Traumatomutilla quadrum ( Klug, 1821 )

Bartholomay, Pedro R., Williams, Kevin A., Lopez, Vinicius M. & Oliveira, Marcio L., 2019, Revision of the Traumatomutilla americana species group (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae), Zootaxa 4608 (1), pp. 1-34 : 21-31

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Traumatomutilla quadrum ( Klug, 1821 )


Traumatomutilla quadrum ( Klug, 1821)  

( Figures 57–77 View FIGURES 57–68 View FIGURES 69–77 )

Mutilla quadrum Klug, 1821: 320   , Lectotype (designated here), ♀, [ Brazil], Bahia (ZMB), examined.

Mutilla oculifera Smith, 1855: 45   , holotype ♂, Brazil, [Pará], Santarém (NHM), examined syn. nov.

Mutilla hybrida Burmeister, 1854: 24   , holotype ♀, [ Brazil], [Minas Gerais], Ouro Preto (MLUH), Synonymized by Micekl (1964).

Mutilla latevittata Cresson, 1902: 42   , Lectotype [designated by Cresson (1916)], ♀, Brazil, Chapada [dos Guimarães], [Mato Grosso do Sul], (CMNH), examined syn. nov.

Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) quadrum: André, 1902: 55   (new combination).

Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) latevittata: André, 1902: 55   (new combination).

Mutilla oculifera: André, 1902: 73   (incertae sedis).

Traumatomutilla quadrum: André, 1904: 40   (new combination).

Traumatomutilla latevittata: André, 1904: 40   (new combination).

Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) punctosignata André, 1906: 47   , Holotype: ♀, Brazil, Pernambuco, Pery-Pery [Periperi] (MNHN), examined syn. nov.

Traumatomutilla oculifera: Mickel, 1964: 170   (new combination).

Traumatomutilla maula Casal, 1969: 294   , Holotype: ♀, Brazil, Pará , Mangabeira, Mocajuba (AMNH), type examined syn. nov.

Traumatomutilla punctosignata: Nonveiller, 1990: 81   (new combination).

Dasymutilla brazilia Manley & Pitts, 2007: 34   , Holotype: ♂, Brazil, [Minas] Gerais , Pedra Azul, XI.[19]71, Seabra and Oliveira (EMUS), synonymized by Bartholomay et al. (in press).

Diagnosis. FEMALE. Mesosoma robust, not constricted anterior to propodeal spiracles, lateral margins slightly and smoothly divergent anterad; dorsal mesosomal sculpture predominantly areolate-punctate, intervals broad, welldefined; anterior face of T1 sparsely setose, predominantly unsculptured, smooth. MALE. Metasomal integumental predominantly reddish to orange, T1 and T7 slightly darkened; S2 with distinct medial pit densely clothed with setae; cuspis mostly equally wide throughout, slightly broadened apically.

