Miconia magnifolia Gamba & Almeda

Gamba, Diana & Almeda, Frank, 2014, Systematics of the Octopleura Clade of Miconia (Melastomataceae: Miconieae) in Tropical America, Phytotaxa 179 (1), pp. 1-174: 91-95

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.11646/phytotaxa.179.1.1

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5156340

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03C887CB-FB0A-FFD8-FACB-E8CEFCDB5F0D

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Miconia magnifolia Gamba & Almeda
status

nom. nov.

20. Miconia magnifolia Gamba & Almeda   , nom. nov. Basionym: Oxymeris macrophylla Bentham (1844: 95–96)   . Clidemia macrophylla (Benth.) Naudin (1852: 375)   . Octopleura macrophylla (Benth.) Triana (1871: 145)   . Ossaea macrophylla (Benth.) Cogniaux (1891a: 1064)   . Type: COSTA RICA. Cocos Island, Hinds s.n. (holotype: Kinternet image!). Nec Miconia macrophylla Steudel (1844: 723   ; M. prasina (Swartz) de Candolle (1828: 188))   nec M. macrophylla Macfadyen (1850: 84   ; M. impetiolaris (Swartz) Don ex de Candolle (1828: 183))   nec M. macrophylla (Pavón ex Don) Triana (1871: 103   ; M. serrulata (de Candolle) Naudin (1850: 118))   .

Clidemia solearis Naudin (1851: 339–340)   . Type : COSTA RICA. Cocos Island, Barclay s.n. (holotype: K-internet image!).

Subshrub to tree (1–)2–6(–12) m tall, moderately branched, bark brown-reddish. Upper internodes roundedquadrate, 1.2–5 cm long, cauline nodes terete, bearing a well-defined nodal line forming a slightly deflexed flaplike outgrowth confluent with the abaxial bases of the petioles. Indumentum on branchlets, petioles, primary and secondary leaf veins abaxially, inflorescence axes, bracts, bracteoles, pedicels, hypanthia, calyx lobes and calyx teeth densely composed of brown matted subulate elongate smooth trichomes 0.4–0.7 mm long. Leaves of each pair isophyllous; the petiole 2.5–8 cm long, canaliculate adaxially, moderately grooved abaxially; blades 16–40(–50) × 9–18 cm, elliptic to oblong-elliptic, the base broadly acute, the margin subentire to denticulate, the apex bluntly short-acuminate, firm-chartaceous; adaxial surface of mature leaves, primary, secondary, tertiary and higher order veins glabrous; abaxial surface glabrous, the secondary, tertiary and higher order veins sparsely covered with caducous stellate lepidote trichomes 0.1–0.2 mm in diameter with only partially fused radii; 5-nerved, including the tenuous marginals, areolae 1–2 mm, adaxially the primary and secondary veins deeply impressed, the tertiary and higher order veins flat, abaxially the primary, secondary, tertiary and higher order veins prominently elevated and terete. Inflorescences a pseudolateral multiflorous dithyrsoid 4–12 cm long, including a roundedquadrate peduncle 0.5–1(–3) cm long, divaricately and highly