps   ; N shore of Buenventura Bay , 16 February 1939, Killip & García 33345 ( NY)   ; Bajo Calima, Concesión Pulpapel, 100 m, 20 January 1988, van der Werff & Monsalve 9662 ( MO, NY); ( Buenaventura )   , San Isidro, In and around camp of INDERENA-FAO, 3°59’N, 76°57’W, 236 m, 15 November 1979, van Rooden et al. 610 ( MO, NY) GoogleMaps   ; El Papayo, Costa del Pacífico, Río Yurumanguí , 10–20 m, 5 February 1944, Cuatrecasas 15990 ( COL, NY)   ; Bajo Calima, Concesión Pulpapel / Buenaventura , Carretera Canalete PS 1, 3°55’N, 77°’W, 100 m, 22 October 1987, Monsalve 2037 ( CUVC, MO)   ; Bajo Calima , ca 10 km due Nof Buenaventura, Carton de Colombia concession, 3°56’N, 77°8’W, 50 m, 10 December 1981, Gentry 35576 ( COL, MO) GoogleMaps   ; Bajo Calima, Estación Agroforestal del Bajo Calima, Secretaría de agricultura y fomento, 40–60 m, 4 August 1979, Cabrera   5158 ( CUVC, MO)   ; Bajo Calima, Concesión Pulpapel / Buenaventura , Carretera Canalete PS 1, 3°55’N, 77°’W, 100 m, 22 October 1987, Monsalve 2018 ( MO); ( Buenaventura )   , Bajo Calima Region, Alongroadbetween Buenventura and Malaga, between km 65 and 66, 4°10’N, 77°12’W, 40–65 m, 28 February 1990, Croat 71039 ( MO) GoogleMaps   ; Bajo Calima Region, Concesión Pupapel / Buenaventura , 3°55’N, 77°’W, 100 m, 8 May 1985, Monsalve 856 ( MO, CUVC); ( Buenaventura )   , Bajo Calima Region, Along road between Buenaventura and Malaga, at km 31.5, virgin forest along road, 4°1’N, 77°5’W, 100 m, 6 February 1990, Croat & Watt 70269 ( MO) GoogleMaps   ; Bajo Calima, Along road between Buenaventura and Málaga, km 51.7 from main Cali-Buenventura Hwy , 4°3’N, 77°5’W, 16 July 1993, Croat & Bay 75767 ( MO) GoogleMaps   . COSTA RICA. Puntarenas: (Puntarenas), Isla del Coco, P.N. Isla del Coco, Sendero de Bahía Wafer al Cerro Yglesias , 5°32’40"N, 87°3’20"W, 0–600 m, 19 August 1996, González 1179 ( INB, MO); (Puntarenas) GoogleMaps   , Isla del Coco, P.N. Isla del Coco, Sendero a Cerro Iglesias , 5°32’40"N, 87°3’20"W, 400–600 m, 22 September 1994, Quesada   1006 ( INB, MO); ( Cocos Island ) GoogleMaps   , High ridgetop between Wafer Bay and Cerro Iglesias, 9 April 1979, Foster 4168 ( CAS, CR, F, MO, US); ( Cocos Island ), Along brook flowing into Wafer Bay , 19 April 1930, Svenson 404 (F). ECUADOR. Carchi: ( Gaulpi Chico ), Awá encampment, Trail on Awá Reservation Border , going S, 0°58’N, 78°16’W, 1330 m, 15 January 1988, Hoover et al. 2615 ( CAS, MO); (Gualpi Chico) GoogleMaps   , Vicinity of Awá encampment, 0°58’N, 78°16’W, 1330 m, 17 January 1988, Hoover et al. 2685 ( MO); (Gualpi Chico) GoogleMaps   , Awá R., Near encampment, 0°58’N, 78°16’W, 1330 m, 20 January 1988, Hoover et al. 2867 ( MO); (Gualpi Chico) GoogleMaps   , Awá Encampment, Trail on reservation border going N, 0°58’N, 78°16’W, 1330 m, 15 January 1988, Hoover et al. 2491 ( MO); (Tulcán) GoogleMaps   , R. Étnica Awá, Comunidad de “Gualpi Medio”, 1°1’N, 78°16’W, 900 m, 21 May 1992, Quelal et al. 750 ( MO, QCNE); (Gualpi Chico) GoogleMaps   , Awá R., SE Trail, near encampment, 0°58’N, 78°16’W, 1330 m, 19 January 1988, Hoover et al. 2767 ( MO) GoogleMaps   ; Perhumid forest on wet plateau above San Marcos de los Coaiqueres, on trail  