Redescription. FEMALE. Body length 7–15 mm. Head. Posterior margin slightly concave. Occipital carina ending in lateral tubercles; tubercles subtriangular, virtually as long as wide. Vertex width 0.75 × pronotal width. Eye almost circular, its length in frontal virtually equal to the distance from its ventral margin to mandibular condyle. Frons, vertex, and gena densely and coarsely areolate-punctate, more sparsely so on gena and malar space. Genal carina present, well defined, broadly separated from antennal tubercles and gular carina. Mandibles with small subapical tooth, unarmed ventrally. Dorsal scrobal carina present, not narrowly separated from antennal tubercles and united with vestigial, partially interrupted, lateral scrobal carinae. Antennal tubercles densely and finely rugose. Flagellomere 1 1.9 × pedicel length; flagellomere 2 1.5 × pedicel length. Mesosoma. Mesosoma 1.3 × as long as wide. Pronotum as wide as mesothorax. Anterior face of propodeum well-defined, conspicuously and finely striated longitudinally. Mesosomal dorsum densely and coarsely areolate-punctate throughout. Humeral carina present, disconnected from epaulet, not produced apically; antero-lateral corners of pronotum slightly angulate in dorsal view. Epaulets distinct, not produced from anterior margin of pronotum, angulate. Pronotal spiracle virtually flat against lateral margin of pronotum. Sculpture of mesosomal pleurae mostly concealed by dense setae, except dorsal fourth of metapleuron impunctate, smooth. Lateral face of propodeum mostly smooth, impunctate, sparsely shallow punctured, with small cluster of small punctures posteroventrally. Post-spiracular area present, impunctate. Ratios of width of humeral angles, pronotal spiracles, widest point of mesonotum, narrowest point of mesonotum and propodeum posterior to propodeal spiracles, 75:87:87:72:68. Lateral margin of mesosoma not constricted anterior to propodeal spiracle, smoothly diverging anterad and converging slightly posterior to pronotal spiracles. Scutellar scale present, well-developed, virtually as wide as, and separated from narrowly and coarsely connected anterolateral carinae. Scabrous intervals present on scutellar area. Posterior face of propodeum longer than dorsal face. Metasoma. Ratios of width of T1, width of T2 and length of T2, 40:90:89. T2 maximum width at midlength. Disc of T2 dense and coarse foveolate-punctate to coarse punctate; foveolations sparser and larger laterad and over integumental spots. Sculpture T3–6, except pygidial plate, mostly obscured by dense setae. S1 with conspicuous longitudinal blunt carina, virtually equally high throughout. S2 sparsely and finely foveolate-punctate; antero-medial crest-fold absent, subapical slope present, interrupted medially. S3–6 dense coarse foveolate-punctate. Pygidial plate subovate, defined by lateral carinae except at ecarinate basal margin; surface with coarse, wavy, longitudinal subparallel costations; interstice apparently impunctate, smooth. MALE. Body length 8–13 mm. Head. Lateral margins not parallel behind eyes, posterolateral angles rounded. Vertex width 0.85 × pronotal width. Eye almost circular. Ocelli small; OOD 4.5 × DLO, IOD 1.5 × to DLO. Frons, vertex and gena densely and coarsely foveolate-punctate. Gena ecarinate. Antennal scrobe with prominent transverse carina above starting at eye margin and ending before antennal tubercles. Clypeus virtually flat throughout; coarsely and densely foveolate-punctate; with a pair of small teeth-like projections medially on apical margin. Scape bicarinate, inner carina less prominent. Flagellomere 1 1.4 × pedicel length; flagellomere 1 8 × pedicel length. Mandible obliquely tridentate apically, inner tooth virtually equal to middle tooth; lacking dorsal or ventral projections. Mesosoma. Epaulets inconspicuous, poorly defined, reduced to small rounded area on anterior margin of dorsal face of pronotum, disconnected from humeral carina. Sculpture of anterior face of pronotum finely and densely punctate laterally, smoothly impunctate medially, with distinct longitudinal concave area reaching dorsal margin; dorsal and lateral sculptures of pronotum concealed by dense setation. Tegula mostly impunctate with few punctures along anterolateral margins. Mesoscutum densely and coarsely foveolate- punctate; notaulus and parapsis absent. Scutellum posteriorly declivous, its surface flat, densely and coarsely foveolate-punctate. Axilla slightly produced posterolaterally as truncate projection in dorsal view, coarsely and irregularly punctate dorsally; with distinct sharp oblique ventral keel in posterior and lateral views. Metanotum equally wide throughout, its surface concealed by dense setations. Propodeum smoothly convex, densely areolate on dorsoposterior face; lateral face mostly impunctate with few coarse incomplete areolations along posterior margin; posterolateral corners of dorsal face smoothly rounded; dorsal and posterior faces indistinct. Mesopleuron smoothly convex, without conspicuous projections on dorsal half; its sculpture concealed by dense setae. Metapleuron mostly smooth, with sparse inconspicuous punctures, except ventral fourth, coarsely and indistinctly sculptured. Wings. Forewing with moderate elongate sclerotized pterostigma; marginal cell length twice its width, truncate apically; three submarginal cells, apical veins of third cell weak. Legs. Simply setose, no strong spines discernible dorsally; spurs finely serrate on margins. Metasoma. T1 0.5 × as wide as T2. T2 length 0.9 × its width. T1–7, except pygidial plate, densely and coarsely foveolate-punctate; sculpture sparser and less defined anterad on T1; smaller and denser on T3–7. Pygidial plate densely and finely punctate apicolaterally, virtually smooth elsewhere, with well defined smoothly bowed lateral carinae defining it. S1 irregularly and coarsely foveolate-punctate, with low longitudinal carina equally high throughout. S2 sparsely foveolate-punctate, not at all swollen at base, with conspicuous subovate posteromedian pit densely filled with setae. S3–6 foveolate-punctate, more sparsely so on S5–7. S7 longer than broad, with a single apically rounded tooth-like projection on apical margin. Genitalia. Parapenial lobe inconspicuously pronounced posteriorly. Ratios of free length of paramere, cuspis and digitus, 113:97:24. Paramere virtually straight throughout in dorsal view, slightly upcurved posteriorly in lateral view; ventrally with small tuft of long setae in addition to scattered, inconspicuous, short and thin setae throughout. Cuspis mostly straight in dorsal view, slightly convergent anteriorly; virtually straight and slightly expanded in lateral view with small posterior tuft of setae in addition to sparse inconspicuous setae varying in length throughout. Digitus short, curved inward in dorsal view and slightly upcurved in lateral view; virtually asetose. Penis valve strongly concave on inner surface, with two sharp posteroapical teeth on ventral margin; distance between apex of teeth 0.1 × length of valve; strong short setae present along posterior margin; with few inconspicuous short setae subapically on outer surface.