branched from the peduncle apex, borne in the upper foliar axils, the rachis green, the inflorescence nodes densely covered with the general tomentum but longer, each trichome up to 1 mm long; bracts 1–3 × 0.4–0.6 mm, oblong-lanceolate, concave, early deciduous at anthesis; bracteoles 1–3 × 0.7–1 mm, linear-oblong, concave, early to tardily deciduous in fruit. Flowers 5-merous on pedicels 0.25–0.5 mm long or subsessile. Hypanthia at anthesis 1.5–2 × 0.9–1.1 mm, free portion of hypanthium 0.9–1(–1.3) mm long, globose to urceolate, bluntly 10-ribbed, green-yellowish to reddish, ridged on the inner surface, smooth and minutely glandular, the glands sessile and somewhat translucent, the torus adaxially glandularpuberulent, the setae <0.3 mm long. Calyx open in bud and persistent in fruit, green; tube 0.15–0.3 mm long, with the same vestiture as the torus adaxially and the hypanthium abaxially; lobes 0.1–0.2 × 0.5–0.8 mm, minutely triangular, the margin vaguely undulate, the apex blunt; exterior calyx teeth 0.25–0.5 mm long, tuberculiform or obsolete, inserted at the base of the calyx lobes, equaling or slightly exceeding the lobes. Petals 2.5–4.6 × 1–1.9 mm, lanceolate or lanceolate-triangular, the margin entire, the apex bluntly acute, white to translucent white, drying orange, glabrous adaxially, abaxially with a thinly median line of matted elongate smooth trichomes <0.2 mm long, reflexed at anthesis. Stamens 10; filaments 1.5–2 × 0.25 mm, white to cream, glabrous; anther thecae 0.75–1 × 0.4 mm, oblong, obtuse to rounded at the apex, opening by one dorsally inclined pore 0.1 mm in diameter, whiteyellowish; connective white-yellowish, its prolongation and appendage 0.75–0.85 mm long, the appendage oblong, obtuse to rounded at the apex, copiously and conspicuously gland-edged, the glands rounded and stalked, the stalks linear to subulate. Ovary typically 5-locular, occasionally 4-locular, 1/2 to 2/3 inferior, 1.1–1.5 mm long at anthesis, the apical collar 0.5–0.8(–1) × 0.2–0.3 mm, conic-truncate, sparsely to moderately glandular-puberulent; style (2.5–) 3.5–4.5 mm long, moderately narrowed distally (i.e. tapering), white, glabrous; stigma capitellate to capitate. Berries 4–6 × 4–6 mm when dry, globose-oblate, yellow-orange then pink-red to red-purple when fully ripe, the hypanthial indumentum persistent at maturity. Seeds 0.31–0.43 × 0.12–0.18 mm, typically pyramidal, occasionally ovoid and angled, brownish; lateral and antiraphal symmetrical planes triangular, the highest point toward the chalazal side; raphal zone suboblong to sublinear, ca. 80% the length of the seed; appendage absent, but a small protuberance present; individual cells elongate, anticlinal boundaries channeled, undulate, with U-type patterns; periclinal walls convex, low-domed to nearly flat, microrelief verrucose.