SYSTEMATICS OF THE OCTOPLEURA   CLADE OF MICONIA  

Phytotaxa 179 (1) © 2014 Magnolia Press 71 towards Gualpí Bajo, 1°6’N, 78°17’W, 1000 m, 7 February 1985, Øllgaard et al. 57498 (MO); (San Marcos), R. Étnica y Forestal Awá, Around the village, 1°5’N, 78°15’W, 1000 m, 11 March 1988, Jorgensen et al. 65200 (MO); (Tulcán), R. Indígena Awá, Comunidad de “Gualpi Alto”, Parroquia Chical, 1°2’N, 78°14’W, 1800 m, 15 June 1991, Rubio et al. 1727 (MO, QCNE); (Tulcán), R. Indígena Awá, Centro El Baboso, Parroquia Tobar Donoso, 0°53’N, 78°25’W, 1800 m, 17 August 1992, Tipaz et al. 1764 (MO, QCNE); (Maldonado), R. Étnica Awá, Parroquia Tobar Donoso, Sabalera, 0°55’N, 78°32’W, 900 m, 22 November 1992, Aulestia et al. 630 (MO, QCNE). Esmeraldas: (Lita), Río Lita and tributaries (affluent of Río Mira), 117 km NW of Ibarra, 12 km Nof Lita, 0°52’N, 78°29’W, 600 m, 10 May 1987, Daly & Acevedo 5177 (MO, NY); Lita-San Lorenzo road, 26.9 km Wof Río Lita, 13.2 km Eof El Durango, 0°58’6"N, 78°33’45"W, 735 m, 17 October 1999, Croat et al. 83390 (MO); (San Lorenzo), R. Indígena Awá, Comunidad “La Unión”, Cañón del Río Mira, 10 km al Wde Alto Tambo, 1°2’N, 78°26’W, 250 m, 16 March 1991, Rubio et al. 1111 (MO, QCNE); Lita-San Lorenzo road, 14.2 km W of Río Lita Bridge (below Lita), vicinity of Alto Tambo, near sign for Ecological R., 6.6 km of Río Chuchubí, 0°52’11"N, 78°27’16"W, 425 m, 10 July 1998, Croat et al. 82644 (MO); Along road between Lita and San Lorenzo, 0.7 km Nof Alto Tambo, 0°54’30"N, 78°32’37"W, 800 m, 20 July 2000, Croat et al. 84198 (MO); Road San Lorenzo-Alto Tambo-Lita, 60.5 km from San Lorenzo, Fringes of the R.Cotacachi-Cayapas, 0°53’47.7"N, 78°32’32.7"W, 879 m, 3 October 2001, Cotton et al. 1814 (MO, QCA); (San Lorenzo), San Francisco, Recinto Durango, Sector Colinado, Terrenos propiedad Sr, Demetrio Paez, 1 km al Ede la carretera Lita-San Lorenzo, 1°2’N, 78°36’W, 256 m, 17 October 1999, Valenzuela   & Freire 456 (MO); Lita-San Lorenzo Road, 18 km Wof Río Lita Bridge (on old road between Lita), 6.6 km Wof bridge over Río Chuchubí, site near Alto Tambo, 0°52’11"N, 78°27’16"W, 425 m, 10 July 1998, Croat et al. 82625 (MO); Lita-San Lorenzo Road, 13 km Wof Río Lita Bridge (new road) near Lita, 0°54’6"N, 78°32’27"W, 814 m, 11 October 1999, Croat et al. 83233 (MO). Los Ríos: (Quevedo), Centro Científico Río Palenque, Cerro Centinela, el Mirador, A 12 km al Ede Patricia Pilar y Centro Cientifico Río Palenque, 0°37’S, 79°18’W, 540 m, 3 June 1990, Rubio & Alverson 410 (MO, QCNE). Pichincha: Carretera Quito-Puerto Quito, km 113, 10 km al Nde la carretera principal, Bosque virgen y alrededores de la reserva, 0°5’N, 79°2’W, 800 m, 19 February 1984, Betancourt 105 (F, NY, QCA); Carretera Quito-Puerto Quito, km 113, 10 km al Nde la carretera principal, Bosque virgen y alrededores de la reserva, 0°5’N, 79°2’W, 800 m, 26 February 1984, Betancourt 132 (F, NY, QCA); Carretera Quito-Puerto Quito, km 113, 10 km al Nde la carretera principal, Bosque virgen y alrededores de la reserva, 0°5’N, 79°2’W, 800 m, 29 February 1984, Betancourt 151 (CAS, F, NY, QCA); Carretera Quito- Puerto Quito, km 113, 10 km al Nde la carretera principal, bosque virgen y alrededores de la reserva, 0°5’N, 79°2’W, 800 m, 25 February 1984, Betancourt 128 (F, MO, NY, QCA). PANAMA. Bocasdel Toro: Alongroadto Chiriquí Grande, 8°45’N, 82°15’W, ca 450 m, 26 October 1985, McPherson 7378 (CAS, MO). Coclé: (Alto Calvario), Alto Calvario, Above El Copé, ca 6 km Nof El Copé, atlantic slope, along trail which leads W off old lumber trail which leads down to Las Ricas, Limón and San Juan, 89°39’N, 80°36’W, 710–800 m, 22 June 1988, Croat 68715 (CAS, MO); Hills Nof El Valle, Eslopes and ridges leading to Cerro Gaital, 8°40’N, 80°7’W, 900–1000 m, 27 June 1982, Knapp 5773 (CAS, MO); Vicinity of La Mesa, beyond El Valle, Slopes of Cerro Gaital, 8°37’N, 80°7’W, 800–900 m, 11 July 1987, McPherson 11215 (CAS, MO); Between Río Blanco and Caña Susio 1 hr hike to the W, Río Blanco is ca 5 hr hike Ndown from the Continental Divide above El Copé and El Petroso sawmill, 8°38’N, 80°36’W, 107–122 m, 13 December 1980, Sytsma et al. 2479 (MO); El Valle de Antón, Cerro Gaital, 8°37’N, 80°6’W, 26 November 1985, de Nevers et al. 6356 (CAS, MO); On the Atlantic side, ca 5 hr walk from sawmill at El Cope, Along slopes above Norte Río Blanco near small village of Caño Sucio   , 122–152 m, 2 February 1980, Antonio 3641 (CAS); NE slopes of Cerro Caracoral, Nrim of El Valle, 823–975 m, 12 March 1981, Sytsma 3769 (CAS, MO); Hills Nof El Valle, Eslopes and ridges leading to Cerro Gaital, 8°40’N, 80°7’W, 900–1000 m, 30 May 1982, Knapp 5352 (CAS, MO); Vicinity of La Mesa, Nof El Vallede Antón, along Nslope of Cerro Gaital, 8°37’N, 80°8’W, 850–950 m, 14 July 1987, Croat 67290 (CAS, MO); Area between Caño Blanco   del Norte, Caño Sucio and Chorro   del Río Tife, 8°42–43’19–06"N, 80°36–38’30"W, 200–400 m, 3 February 1983, Davidse & Hamilton 23553 (CAS, MO); Foothills and summit of Cerro Caracoral, near La Mesa Nof El Valle de Antón, 800–1100 m, 10 September 1981, Knapp 1106 (CAS, MO); NE slopes and summit of Cerro Caracoral, Nrim of El Valle, 823–975 m, 22 April 1981, Sytsma 4079 (CAS, MO); Above El Potroso sawmill at Continental Divide, 8°38’N, 80°36’W, 1200–1300 m, 25 October 1980, Sytsma 1861 (CAS, MO); Nslope and summit of Cerro Pilon, 900–1173 m, 16 March 1973, Croat 23239 (CAS, MO); Alto Calvario, Lumper camp, 7 km Nof El Copé, ca 900 m, 14 January 1977, Folsom 1268 (CAS, MO); Vicinity of La Mesa, Nof El Valle de Antón, along steep slopes above water reservoirs, ca 1 km W of