Coloration and variations. FEMALES. Head entirely densely clothed with to having just few sparse silverywhite setae. The mesosoma has distinct lateral stripes of silvery-white setae throughout its extension, with varying density in certain specimens, with some specimens having only few scattered silvery-white setae throughout the mesosomal dorsum. The integumental spots on T2 vary in color from yellow to red and in size from large subquadrate to greatly reduced amorphous spots. The fringe of T2–5 appears to be consistent in every specimen, with silvery-white setae patches medially and laterally varying in width. Specimens from Caatinga areas appear to be the most affected by variations, sometimes without any discernible color and/or setae patterns. MALES. No significant variations in color and setae were observed for the males. Head, mesosoma and appendages color varies from reddish-brown to black with the head, pronotum, mesosomal pleurae, propodeal dorsum and legs conspicuously clothed with silvery-white setae varying in density. The tibial spurs are always yellowish-white. The wings are always light brown with no conspicuous infuscated areas. The metasoma is reddish-brown to black anteriorly on T1 and on T5–7; the remainder segments are reddish to orange throughout except the area of the lateral felt line on T2 which is always conspicuously darker. Setae on the metasoma is mostly silvery-white except on disc of T2 and T5–7, and frequently on the fringes, where it ranges from silvery-white to black.

Distribution. French Guiana, Brazil, and Paraguay.