Additional specimens studied:— COLOMBIA. Antioquia: (Frontino), Venados, P.N. de las Orquídeas, Sector Venados abajo, Cabaña del INDERENA, en Río Venados , 6.567°N, - 76.47°W, 830 m, 28 October 1986, Callejas et al. 2726 ( HUA, MO, NY, US) GoogleMaps   . Cauca: P.N.N. Isla Gorgona, Costado oriental, 3°N, - 78.2°W, 22 June 1950, Fernández 403 ( COL, MO, US); (Guapi), P.N.N. Gorgona, 2.94°N, - 78.21°W, 230 m, 31 May 1986, Lozano GoogleMaps  

SYSTEMATICS OF THE OCTOPLEURA   CLADE OF MICONIA  

Phytotaxa 179 (1) © 2014 Magnolia Press 91 et al. 5079 ( CAS, COL, US)   . Chocó: 11 km Sof Quibdó on road to Yuto , 5.58°N, - 76.65°W, 50 m, 7 January 1979, Gentry & Renteria 23723 ( COL, MO, US) GoogleMaps   ; Carretera Quibdó-Istmina , km 36 entre Yuto y Cértegui, Río Paimadó, 5.52°N, - 76.65°W, 70 m, 8 September 1976, Forero & Jaramillo 2657 ( COL, MO, US); (Tadó) GoogleMaps   , Marmolejo, 5.39°N, - 76.19°W, 500–520 m, 25 April 1991, González 2396 ( COL, NY); ( Quibdó ) GoogleMaps   , San Francisco de Ichó, Carretera Ichó-Tutunendo , 5.8°N, - 76.54°W, 150 m, 8 July 1981, Galeano Lozano 409 ( COL, NY); (Nuquí) GoogleMaps   , Arusí, E.B. El Amargal, 5.58°N, - 77.48°W, 80 m, February 1992, Galeano 3205 ( COL, F); ( Quibdó ) GoogleMaps   , Pacurita, Camino Quebrada Río Claro , 5.68°N, - 76.59°W, 71 m, 26 January 2012, Almeda et al. 10407 ( CAS, CHOCO, COL) GoogleMaps   . Nariño: ( Tumaco ), La Guayacana, 1.43°N, - 78.45°W, 220 m, 27 June 1951, Romero-Castañeda 2949 ( NY); (Tumaco) GoogleMaps   , Espriella , 1.47°N, - 78.64°W, 50 m, 20 June 1951, Romero-Castañeda 2791 ( NY) GoogleMaps   . Putumayo: Selva higrófila del Río San Miguel , entre las quebradas de Sipenae y de Churrucayo, 0.24°N, - 76.49°W, 294–400 m, 11 December 1940, Cuatrecasas 10946 ( COL, F, MO, US) GoogleMaps   . Valle: La Trojita, Río Calima (región del Chocó ), 4.07°N, - 77.09°W, 19-10 February–March 1944, Cuatrecasas 16834 (F, NY, US); (Buenaventura) GoogleMaps   , Bajo Calima , 20 m, 12 June 1988, Cabrera   16000 ( CAS, CUVC)   . COSTARICA. Alajuela: (Upala), P.N. Volcán Tenorio, No protegida, Cuenca del Zapote , Bijagua , Sendero a ala catarata Río Celeste , 10.719°N, - 84.99°W, 600 m, 21 March 2005, Santamaría 1178 ( INB, MO, NY); (San Carlos) GoogleMaps   , Boca Tapada, R.N. V.S.M. Maquenque, No protegida, Cuenca del San Carlos, San Jorge , Parcela #8, 10.748°N, - 84.17°W, 100 m, 25 November 2007, Solano & Mena 4933 ( INB, MO, NY) GoogleMaps   ; Pocosol B.S., Sendero Catarata , 10.34°N, - 84.67°W, 820 m, 1 September 2005, Penneys 1803 ( CAS) GoogleMaps   ; R.B. Monteverde, Cordillera de Tilarán, Bosque Eterno de los Niños , Laguna de Pocosol , Río Peñas Blancas , 10.35°N, - 84.66°W, 820 m, 15 June 1991, Bello & Haber 2892 ( CAS, CR, MO); (Guatuso) GoogleMaps   , P.N. Tenorio, Cuenca del Río Frío, Bijaqua, El pilón,, 10.7°N, - 85°W, 800 m, 10 January 2000, Alfaro   et al. 2654 ( MO) GoogleMaps   ; R.F. San Ramón, Sendero Miramar , 10.21°N, - 84.61°W, 800–1000 m, 2 November 1986, Herrera et al. 147 ( CAS, MO, US) GoogleMaps   ; 15 km NW of Nuevo Arenal on road to Tilarán, then 3 km NE on road to San Rafael de Guatuso, then 2 km W on road to Finca Cote , On Nside of road, SE side of Lago Cote , 10.575°N, - 84.9°W, 700 m, 30 April 1983, Liesner et al. 15079 ( CAS, MO) GoogleMaps   . Guanacaste: P.N. Guanacaste, La Cruz, 9 Km al Sde Santa Cecília, Estación Pitilla., 10.99°N, - 85.42°W, 700 m, 13 September 1990, Chávez et al. 72 ( MO, NY) GoogleMaps   ; P.N. Guanacaste Estación Pitilla, alrededores., 11.03°N, - 85.4°W, 600 m, 15 June 1989, Chavarría et al. II INBio 20 ( MO) GoogleMaps   ; P.N. Guanacaste, Estación Pitilla y Sendero El Mismo, 10.99°N, - 85.42°W, 700 m, 15 June 1991, Ríos 379 ( CAS, MO) GoogleMaps   ; P.N. Guanacaste, Estación Pitilla, Fila Orosilito y Sendero Nacho , 11.03°N, - 85.4°W, 700 m, 12 November 1990, Ríos 174 ( MO) GoogleMaps   ; Río Chiquito de Tilarán, Río Negro valley, Atlantic slope, 10.36°N, - 84.86°W, 1400 m, 30 July 1986, Haber 5900 ( CAS, MO) GoogleMaps   . Heredia: (Sarapiquí), P.N. Braulio Carrillo, Cuenca del Sarapiquí, Estación El Ceibo , bosques residuales camino al Río Peje , 10.33°N, - 84.08°W, 500–546 m, 12 March 2003, González 3064 ( MO) GoogleMaps   ; Finca La Selva, Confluence of Río Puerto Viejo and Río Sarapiquí , vic, Puerto Viejo de Sarapiquí , 10.416°N, - 84°W, 80 m, 16 October 1979, Denslow 79-29 ( CAS); (Sarapiquí) GoogleMaps   , Rara Avis, ca. 15 km al SW de Horquetas, sendero Levi , 10.28°N, - 84.03°W, 400 m, 9 July 1989, Vargas & Frazee 20 ( CAS, INB, MO); (Sarapiquí) GoogleMaps   , La Selva Biological Station, Alrededores de LS, 10.43°N, - 84°W, 100 m, 25 July 2003, Aguilar RA007981 View Materials ( MO) GoogleMaps   ; Finca La Selva, The OTS Field Station on the Río Puerto Viejo just Eof its junction with the Río Sarapiquí , On slope leading down into the swamp along the Swamp Trail , 10.43°N, - 84°W, 100 m, 19 July 1996, Wilbur 66238 ( MO, NY) GoogleMaps   ; Near Tirimbina Eof the Río Sarapiquí , 10.4°N, - 84.12°W, 150–250 m, 12–15 August 1971, Burger & Burger 8023 (F, US) GoogleMaps   . Limón: (Pococí), No protegida, Cuenca del Sarapiquí, Finca Bosque Lluvioso , propiedad del INBio, entrando por camino a mano derecha del Río Costa Rica , 10.2°N, - 83.86°W, 300 m, 30 November 1999, Rodríguez et al. 5500 ( MO) GoogleMaps   ; Hacienda Tapezco-Had , La Suerte, 29 air km Wof Tortuguero, 10.5°N, - 83.78°W, 40 m, 16 August 1979, Davidson & Donahue 8395 ( US); (Pococí) GoogleMaps   , P.N. Braulio Carrillo, Cuenca del Sarapiquí, Quebrada González , 10.164°N, - 83.94°W, 500 m, 20 October 2006, Solano et al. 3505 ( INB, MO, NY); (Pococí) GoogleMaps   , R.N.F.S. Barra del Colorado, Llanura de Tortuguero, Sector Cocorí , 10.59°N, - 83.8°W, 100 m, 21 November 1990, Rojas 152 ( CAS, INB, MO); (Talamanca) GoogleMaps   , Sukut, De las juntas de Río Urén y Río Sukut 1.5 Km aguas arriba sobre éste, margen derecha siguiendo el sendero hacia Boca de Río Buruy , 9.4°N, - 82.96°W, 450 m, 8 July 1989, Herrera 3200 ( CAS, CR, MO); (Pococí) GoogleMaps   , R. Bosque Lluvioso, No protegida, Cuenca del Sarapiquí, Alrededores de la Estación , 10.191°N, - 83.86°W, 350 m, 30 September 2005, Vargas & Villalobos 923 ( INB, MO, NY); (Pococí) GoogleMaps   , P.N. Braulio Carrillo, Cuenca del Sarapiquí, Sector Quebrada González , sendero Las Palmas , 10.156°N, - 83.94°W, 600 m, 29 July 2008, Kriebel 5322 ( INB, MO, NY) GoogleMaps   . Puntarenas: (Osa), R.F. Golfo Dulce, Península de Osa, Rancho Quemado , Quebrada El Bote , 8.72°N, - 83.58°W, 200–350 m, 10 September 1993, Quesada   & Segura 761 ( CAS); (Puntarenas) GoogleMaps   , P.N. Isla del Coco, Isla del Coco , 5.52°N, - 87.07°W, 0–300 m, 1 November 1997, González GoogleMaps  

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GAMBA & ALMEDA

635 (INB, MO, NY); El General Valley, Along the Río Cacao above Pan American Highway, 9.13°N, - 83.38°W, 900 m, 30 January 1965, Williams et al. 28676 (F, US); Cocos Island, 5.52°N, - 87.07°W, 80–100 m, 9 March 1964, Fournier 340 (CAS); (Golfito), P.N. Corcovado, Península de Osa, Estación Los Patos, cerca de la estación, 8.57°N, - 83.51°W, 250 m, 25 May 1995, Moraga 196 (CAS, INB, MO); (Golfito), R.F.S. Golfito, 8.63°N, - 83.19°W, 100 m, 13 May 1986, Zamora 1251 (CAS, CR, MO); (Puntarenas), Cocos Island, Steep ridges SE of Chatham Bay, 5.55°N, - 87.05°W, 9–11 April 1979, Foster 4128 (CAS, F, MO, US); (Cocos Island), Wafer Bay, 5.54°N, - 87.07°W, 28 June 1932, Howell 10182 (CAS). San José: P.N. Braulio Carrillo, Alrededores Estación Carrillo, hasta Quebrada Sanguijuela, Sendero hacia Quebrada Sanguijuela, 10.15°N, - 85.95°W, 500–700 m, 17 May 1988, Umaña 235 (CAS); (Vazquez de Coronado), P.N. Braulio Carrillo, Cerca del Río Sucio, 10.16°N, - 83.95°W, 17 January 1984, Sánchez & Zamora 373 (CAS, MO). ECUADOR. Carchi: (Tulcán), Reserva Etnica Awá, Parroquia El Chical, Centro San Marcos, Bosque muy húmedo Premontano, Bosque primario alterado, terreno plano inundable, 1.1°N, - 78.23°W, 750 m, 20 April 1993, Méndez et al. 167 (MO); (Lita), Collections made in front of bulldozers constructing the Lita-San Lorenzo road, 5 km from Lita, Primary rain forest on terra firme, 0.83°N, - 78.47°W, 600 m, 17 December 1982, Barfod et al. 41352 (MO); (Maldonado), R. Étnica Awá, Parroquia Tobar Donoso, Sabalera, 0.92°N, - 78.53°W, 900 m, 22 November 1992, Aulestia et al. 668 (MO, NY, QCNE); (Tulcán), Parroquia Tobar Donoso, Sector Sabalera, Reserva Indígena Awá, NE Casa Comunal, Bosque primario, Bosque muy húmedo premontano, 1°N, - 78.4°W, 100–650 m, 19 June 1992, Tipaz et al. 1231 (MO); (El Pailon), ca. 45 km below Maldonado along foot path to Tobar Donoso, 0.92°N, - 78.1°W, 800 m, 28 November 1979, Madison & Besse 7097 (MO, US). Esmeraldas: (San Lorenzo), Ricaurte, Reserva Indígena Awá, Bosque primario, Bosque húmedo Tropical, 1.17°N, - 78.53°W, 300 m, 18 October 1992, Tipaz et al. 2112 ( MO 336031 View Materials ); (San Lorenzo), San Francisco, Recinto Durango, Loma del Rey, Bosque húmedo Tropical, Sector colinado, Bosque maduro, Camino al Valle de la Virgen, 2 km al SE de la Carretera Lita-San Lorenzo, 1.03°N, - 78.62°W, 350 m, 18 October 1999, Valenzuela   & Freire 516 ( MO 336032 View Materials ); (Eloy Alfaro   ), R.E. Cotacachi-Cayapas, Charco vicente, Río San Miguel, 0.72°N, - 78.88°W, 200 m, 20–30 September 1993, Tirado et al. 437 (MO, QCNE, US). Morona- Santiago: (Logroño), Región de la Cordillera de Cutucú, Centro Shuar Tumpaim, Cordillera de Saunto y Satap, - 2.68°S, - 77.92°W, 540 m, 11 December 2003, Toasa et al. 9399 (MO); El centro Shuar Kankaimi (Cangaime) y alredadores, 6 horas a pie al W Taisha, - 3.51°S, - 78.55°W, 13 September 1985, Baker et al. 6365 (MO, NY, US). Napo: (Mondaña), Reserva Yachana, márgen izquierdo del Río Napo, aguas abajo, Muestreo A, Bosque de Colina, Sendero Azul   , 0.84°N, - 77.23°W, 400 m, 15 March 2007, Cerón et al. 58209 (MO); (Loreto), Faldas del volcán Sumaco, 2 km al Wdel Río Huataraco, Bloque 19, línea sísmica 16, Helipuerto 1, Compañía Triton, - 0.7°S, - 77.5°W, 870 m, 21 March 1996, Freire & Cerda 170 (MO); (Loreto), Faldas del volcán Sumaco, A 1.4 Km al sureste del nacimiento del Río Huataraco, Bloque 19, línea sísmica 14, DZ 8, Compañía Triton Bosque primario, Suelo con roca sedimentaria., - 0.68°S, - 77.48°W, 690 m, 1 March 1996, Vargas & Grefa 749 (MO); (Tena), Estacion Biologica Jatún-Sacha, along Sbank of Río Napo, 8 km Eof Puerto Misahualii, - 1.06°S, - 77.6°W, 450 m, 2 April 1992, Croat 73403 (MO); (Archidona), Along road between Coca (San Francisco de Orellana) and the Baeza-Tena road, via Loreto and Hollin, 82.5 km Wof Río Payamino, 6 km Wof Juticocha, 28.3 km Wof Loreto, 58 km Eof Tena-Baeza Highway, - 0.8°S, - 77.52°W, 925 m, 2 March 1992, Croat 72618 (MO); 31 mi Wof lago Agrio, 0.07°N, - 77°W, 640 m, 1974, Plowman et al. 3972 (US). Pastaza: (Puyo), Los Vencedores, E.E. E.S.P.O.C.H, About 30 minutes by car Sof Puyo, Virgin forest at far end on Wborder of Field Station, - 1.5°S, - 77.93°W, 800–1040 m, 12 December 1995, Soejarto et al. 9332 (F); (Puyo), Parroquia Tarqui, Sector Communa San Jacinto de Pindo, Road to Cotococha, off Puyo-Macas road, - 1.58°S, - 77.9°W, 890 m, 19 November 2005, Penneys & Fernández 1872 (CAS, MO, NY); (Pastaza), Pozo Villano 2 de Arco, 2 km del pueblo de Villano, - 1.42°S, - 77.33°W, 400 m, 3 December 1991, Tipaz et al. 507 (F, MO, QCNE); (Pastaza), E.E. Pastaza, km 32, vía Puyo-Macas, Tramo desde la Estación hacia el Río Pacayacu, - 1.5°S, - 77.93°W, 1040 m, 14 February 2002, Caranqui et al. 366 (MO 5853443); Vicinity of Shell, along road N to Río Alpayacu, 0.8 km, - 1.48°S, - 78.08°W, 1121 m, 9 May 2003, Croat et al. 88884 (CAS, MO); Vicinity of Shell, along Río Pindo, ca 1.5 km Nof Shell, - 0.49°S, - 78.06°W, 1085 m, 5 May 2003, Croat et al. 88535 (CAS, MO). Pichincha: (Quito), Parroquia Puerto Quito, Reserva Forestal de ENDESA, 10 km al norte de Alvaro Pérez Intriago, 0.05°N, - 79.12°W, 650–800 m, 11 June 1990, Cerón & Ayala 10149 (MO); R. de ENDESA "Corporación Forestal Juan manuel Durini", Río Silanche, Carretera Quito-Puerto Quito, km 113, 10 km al Nde la carretera principal, Faldas occidentales, Bosque primario y alrededores de la reserva, 0.08°N, - 79.03°W, 650–700 m, 8 July 1984, Jaramillo 6736 (CAS, F, NY, QCA). Sucumbíos: (Gonzalo Pizarro), Campo Bermejo 6 N, 30 km al NW de Lago Agrio, Transectos, 0.23°N, -

SYSTEMATICS OF THE OCTOPLEURA   CLADE OF MICONIA  

Phytotaxa 179 (1) © 2014 Magnolia Press 93 77.22°W, 1050 m, 23 March 1990, Cerón et al. 9358 ( CAS, MO)   . NICARAGUA. Atlántico Sur: (Nueva Guinea), R. Indio-Maíz, Zelaya , Colinas de piedra fina, 11.42°N, - 84.22°W, 200–300 m, 5 January 1999, Rueda et al. 9812 ( MO) GoogleMaps   . Río San Juan: (San Juan del Norte), R. Indio-Maíz, Río Indio, Cerro Canta Gallo , 11.07°N, - 83.85°W, 150–200 m, 16 September 1998, Rueda et al. 8682 ( CAS, MO); (El Castillo) GoogleMaps   , R. Indio-Maíz, Cerro Bolivar , 10.85°N, - 84.16°W, 150–280 m, 28 November 1998, Rueda et al. 9196 ( CAS, MO) GoogleMaps   . PANAMA. Bocas del Toro: Cloud forest above Quebrada Huron on Cerro Bonyic , 9.35°N, - 82.65°W, 152–365 m, 13 April 1968, Kirkbride & Duke 595 ( MO); (Isla Bastimentos) GoogleMaps   , Lado Ede la Isla, Sendero de Quebrada Sal hasta la playa al lado N, 9.3°N, - 82.13°W, 10 m, 22 March 1993, Foster & Herre 14725 (F, PMA) GoogleMaps   . Coclé: (El Copé), Sendero desde la casa de los guardaparques hasta la quebrada, 8.66°N, - 80.58°W, 7 July 1996, Aranda   et al. 2868 ( CAS) GoogleMaps   . Colón: Santa Rita Ridge , 9.32°N, - 79.65°W, 28 July 1972, D'Arcy & D'Arcy 6148 ( CAS, MO) GoogleMaps   . Darién: Sof El Real , on slopes de Cerro Pirre, above RENARE camp, 7.93°N, - 77.7°W, 800–1070 m, 29 June 1988, McPherson 12673 ( CAS, MO) GoogleMaps   ; Sof El Real on trail up Cerro Pirre, Forest , 8°N, - 77.75°W, 550–1030 m, 29 March 1985, McPherson 7022 ( MO) GoogleMaps   ; Trocha desde Cana hasta la toma de agua, 7.85°N, - 77.63°W, 711 m, 1 September 1990, Aranda   et al. 1560 ( CAS, PMA) GoogleMaps   ; P.N. Darién, Camino que va de la Estación de Pirre hacia Rancho Frío , cerca de la estación, 7.93°N, - 77.72°W, 13 October 1989, Polanco & Palacios 504 ( CAS, PMA) GoogleMaps   ; Top of ridge leading to Cerro Pirre, area near Rancho Plastico , 7.85°N, - 77.7°W, 1200–1400 m, 13 November 1977, Folsom et al. 6272 ( CAS, MO) GoogleMaps   ; Cerro Campamento , Sof Cerro Pirre, Elfin forest, 7.78°N, - 77.72°W, 20–22 March 1968, Duke 15735 ( MO, US) GoogleMaps   ; Río Cuasí , main stream 0–2.5 mi Sof Tres Bocas, 7.8°N, - 77.78°W, 28 April 1968, Kirkbride & Duke 1135 ( MO, NY) GoogleMaps   ; 0–2 miles Eof Tres Bocas along the shortest headwater of Río Cuasí , 7.73°N, - 77.73°W, 240–500 m, 28 April 1968, Kirkbride & Duke 1167 ( CAS, MO) GoogleMaps   ; Lower slopes of alturas de Nique along Río Cuasí , 7.7°N, - 77.73°W, 1000–1067 m, 26 December 1980, Hartman 12250 ( CAS, MO) GoogleMaps   ; Middle slopes on W side of Cerro Pirre , [Original coordinates 7º56'N, 77º45'W], 7.93°N, - 77.75°W, 800 m, 29 June 1988, Croat 68935 ( MO) GoogleMaps   . Panamá: Near border with Comarca de San Blas, along El Llano- Carti road, c, 9º15'N, 79º00'W, Forest ca. 350 m, 9.25°N, - 79°W, 350 m, 22 July 1986, McPherson 9786 ( MO) GoogleMaps   . San Blas: Cordillera frente a Isla Narganá , Ribera de Río Diablo , 9.37°N, - 78.57°W, 65 m, 9 August 1994, Galdames et al. 1482 ( CAS, US) GoogleMaps   ; Playón Chico, Río Ukupseni, caminando por el Río Ukupseni , desde el campamento Neba Dummat hasta la cascada., 9.25°N, - 78.25°W, 50–100 m, 30 October 1991, Herrera et al. 1036 ( CAS, MO) GoogleMaps   ; Nusagandi, On road to Carti , 9.33°N, - 78.98°W, 400 m, 18 July 1986, McDonagh et al. 152 ( MO) GoogleMaps   . Veraguas: (Montijo), Parque Nacional Coiba, Playa Hermosa , La Falla parcela, orilla de quebrada, en área de bosque maduro, 17 NMU 0330, 7.52°N, - 81.84°W, 200 m, 29 September 2004, Ibáñez et al. 4013AI ( MO); ( Santa Fe ) GoogleMaps   , Atlantic slope, Río Concepción to Río Barrera , 8.79°N, - 80.96°W, 60 m, 16 October 1978, Hammel 5146 ( MO); ( Boca de Concepción ) GoogleMaps   , In Golfo de los Mosquitos, 8.8°N, - 81.03°W, 10 m, 6 August 1987, McPherson 11382 ( CAS, MO); ( Santa Fe ) GoogleMaps   , NW of Santa Fe, 4.2 km from Escuela Argicolo Alto de Piedra , 8.51°N, - 81.14°W, 1000 m, 25 February 1975, Mori & Kallunki 4840 ( MO) GoogleMaps   .

Illustration:— Mendoza & Ramírez 2006: 200, fig. 1.95.

Common names and documented uses:— Colombia: “sietecueros” (Guaviare); “cenicero” (Chocó) ( Bernal et al. 2011).

Habitat, distribution and ecology:— Occasional in primary or secondary rainforests and disturbed sites. It commonly grows in swampy areas and light gaps, from southern Nicaragua through southern Central America, to Colombia and Ecuador ( Fig. 15), at 0–1400(–1800) m. In Costa Rica it occurs throughout its territory, including Cocos Island down to Isla de Coiba, south to the Atlantic slope of Panama. In Colombia it is known from the lowland Pacific slopes and premontane forested slopes of the Andes to Isla Gorgona in the Pacific Ocean, south to the Andean forested slopes in Ecuador.

White-ruffed Manakins ( Corapipo altera   ) have been reported to feed on M. magnifolia   fruits in a wet forest of northeastern Costa Rica ( Boyle 2010). Manakins, Tanagers, Thrushes, the orange-billed Sparrow ( Arremon aurantiirostris   ) and Myadestes melanops   have been reported to feed on M. magnifolia   berries in a Costa Rican premontane wet forest ( Stiles & Rosselli 1993). Other fruit-eating birds of the tropical forest understory (at Estación Biológica La Selva, Costa Rica) that have been reported to consume M. magnifolia   fruits include Chlorothraupis carmioli   , Corapipo leucorrhoa   , Euphonia gouldi   , Hylocichla mustelina   , Mionectes oleaginous   , and Pipra mentalis   ( Loiselle & Blake 1999, 2000). The tawny-crested Tanager, Tachyphonus delatrii   was also observed to feed on mature berries of M. magnifolia   in Costa Rica (Solano 3505, NY!).

Phenology:— Collected in flower and fruit throughout the year.

Etymology:— The specific epithet refers to the large leaves of this species.

94 Phytotaxa 179 (1) © 2014 Magnolia Press

GAMBA & ALMEDA

Discussion:— The combination of large leaves, tomentose indumentum on vegetative and floral parts, and conspicuous leaf reticulation makes M. magnifolia   readily recognizable among species of the Octopleura   clade. This species has copious stalked glands on the long (0.75–0.85 mm) staminal connective appendage and prolongation, a toral corona that is densely glandular adaxially, and an apical ovary collar that is densely glandularpuberulent. Wurdack (1973a) noted that the matted indumentum on the petals is rather sparse in Central American and Pacific Colombian slope individuals, but moderately dense in collections from the the rest of Colombia and Ecuador. It is most closely related to M. bractiflora   , M. formicaria   , M. rufibarbis   , and M. spiciformis   with a basal position among this group of species ( Fig. 1), which share a tomentose hypanthial indumentum and similar seeds. Miconia magnifolia   most resembles M. bractiflora   in foliage details, especially the tertiary/intertertiary vein reticulation but the latter lacks the tomentose-matted caducous cauline pubescence and has broader bracts, thicker hypanthial pubescence, and shorter stamen connectives that are barely (0.1 mm) prolonged ( Wurdack 1973a).

Conservation status:— Considered Vulnerable VU B2ab(iii) following IUCN criteria ( AOO). However, a status of Least Concern is justified based on the fact that it is protected in many areas. Protected in Colombia in Las Orquídeas National Park (Antioquia); in the Gorgona National Park (Cauca); and in the Amargal Biological Station (Chocó). In Costa Rica it is protected throughout its territory in different National Parks and Reserves. In Ecuador it is protected in the Awá Indigenous Reserve (Carchi and Esmeraldas   , and in the Cotocachi-Cayapas Ecological Reserve (Esmeraldas); in the Yachana Reserve and in the Jatún-Sacha Biological Station (Napo); in the ENDESA Forest Reserve (Pichincha). In Nicaragua it is protected in the Indio-Maíz Reserve (Atlántico Sur and Río San Juan). In Panama it is only protected in the Darién   National Park.

HUA

Universidad de Antioquia

MO

Missouri Botanical Garden

NY

William and Lynda Steere Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden

US

University of Stellenbosch

COL

Universidad Nacional de Colombia

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

CHOCO

Universidad Tecnológica del Chocó

CUVC

Universidad del Valle

INB

Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad

CR

Museo Nacional de Costa Rica

PMA

Provincial Museum of Alberta

Kingdom

Plantae

Phylum

Tracheophyta

Class

Magnoliopsida

Order

Myrtales

Family

Melastomataceae

Genus

Miconia

Loc

Miconia magnifolia Gamba & Almeda

Gamba, Diana & Almeda, Frank 2014
2014
Loc

Clidemia solearis

Naudin 1851: 339 - 340
1851