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road between Finca Manadarinas and Finca Furlong , 8°38’N, 80°9’W, 800–900 m, 12 July 1987, Croat 67188 ( MO) GoogleMaps   ; Trail from Caño Sucio   to the waterfall of the Río Tife, base of Cerro Tife , 8°44’N, 81°40’W, 400–500 m, 21 February 1982, Knapp 3766 ( MO) GoogleMaps   ; Cerro Gaital Caracoral , 823–914 m, 25 July 1968, Dwyer & Correa   8938 ( MO)   ; Cerro Pilon , 5 km NE of El Valle, 800–1045 m, 13 June 1975, Mori et al. 6569 ( MO)   ; Cerro Gaital Caracoral , 823–975 m, 25 July 1968, Dwyer & Correa   8909 ( MO)   ; Along road past Furlong’s Finca. due Nof Cerro Pilon, 880 m, 22 July 1976, Croat 37566 ( MO)   ; Mountains of Nof Valle de Antón , 762–914 m, 28 May 1967, Lewis et al. 1719 ( MO)   ; Cerro Pilón , 19 January 1968, Dwyer 8334 ( MO)   . Colón: Teck Cominco Petaquilla mining concession, Streamside forest by old Petaquilla camp, 8°50’16"N, 80°41’38"W, 120 m, 5 December 2007, McPherson & van der Werff 19975 ( CAS, MO) GoogleMaps   . Comarca de San Blas: Cerro Brewster , 9°18’N, 79°16’W, 850 m, 21 April 1985, de Nevers et al. 5404 ( MO) GoogleMaps   . Veraguas: NW of Santa Fe, 2.7 km from Escuela Agrícola Alto Piedra, on road to Calovebora , 30 March 1975, Mori & Kallunki 5341 ( MO)   ; Valley of Río Tercero Braso beyond Escuela Agrícola Alto Piedra above Santa Fe , 29 August 1974, Croat 27334 ( MO)   ; Valley of Río Dos Bocas on road between Alto Piedra (above Santa Fe ) and Calovebora , 350–400 m, 29 August 1974, Croat 27452 ( MO)   .