Material examined. (1022 ♀ 93♂) Type material. Lectotype, Mutilla quadrum   , ♀, Brazil, Bahia ( ZMB); Holo- type, Mutilla oculifera   , ♂, Brazil, [Pará], Santarém ( BMNH); Lectotype, Mutilla latevittata   , ♀, Brazil, [Mato Gros- so], Chapada [dos Guimar„es] ( CMNH); Holotype, Mutilla zapara   , ♂, Brazil, [Mato Grosso], Chapada [dos Gui- mar„es]; Lectotype, Ephuta punctosignata   , ♀, Brazil, Pernambuco ( MNHN); Holotype, Traumatomutilla maula   , ♀, Brazil, Pará, Mangabeira, Mocajuba ( AMNH). Additional material. FRENCH GUIANA: Gourdonville [sic], 3♀, X.1914, R. Benoist ( MNHN); Montsinery [sic], 04°55,995’N 52°29,689’W, 1♀, 23.I.2003, V. Soon ( EMUS); Cayenne, Les Roches de Kourou, 1♀, 1907, E. Le Moult ( MNHN); BRAZIL: Pará: Algodoal, Praia da Princes, 1♀, 22.VII.1981, Edmar L. Oliveira ( MPEG); Almeirim, 1♀, 14.IV.1903, Ducke ( MPEG), São João do Pirabas, Boa Esperança, 1♂, 18-24.X.1990, A.L. Henriques ( MPEG); Tracuateua, Toka da Amizade, 1♀, 13.XII.2005, A. Santi- ago ( UFPA); Vigia, Campo do Palha, 1♂, 07.xii.1989, I.S. Gorayeb ( MPEG); Santarém, Faz. [Fazenda] Taperinha, 1♀, 01-11.II.1968, Exp. Perm. Amaz. [Expedição Permanente à Amazônia] ( MPEG); Gorotire, Rio Fresco, 1♀, X.1985, W.L. Overal ( MPEG); Mangabeira, Mocajuba, 1♀, III.1953, O. Rego ( FSCA); Maracanã, Ilha do Marco, 1♂, 11-13.I.1993, J. Dias ( MPEG); Monte Alegre, “Cerrado”, 1♂, 16-20.I.1992,A.L. Henriques ( MPEG); Mosqueiro, 1♀, 17.XII.1983, P.C. Souza ( MPEG); Pedras, Rio Cuminá, 1♀, 01.X.1969, Exp. Perm. Amaz. [Expedição Perma- nente à Amazônia] ( MPEG); Bragança, Campus Universitario, UFPA - Bragança, 9♀, XI.2005, R. Pereira ( UFPA); Belém, Mocambo, 1♀, 11.VIII.1978, M.F. Torres ( MPEG); Benevides, Neópolis, 1♀, 31.VII.2000, A.W. Hook ( MPEG); Boa Vista, Ilha Arapiranga, 1♂, 21-22.xi.1992, J. Dias ( MPEG); Ponta de Pedras, 1♀, 06.III.1979, M.F. Torres ( MPEG); Colares, 1♀, 22.VII.1990, M.F. Torres ( MPEG); Conceição do Araguaia, 1♀, 17-21.XI.1979, R.B. Neto ( MPEG); Parque Nacional de Sete Cidades, 1♀, 07-13.II.2013, Somavilla, A. ( INPA); Prainha, 1♀, 11.V.1903, Ducke ( MNHN); Maranhão: Imperatriz, 1♀, 16.VII.1974, Exp. Dept. Zoo [Expedição Departamento de Zoologia] - UFPR ( DZUP); Buritipucu, 1♀, 02.X.1978 ( MPEG); Lago Rodrigues, 1♀, 25.V.1979 ( MPEG); Mirador,Parque Estadual do Mirador, Posto Avançado do Mel, 06°43’48”S 45°00’22’’W, 2♀, 18-25.III.2012, F. Limeira-de-Olivei- ra & D.W.A. Marques ( CZMA); Goiás: Campinas, 1♀, XII.1936 ( MNRJ); Rio Araguaia, 1♀, 1914, Baer ( MNHN); Caldas Novas, Parque Estadual Serra de Caldas Novas, 700m [meters above sea level], 17°46’13’’S 48°39’22’’W, 1♀, 22-23.III.2008, J.A. Rafael & F.F. Xavier F° ( INPA); Colinas do Sul, Serra da Mesa, 14°01’S 48°12’W, Cer- rado, 1♀, 02-15.XII.1995, Silvestre, Dieter e Campaner ( UFGD); Jataí, Faz. [Fazenda] Aceiro, 1♀, X.1962, Exp. Dep. Zool. [Expedição Departamento de Zoologia] ( MNCN); Leopoldo Bulhões, 1♀, XII.1933, Spitz ( MNCN); PARNA [Parque Nacional] Chapada dos Veadeiros,Pt. [Ponto] 10, malaise [trap], 6♂, 07-23.IX.2005 ( UFES); Vian- nopolis, 1♀, XI.1931, R. Spitz ( MNCN); Mato Grosso: Barra do Tapirapé, 1♀, 1-2.II.1964 ( MZSP); Cáceres, 1♀, 16.I.1985, Elias,C. ( DZUP); Camapuã, 1♀, X.1967 ( CESC); marg. esq. [margem esquerda] rio Sucuriu, Faz. [Fa- zenda] Canaã, Três Lagoas, 1♀, 10.XII.1967, F. Lane ( MZSP); Rosario Oeste, 5♀ ( MZSP); Uirapuru, Usine Alco- mat, 14°15’04’’S 59°14’01’’W, 1♀, 20.I.1996, A. Foucart ( EMUS); Xingú, 1♀, XII.1961, Alvarenga & Werner ( MNCN); Utiariti, 5♀ ( MZSP); Diamantino, Alto Rio Arinos, 1♀, X.1983 ( MNRJ); Chapada dos Guimarães, 1♀, 18.XI.2013, Melo, G.A.R., Luz, D.R., Williams, K.A. ( DZUP); Mato Grosso do Sul: Três Lagôas, 5♀ ( MZSP); Campo Grande, 1♀, 9.X.1961, Oliveira, F.M. ( DZUP); Dourados, Itahum, Lagoa Grande, 21°59’S 55°19’W, 425m [meters above sea level], 1♀, 03.VIII.2016, Silvestre, R. e eq.[equipe] ( UFGD); Porto Murtinho, Faz. [Fazenda] Campo Verde, 440m, 1♀, XII.2008, Auko, T. eq. col. (MuBio-Hym: 00058-M); Espírito Santo: Vitória, 1♀, 21.IX.1986, R.P. Moure ( UFES); Parque Sooretama, 3♀, XI.1967, Oliveira, F.M. ( DZUP); Conceição da Barra, 1♀, 18.VIII.1969, Elias, C.T. ( DZUP); 44km [kilometers] norte/nordeste de Linhares, Res.[Reserva] de Sooretama, 19°03’20.7’’S 40°08’49.0’’W, Floresta Semi-Decídua, 1♀, 12.X.1999, C. Villemant ( MNHN); Foz do Rio Com- boios, 1♀, XI.1993, M.M. Argel de Oliveira ( MZSP); Casa Vegetação, IFES [Instituto Federal do Espírito Santo], 19°48’19’’S 40°46’32’’W, Santa Teresa, 1♀, 30.VI.2011, F.B. Fraga ( UFES); Batatais, 1♀, I.1946, Moure, J.S. ( DZUP); Matão, Cambuhy, 1♂, 10-16.I.2006, S.E. Halbert ( FSCA); São Paulo, 1♀ ( ANSP); Ribeirão Preto, 1♀, 14.III.1986, M. Gimenes ( MZSP); Faz. [Fazenda] Rio Grande, Cajuru, 1♀, 29.III.2003, Melo, G.A.R, Aguiar, Mar- chi, Gonçalves ( DZUP); Reserva de Jatai, Luis Antônio, 1♀, 16.X.1999, Melo, G.A.R ( DZUP); Ibitinga, Faz. [Fa- zenda] Itaquerê, 1♀, 25.I.1964, K. Lenko ( MZSP); Nova Europa, Faz. [Fazenda] Itaquerê, 1♀, XII.1963, K. Lenko ( MZSP); Boa Esperança do Sul, Faz. [Fazenda] Itaquerê, 1♀, 28.IV.1968, K. Lenko ( MZSP); marg. Esq. R. [mar- gem esquerda do rio], Paraná, Castilho, 1♀, 20.X.1964, Exp. Depto. Zool. [Expedição Departamento Zoologia] ( MZSP); T. [Teodoro] Sampaio, Pq.Est. [Parque Estadual] Morro do Diabo, 1♀, 6.XII.2010, Melo, G.A.R., Luz, D. ( DZUP); Onda Verde, Faz. [Fazenda] São João, 1♀, I.1946, F. Lane ( MNCN); Minas Gerais: 20 km [kilometers] a NO [northwest] de Gov. [Governador] Valadares, Serra da Gioconda, 1♀, 30.XII.2004, Melo, G.A.R. ( DZUP); Serra do Clipó, Pedra do Elefante, 1♀, 7.I.2005, Melo, G.A.R., Costa ( DZUP); Aguas Vermelhas, 1♀, XII.1983 ( MNRJ); Cambuquira, 2♀, XII.1932 ( MNRJ); Itamarandiba, 18 km [kilometers] ao S [South] de Itamarandiba, Faz. [Fazenda] São Luis, 1♀, 17.II.2010, Melo, G.A.R., Parizotto, D. & Grossi, P. ( DZUP); Sertão de Diamantina, Fa- zenda das Melancias, 1♀, 10.XI.1902, E. Gounelle ( MNCN); Viçosa, 1♀, 12.V.1932, F.J. Hambleton ( USNM); Sabaré, 1♀, 29.XI.2008, Ramos, K. & Kanamura, V. ( DZUP); Zona Rural, Nanuque, 1♀, 24-29.VII.2007, Fraga, F.B. ( UFES); Selvíria, 6♀, 01-02.XII.1996, M. Generani, P.L. Scaramozzino ( CASC); Lagoa Grande, 1♀, 18.VI.1934, Knudsen, S.G. ( ZMB); Sete Lagoas, 1♀, Reinhardt ( ZMUC); Conceição do Mato Dentro, Serpentina, Área 5, 19.0987°S 43.3360°W, 1♂, 27.IV.2011, Silva, R.R. & Albuquerque, E.Z. ( MZSP); Estação Ecológica da UFMG [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais], Belo Horizonte, 1♂, 06.x.1988, R.P. Martins ( UFMG); Rio de Janeiro: Nova Friburgo, 1♀, 2-3.IV.1903, E. Gounelle ( MNCN); Barra do Itabapoana, Praia das Neves, São Fran- cisco de Itabapoana, 1♀, 10.IV.1987, R.P. Martins ( UFMG); Rio de Janeiro, 1♀, Reinhardt ( ZMUC); Amapá, Calçoene, 1♀, 31.X.1978, F.F. Ramos ( MPEG); Bahia, Feira de Santana, Campus UEFS [Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana], 12°13’S 38°58’W, 1♀, 04.VIII.2000, Melo, G.A.R. ( UEFS); Itaberaba, 1♀, 22.IV.2000, Silvana ( UEFS); Lençois, 4 km NW [kilometers northwest] de Lençois, 2♀, 22-24.X.1999, Freddy & Mazzarolo ( UEFS); Porto Seguro, 1♂, 24.I.1998, Santos, J.R.M. ( CEPLAC); Mucuri, 1♀, 30.IV.2005, Santos, J.R.M. ( CEPLAC); San- to Antônio da Barra, 1♀, 11.XII.1888, Gounelle ( MNHN); Serra da Jibóia, Pioneira, 1♀, 15-16.V.1999, J. Resende ( UEFS); Una, 1♀, 18.IV.1998, Guedes, P. ( CEPLAC); Vila Nova, 1♀, 03.V.1907, E. Garbe ( MNCN); Sauipe, 1♂, 15.X.2007, E. Alvim ( UEFS); Ibicoara, Chapada Diamantina, 1.100m de altura, 13°19’15.7’’S 41°19’44.4’’O, 1♂, 2-5.XI.2014, T. Mahlmann e J. Hipólito ( INPA); Amazonas, Manaus, 1♀, VIII.1944 ( MNRJ); Piauí, Santa Filomena, Estação 15, 1♀, 8.VIII.2013, Amaral-Neto, L.P. ( DZUP); Rondônia: Vilhena, 76 km a NW de Vilhena, 1♀, 14.VIII.2012, Melo, G.A.R., Rosa, B. & Santos ( DZUP); Porto Velho, Rio Madeira, 9°35’53”S 65°22’00”W, 2♂, 9-19.IX.2011, Carrijo, T.F. ( MZSP); Distrito Federal, Brasília, 2♀, Brasilio Dias ( EMUS); FLONA [Floresta Na- cional] de Brasília, Gleba 1, 1♀, 11.XI.2012, Luz, D. ( DZUP); Tocantins, Itaguatins, Maurilândia, 1♂, 18-20. vii.1989, F.F. Ramos ( MPEG); Ceará, 14.5 km SE Nova Jaguaribara, 5°35.833’S 38°23.006’W, 1♀, 25.VI.2010, C. Waichert ( UFES); Paraíba, Santa Luzia, 3♀, VIII.1956 ( MNRJ); BOLIVIA: Santa Cruz, 2km W Ipati, 1♀, 27.II.1999, L.A. Stange ( FSCA); 40 km NW Santa Cruz, Potrerillo de Guenda, 5♀, 09-28.XI.2006, B.K. Dozier ( FSCA); 5km N Pedro Lorenzo , 1♀, 02.III.1999, L.A. Stange ( FSCA)   Buena Vista , 1♀, 20.II.1999, L.A. Stange ( FSCA)   ; PARAGUAY: San Pedro, Cororó, Rio Ypane , 1♂, XI.1979, Fritz ( AMNH)   ; Amambay, P. N. Cerro Corá, 269m, 2♀, 03.IV.2015, Lopez, V. eq. col. 22°38’S 56°01’W (MuBio-Hym: 00106-M and 00108-M); An additional 891♀ and 72♂ from Brazil were also examined ( RBINS, CEPLAC, MNHN, MPEG, MZSP, ZMUC, ZMB, ANSP, EMUS, BMNH, UFES, MNRJ, MNCN, CSCA, INPA, DZUP, CMNH, UMSP, FSCA, USNM, LACM, EMUS, DGMC, UFGD) GoogleMaps  

Remarks. The lectotype of Mutilla quadrum   is herein being officially designated because although the specimen was labelled as a lectotype by Mickel ( Fig. 66 View FIGURES 57–68 ), the taxonomic act was never published. The status of the type for Mutilla latevittata   is explained by the same reasoning presented in the remarks regarding the type of Mutilla acara   . The types of four species known from females: Traumatomutilla quadrum   , T. latevittata   , T. maula   , and T. punctosignata   , were found to be identical in all features except color pattern and distribution. After examining over 1,115 specimens, males of T. oculifera   were found throughout the range of the four aforementioned females ( Figs. 78–79 View FIGURE 78 View FIGURE 79 ). Even in areas where females have obvious color differences (e.g. T. quadrum   from Atlantic Forest and T. maula   from Amazon Forest) the males were identical in color and structure. The phylogenetic affinities, lack of structural differences in females, and lack of color or structural differences in males provides the evidence needed to synonymize Traumatomutilla latevittata   , T. oculifera   , T. maula   , and T. punctosignata   under T. quadrum   .



FIGURE 83. Schematic drawing of typical female head for the T. americana   species-group, frontal view: A. Eye length; B. Distance from ventral eye margin to mandibular condyle; C. Pedicel length; D. Flagellomere 1 length; E. Flagellomere 2 length. FIGURE 84. Schematic drawing of typical male head for the T. americana   species-group, frontal view: A. Diameter of lateral ocellus (DLO); B. Interocellar distance (IOD); C. Ocellar-ocular distance (OOD). FIGURE 85. Schematic drawing of apical segments of metasoma for males of the T. americana   species-groups with indications of longitudinal and vertical axis, lateral view: A. Sixth metasomal tergite (T6); B. Seventh metasomal tergite (T7); C. Sixth metasomal sternite (S6); D. Hypopygium; (S7); E. Genital capsule. FIGURE 86. Schematic drawing of genital capsule (halved) for the males of the T. americana   species-group with indications of longitudinal and transverse axis, dorsal view: A. Free length of paramere; B. Free length of cuspis; C. Free length of digitus. FIGURE 87. Schematic drawing of genital capsule (penis valve removed) for the males of the T. americana   species-group with indications of longitudinal and vertical axis, lateral view (inner surface).

FIGURE 88. Schematic drawing of the penis valve for the male of the T. americana   species-group with indications of longitudinal and vertical axis, lateral view (outer surface): A. Distance between apex of posteroventral teeth; B. Length of penis valve.

This species is widespread in Brazil, with specimens collected in Amazon Forest, Atlantic Forest, Cerrado, and even Caatinga areas in northeastern Brazil. As in T. ocellaris   , the wide distribution apparently drives T. quadrum   to have highly variable color patterns in females. Northern and Western forms tend to have the spots of T2 yellowcolored, while Southern and Eastern forms have the spots red-orange. Additionally, specimens from drier areas like Cerrado and Caatinga have smaller T2 spots than Amazon or Atlantic Forest specimens. Males, however, are basically uniform in color and setae throughout their distribution.

Males of T. quadrum   differ from the other species within the group based mainly on their cuspis which is slenderer and equally wide throughout compared to the more robust and abruptly tapered cuspis typical of other T. americana   species-group males. Females of T. quadrum   superficially look different from other T. americana   species-group members, especially in their generally coarser sculpture and sparser setae. The only reliable structural difference between T. quadrum   and other species in this group is the structure of T1, which has its anterior face smooth and impunctate.


Museum für Naturkunde Berlin (Zoological Collections)


The Cleveland Museum of Natural History


Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle


American Museum of Natural History


Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi


Florida State Collection of Arthropods, The Museum of Entomology


Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia


Universidade Federal do Parana, Colecao de Entomologia Pe. Jesus Santiago Moure


Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro


Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales


Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo


Sao Paulo, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo


Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen


Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais


Laboratorio de Ictiologia


Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences














Traumatomutilla quadrum ( Klug, 1821 )

Bartholomay, Pedro R., Williams, Kevin A., Lopez, Vinicius M. & Oliveira, Marcio L. 2019

Dasymutilla brazilia

Manley, D. G. & Pitts, J. P. 2007: 34

Traumatomutilla punctosignata:

Nonveiller, G. 1990: 81

Traumatomutilla maula

Casal, O. H. 1969: 294

Traumatomutilla oculifera:

Mickel, C. E. 1964: 170

Traumatomutilla quadrum: André, 1904 : 40

Andre, E. 1904: 40

Traumatomutilla latevittata: André, 1904 : 40

Andre, E. 1904: 40

Mutilla latevittata

Cresson, E. T. 1902: 42

Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) quadrum: André, 1902 : 55

Andre, E. 1902: 55

Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) latevittata: André, 1902 : 55

Andre, E. 1902: 55

Mutilla oculifera: André, 1902 : 73

Andre, E. 1902: 73

Mutilla oculifera

Smith, F. 1855: 45

Mutilla hybrida

Burmeister, H. C. C. 1854: 24

Mutilla quadrum

Klug, J. C. F. 1821: 320