Illustration:— None found.

Common names and documented uses:— None recorded.

Habitat, distribution and ecology:— Locally common in primary or somewhat disturbed lowland rain forests and cloud forests, growing close to streams or river banks, from Cocos Island ( Costa Rica), through Panama, to the Colombian Andes and northern Ecuador ( Fig. 13), at 0–1800 m. In Panama it occurs on both the Atlantic slope and the Pacific slopes. In Colombia it has been collected throughout the Pacific coast/ western Andean slope and in the Central Andean Cordillera. In Ecuador it is known from the northwestern provinces of Esmeraldas and Carchi, with a southernmost occurrence in Los Ríos ( Cerro Centinela ). There are three specimens at COL identified as this species (Ruiz 376, 377 and 396) from Cauca (to 2450 m), Colombia, where it is certainly expected, but we cannot confirm that these correspond to this species based on the images in the IUCN portal   .

Phenology:— Collected in flower and fruit throughout the year.

Etymology:— The specific epithet refers to the numerous bracts subtending the flowers on the inflorescences of this species.

Discussion:— This species is easily separated from its closest relatives by the congested flowers surrounded by conspicuous green-orange imbricate bracts and bracteoles throughout its short thyrsoid inflorescence. Cogniaux (1891a) assigned it to Ossaea section Bractearia   , along with M. rufibarbis   , which also has conspicuous bracts and bracteoles arranged along a verticillate interrupted spike. Both species, together with M. magnifolia   , a new Colombian species described here ( M. formicaria   ), and M. spiciformis   form a clade that shares 5-merous flowers and multiflorous, copiously bracteate inflorescences (but with different architectures). Miconia bractiflora   is sister to M. formicaria   which has similar bracteate inflorescences with secund dichasial branching. The latter, however has conspicuous formicaria at the blade base adaxially, a unique character within the Octopleura   clade.

This species is known in Costa Rica only from Cocos Island ( Trusty et al. 2006), where it is common (from 0–550 m) and probably arrived through bird dispersal. At present there are no studies documenting the bird species that feed on M. bractiflora   berries. In Colombia it might be more widely distributed than present collections indicate since it was recently discovered on the eastern slope of the Central Cordillera (Alvear et al. 1474, CAS!, COL!)   .

Conservation status:— Based on IUCN criteria ( AOO), this species would be considered Endangered EN B2ab(iii). However, a status of Least Concern LC is justified because it occurs in quite a few protected areas. Protected in Colombia in the Selva de Florencia National Park (Caldas)   and in the Ensenada de Utría National Park (Chocó). In Costa Rica it is protected in the Isla del Coco National Park (Puntarenas). In Ecuador it is protected in the Awá Indigenous Reserve (Carchi and Esmeraldas)   and in the Río Palenque Biological Station (Los Ríos)   .

COL

Universidad Nacional de Colombia

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

NY

William and Lynda Steere Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden

MO

Missouri Botanical Garden

HUA

Universidad de Antioquia

CHOCO

Universidad Tecnológica del Chocó

TULV

Jardín Botánico Juan Maria Cespedes

CUVC

Universidad del Valle

INB

Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad

CR

Museo Nacional de Costa Rica

US

University of Stellenbosch

QCNE

Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales