Traumatomutilla ocellaris ( Klug, 1821 ), Klug, 1821

Bartholomay, Pedro R., Williams, Kevin A., Lopez, Vinicius M. & Oliveira, Marcio L., 2019, Revision of the Traumatomutilla americana species group (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae), Zootaxa 4608 (1), pp. 1-34: 13-21

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Traumatomutilla ocellaris ( Klug, 1821 )


Traumatomutilla ocellaris ( Klug, 1821)  

( Fig. 26–55 View FIGURES 26–36 View FIGURES 37–42 View FIGURES 43–55 )

Mutilla ocellaris Klug, 1821: 321   , Lectotype (designated here), ♀: Brazil, [Pará], Cametá (ZMB), examined.

Mutilla polita Smith, 1855: 48   , Holotype (by monotypy) ♂: Brazil, Amaz. [sic] (BMNH), examined syn. nov.

Mutilla trinacria Gerstaecker, 1874: 68   , Holotype: ♀, Brazil, Paraná (ZMB), examined syn. nov.

Mutilla gemina Gerstaecker, 1874: 69   , Lectotype (designated here): ♀, Brazil, [Rio Grande do Sul], Alegrete (ZMB), examined syn. nov.

Mutilla lasiogastra Burmeister, 1875: 475   , Lectotype (desiganted here): ♀, Argentina, Córdoba (MACN), examined syn. nov.

Mutilla cuyana Burmeister, 1875: 475   , Lectotype (designated here): ♀, Argentina, Córdoba (MACN), examined syn. nov.

Mutilla acara Cresson, 1902: 79   , Holotype: ♂, Brazil, [Mato Grosso do Sul], Chapada [dos Guimarães] (CMNH), examined syn. nov.

Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) cuyana: André, 1902: 55   (new combination)

Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) gemina: André, 1902: 55   (new combination)

Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) lasiogastra: André, 1902: 55   (new combination)

Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) ocellaris: André, 1902: 55   (new combination)

Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) acara: André, 1902: 56   (new combination)

Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) trinacria: André, 1902: 57   (new combination)

Mutilla polita: André, 1902: 74   (incertae sedis)

Traumatomutilla cuyana: André, 1904: 40   (new combination)

Traumatomutilla lasiogastra: André, 1904: 40   (new combination)

Traumatomutilla gemina: André, 1904: 40   (new combination)

Traumatomutilla trinacria: André, 1904: 40   (new combination)

Traumatomutilla acara: André, 1904: 40   (new combination)

Traumatomutilla ocellaris: André, 1904: 40   (new combination)

Diagnosis. FEMALE. Mesosoma generally slender, not constricted anterior to propodeal spiracles, lateral margins slightly and smoothly divergent anterad; anterior face of T1 usually densely setose and micropunctate to punctate. MALE. Integument entirely black to brownish-black, rarely vestigially marked with reddish on T2.

Description. FEMALE. Body length 7 mm. Head. Posterior margin slightly concave. Occipital carina ending in lateral tubercles; tubercles subtriangular, virtually as long as wide. Vertex width 0.85 × pronotal width. Eye almost circular, its length in frontal view 1.15 × the distance from its ventral margin to mandibular condyle. Frons, vertex, and gena densely and finely foveolate-punctate, mores sparsely so on gena and malar space. Genal carina present, well defined, broadly separated from antennal tubercles. Mandibles with small subapical tooth, unarmed ventrally. Dorsal scrobal carina present, not antennal tubercles; lateral scrobal carinae absent. Antennal tubercles coarsely rugose. Flagellomere 1 2.6 × pedicel length; flagellomere 2 1.4 × pedicel length. Mesosoma. Mesosoma 0.8 × as long as wide. Pronotum slightly narrower than mesothorax. Anterior face of propodeum well-defined, conspicuously and finely striated longitudinally. Mesosomal dorsum densely and coarsely areolate-punctate throughout. Humeral carina present, disconnected from epaulet, not at all produced apically; antero-lateral corners of pronotum rounded in dorsal view. Epaulets slightly produced from anterior margin of pronotum, rounded. Pronotal spiracle virtually flat against lateral margin of pronotum. Sculpture of mesosomal pleurae concealed by dense setation, except dorsal fourth of metapleuron impunctate, smooth. Lateral face of propodeum mostly smooth, impunctate, sparsely shallow punctures. Post-spiracular area undefined. Ratios of width of humeral angles, pronotal spiracles, widest point of mesonotum, narrowest point of mesonotum and propodeum posterior to propodeal spiracles, 64:73:71:61:47. Lateral margin of mesosoma not emarginated anterior to propodeal spiracle, smoothly diverging anterad and converging slightly posterior to pronotal spiracles. Scutellar scale present, well-developed, wider than and separated from narrowly and coarsely connected anterolateral carinae. Scabrous intervals present. Posterior face of propodeum longer than dorsal face. Metasoma. Ratios of width of T1, width of T2 and length of T2, 41:87:85. T2 virtually as wide as long, with maximum width at midlength. Disc of T2 dense and coarse foveolate-punctate to punctate posteromediad; foveolations sparser and larger laterad and over integumental spots; sculpture of integumental spots sparse shallow foveolate-punctate. Sculpture T3–6, except pygidial plate, obscured by dense setation. S1 with conspicuous longitudinal carina, equally high throughout. S2 sparse foveolate-punctate; antero-medial crest-fold vestigial, subapical slope absent. S3–6 dense coarse foveolate-punctate. Pygidial plate subovate, defined by lateral carinae except at basal half of plate ecarinate; surface with longitudinal interrupted subparallel costations; interstice apparently impunctate, smooth. MALE (based on the holotype of T. acara   ). Body length 7–12 mm. Head. Rounded subquadrate, posterolateral angles rounded. Vertex width 0.8 × pronotal width. Eye almost circular. Ocelli small; OOD 3.5 × DLO, IOD 0.7 × DLO. Occipital carina distinct. Vertex and gena sparsely and finely foveolate-punctate, more densely so on frons. Gena ecarinate. Antennal scrobe concave to eye margin, with prominent transverse dorsal scrobal carina separated from eye margin and torulus. Clypeus convex medially, concave laterally immediatelly below antennal insertion; coarsely and densely punctate; with a pair of short, closely spaced, blunt tubercles on apical margin. Scape bicarinate, inner carina less pronounced. Flagellomere 1 1.5 × pedicel length; flagellomere 2.2 × pedicel length. Mandible obliquely tridentate apically, inner tooth slightly larger than middle tooth; lacking dorsal or ventral projections. Mesosoma. Epaulets well defined, slightly pronounced, rounded, broadly disconnected from humeral carina. Anterior face of propodeum smooth, impunctate medially, with a conspicuous longitdunial concave medial area; fine sparse to dense coarse punctate laterally. Tegula convex, mostly glabrous and impunctate except for dense punctures anterointernally. Mesoscutum densely foveolate-punctate; notaulus and parapsis vestigial, partially visible at posterior third of mesoscutum. Scutellum slightly convex, densely and coarsely areolate-punctate. Axilla produced posterolaterally as truncate projection, with conspicuous flat posterior face, coarsely and densely foveolate-punctate dorsally, except posterior half impunctate. Metanotum virtually equally wide throughout, its sur- face obscured by dense setation. Propodeum convex, densely areolate dorsally and along posterior margin of mostly impunctate lateral face; posterolateral margins smoothly rounded; dorsal face rounded into posterior face; posterior margin of dorsal face not angulate. Lateral face of pronotum and mesopleura sculptured obscured by dense setation; mesopleura roundly swollen, without any conspicuous projections on dorsal half. Metapleuron virtually smooth, shinning and impunctate throughout. Wings. Forewing with moderate elongate sclerotized pterostigma; marginal cell elongated, truncate apically; three submarginal cells, veins of third cell vestigial. Legs. Simply setose, no strong spines discernible dorsally; spurs finely serrate on margins. Metasoma. T1 0.5 × as wide as T2. T2 length 0.9 × its width. T2 sparely and finely foveolate-punctate with interspersed micropunctures at basal third; T3–5 sparely and finely foveolate-punctate with interspersed micropunctures. T6–7, except pygidial plate, sparsely foveolate-punctate. T7 with pygidial area unsculptured and weakly defined by parallel carinae apicolaterally. S1with longitudinal elevated medially, not forming pronounced carina, terminating in sharp tooth posteriorly. S2 sparsely foveolatepunctate, foveolations larger and denser posterad, with distinct medial micropunctate area covered with denser setae. S3–6 and hypopygium sparsely foveolate-punctate. Hypopygium longer than broad, with a pair of closely spaced tooth-like projections on apical margin. Genitalia. Parapenial lobe slightly pronounced posteriorly. Free paramere length 1.2 × free cuspis length and 4.5 × free digitus length, virtually straight throughout in dorsal view, slightly curved outward posteriorly; upcurved posteriorly in lateral view; without any conspicuous setose area apart from scattered, inconspicuous, short and thin setae throughout. Cuspis 3.5 × digitus length, virtually straight in dorsal and lateral view; abruptly tapering at posterior half in lateral view; conspicuous sparse strong setae throughout. Paracuspis short, node-like, rounded posteriorly, slightly longer than broad, densely setose. Digitus short, weakly curved inward in dorsal view and slightly upcurved in lateral view; sparsely setose anterodorsally. Penis valve strongly concave on inner surface, bidentate posteroventrally; posteriormost tooth narrow, acute; anterior tooth rounded, without evident lateral pocket on outer margin; distance between apex of teeth 0.1 × length of valve; few strong short setae along posterior margin and at base of teeth on outer surface.

Coloration and variations. FEMALES. Body integument color varies from black to reddish-brown, except integumental spots of T2, apical half of mandibles black, and yellowish-white tibial spurs; head silvery-white setae can be found covering the entire head, restricted to a transverse band on vertex, restricted to longitudinal lines along inner margin of eyes, restricted to frons; some specimens have the head entirely covered with black setae only. Silvery-white setae on the mesosoma is always found as a pair of longitudinal lateral lines which might be present on the propodeum only, extend to posterior half of mesonotum, to posterior margin of pronotum or to anterior margin of pronotum, varying in width. Setation on T2 varies from being overall black medially and silvery-white laterally to having distinct silvery-white patches anterolaterally in addition to the previously mentioned pattern; some specimens might have denser setae covering the posterior integumental spots on T2. Fringes vary from being silvery-white medially and laterally on all terga to being completely black medially on T2 and/or T3. The integumental spots on T2 can be quadrate or rounded varying from yellow to orange to red; The anterior spots can be greatly reduced, almost absent, to large enough as to be confluent internally and with posterior spots; posterior spots are always well-defined and vary from being small and well-separated to being large and confluent internally. MALES. Body integument is typically completely black or at most with a pair of poorly defined medially confluent reddish spots on T2; tibial spurs always yellowish-white; wings usually brownish-hyaline, slightly darker apicad with brown veins; some specimens might have lighter or darker wings. Head setation can be completely black, completely silvery-white or with a silvery-white patch on the frons. Pronotal setation varies from completely silvery-white to completely black; mesonotal setation is always black, propodeal setation varies from completely silvery-white, to a pair of dense lateral patches of silvery-white, to very sparse patches of silvery-white laterally; T1 always has silvery-white setae posteriorly and varying in density; T2 always has silvery-white setae anterolaterally varying in density; setation on the fringes of T2–5 varies from being predominantly silvery-white and interrupted with black medially to being mostly black with silvery-white restricted to lateral patches; silvery-white setae on T5 is always comparatively reduced.

Material examined. (651♀ 205♂) Type material. Lectotype (designated here): Mutilla ocellaris   , ♀, Brazil, [Pará], Cametá, Sieber ( ZMB); Holotype: Mutilla polita   , ♂, Brazil, Amaz. [sic!] ( BMNH); Holotype: Mutilla trinacria   , ♀, BRAZIL, Parana [sic!], Burm. S., ( ZMB); Lectotype (designated here): Mutilla gemina   , ♀, Brazil, [Rio Grande do Sul], Alegrete, Sello. [sic] ( ZMB); Lectotype (designated here): Mutilla cuyana   , ♀, Argentina, Mendoza ( MACN); Lectotype: Mutilla lasiogastra   , ♀, Argentina, Cordova ( MACN): Lectotype: Mutilla acara   , ♂, Brazil, [Pará], Santarém ( CMNH). Additional materiral: COLOMBIA, Cesar, Becerril, sandy trail, 1♀, 24.VII.1968 ( EMUS); BRAZIL: Mato Grosso do Sul: Três Lagoas: Horto Rio Verde , 1♀, 15.IV.2000, K.H. Mohri ( FEIS)   , Faz. [Fazenda] Canaã, marg. esq. [margem esquerda] rio Sucuriú , 1♀, I.1967, F. Lane ( MZSP)   , Fazenda Dr. [Doutor] José Mendes , 1♀, 02.II.1964, Exp. Depto. Zool. [Expedição Departamento de Zoologia] ( MZSP)   ; [Porto] Murtinho , 1♀ ( ZMB)   ; Corumbá , 1♀ ( MNCN)   ; Salôbra , 1♀, 19– 30.I.1941, F. Lane ( MNCN)   ; Dourados, Assentamento Lagoa Gr. [Grande], 425m [meters above sea level, 1♀ and 1♂ [in copula], 1.I.2018, Lopez. V. eq. [equipe] (MuBio-Hym: 00540-M and 00541-M)   ; Amazonas: Humaitá, Ipixuna , 07°31’18’’S 63°20’48.8’’W, 1♀, 02.X.2014 ( INPA) GoogleMaps   ; 26km N. [26 kilometers north of] Manaus , 1♀, 04–09.XI.1991, E.M. Fisher ( CSCA)   ; Bahia, Encruzilhada , 15°32’25’’S 40°50’12’’W, 1♂, 10–12.XII.2007, J.A. Rafael, P.C. Grossi & D.R. Parizotto ( INPA) GoogleMaps   ; Ceará, Ubajara, PN [Parque Nacional] Ubajara , 21–24.IV.2012, Cavichioli, R.R. ( DZUP)   ; Goiás, Rio Araguaya , 1♀ ( MNRJ)   ; Maranhão, Carolina , 3♀, 08.VIII.1953 ( MNRJ)   ; Mato Grosso: Rio Caraguatá , 1♀, III.1953, E. Blauman ( LACM)   ; Barra do Bugre , 2♀, VII.1973, B. Dias ( EMUS)   ; Rosário Oeste , 1♀, XI.1971 ( MZSP)   ; Chapada dos Guimarães , 1♀, 15.XI.2013, Melo, G.A.R., Luz, D.R. & Williams, K.A. ( DZUP)   ; Diamantino, Fazenda São João , 1♀, 08.II.1981 ( CMNH)   ; Nova Mutum, Fazenda Buriti , 1♀, 9.VII.1997, Ribeiro, G.C. & Mendes, H.F. ( DZUP)   ; Pará: Gorotire, Xingú , 1♀, VIII.1978 ( MPEG)   ; Tucuruí , Rio   Tocantins, Canoal- Capoeira , 1♀, 01.III.1984 ( MPEG)   ; Primavera, Quatipuru, Faz. [Fazenda] Feitoria , 1♂, 27-28.XI.1992, J. Dias ( MPEG)   ; Serra Norte, Manganês , 1♂, 06-09.IX.1985, Mar- celo Zanuto ( MPEG)   ; Almeirim , 1♀, 10.IV.1903, Ducke ( MPEG)   ; Itaituba, Parque Nac. [Nacional] Amazonia , 1♀, 12.XI.1978, R.B. Neto ( MPEG)   ; Monte Alegre , 1♀, 13.XII.1908, Ducke ( MPEG)   ; Pedras, Rio Cuminá , 1♀, 01.X.1969, Exp. Perm.Amaz. [Expedição Permanente à Amazônia] ( MPEG)   ; Santarém , 3♀, VII.1919, S.M. Klages ( CMNH)   ; Rondônia: Itapuã do Oeste, Flona do Jamari , 6♀, 11.VI.2013, Luz, D., Rosa, B., Williams, K.A. ( DZUP)   ; Porto Velho, Teotônio , 08°50’29’’S 64°03’46’’W, 2♀, 18.VI.2013, Fernandes, I.O. ( INPA) GoogleMaps   ; 62 km SW [kilometers southwest of] Ariquemes, nr [near] Fzda [Fazenda], Rancho Grande , 3♀, 01-17.XI.1997, B.K. Dozier ( FSCA)   ; Rio Grande do Sul: Alegrete , 1♀, 19.I.2009, P.R. Bartholomay ( CESC)   ; Ibirapuitã , 1♀, 27.XII.2007, R. Sühs ( CESC)   ; Santo Amaro , 1♀, 25.I.2009, P.R. Bartholomay ( CESC)   ; Viamão , 1♀, 03.I.1964, F.R. Meyer ( CESC)   ; Pelotas , 1♀, 18.XII.1961, C.M. Biezanko ( BMNH)   ; Porto Alegre , 1♀ ( CESC)   ; São Paulo: Mirante do Paranapanema , 1♀, 22.I.1998, S.R. Rodrigues ( FEIS)   ; T. [Teodoro] Sampaio, Pq. [Parque] Est. [Estadual] Morro do Diablo , 2♀, 6.XII.2010, Melo, G.A.R., Luz, D. ( DZUP)   ; PERU, Tingo Maria , 1♀, XI.1962 ( MNCN)   ; BOLIVIA: Santa Cruz: 40 km NW [kilometers northwest of]   Santa Cruz, Potrerillos de Guenda , 1♀, 05-20.XI.2004, B.K. Dozier ( FSCA)   ; Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 450m [meters above sea level], 8♀, XI.1910, J. Steinbach ( CMNH)   ; 11km N [kilometers north of] Boyuibe , 2900’[sic], 20°23.75’S 63°22.22’W, malaise, 2♀ 4♂, 05.III.1999 ( EMUS) GoogleMaps   ; 24km S [kilometers south of] Camiri , 3550’[sic], 20°18.81’S 63°28.55’W, 1♀, 04.III.1999 ( EMUS) GoogleMaps   ; 30km N [kilometers north of] Brazilio , 1750’[sic], 18°06.82’S 63°10.51W, 2♀ 4♂, 27.II-08.III.1999 ( EMUS) GoogleMaps   ; 5km SSE [kilometers south-south- east of], Buena Vista , Hotel Flaura Y Fauna, 17°30’S 63°39’W, FIT [flight intercept trap], 440m [meters above sea level], 15-24.XII.2003 ( EMUS) GoogleMaps   ; 3 km N [kilometers north of] Basilo , 1♀, 07.III.1999, L.A. Stange ( FSCA)   ; El Palmar Oratorio , 1♂, 25.I.1980, LA Stange ( FSCA)   ; Villa Montes [Villamontes], 1♀, II.1930, Eisentraut S.G. ( ZMB)   ; Puerto Suarez , 150m [meters above sea level], 1♀, XII.1908 ( CMNH)   ; Beni: 4 km [kilometers] above Costa Marques, Rio Itenez , 1♀, 12-18.IX.1964, J.K. Bouseman & J. Lussenhop ( AMNH)   ; ca. 20km W. [circa 20 kilometers West] of Larangeiras [Laranjeiras] in Brazil , 1♀, 05.VIII.1964, John K. Bouseman & John Lussenhop ( INHS)   ; Rurenabaque , 270m [meters above sea level], 18–23.VII.1979, M. Cooper ( BMNH)   ; Chuquisaca, 5 mi S [miles South of] Camarga , 1♀, 19.II.1951 ( AMNH)   ; La Paz, Rio   Beni, San Buenaventura , 270m [meters above sea level], 1♀, 22.IV.1979, M. Cooper ( BMNH)   ; PARAGUAY: Distrito Capital, Assomption [Assunción], 1♀, 10.IV–20.V.1936 ( RBINS)   ; Amambay, Parque Nacional Cerro Corá , 1♀, II.1981, R.D. Cave ( USNM)   ; Caaguazu, Caaguazu, 1♂, XII.1977, Fritz ( AMNH)   ; Caazapa, Colonia Neufield , 1♀, 24.IX.2008, U. Dreschel ( FSCA)   ; Central, Caacupe Agricultural Experimental Station , 1♀, 11.V.1986, R.E. Woodruff ( FSCA)   ; San Bernardino , 1♀, 9.III, K. Fiebrig S.V. ( ZMB)   ; Teniente Enciso , 1♀, 02.XI.2001, G. Arriagada ( FSCA)   ; Alto Paraguay, Cerra Leon , 1♂, X.1979, Fritz ( AMNH)   ; Kanindeyu [Canindeyú], Tava Yopoi , 24°22’S 55°53’W, 6♀, 26.X-04.XI.2007 ( EMUS) GoogleMaps   ; Paraguari: E [East] of Ybicai , 10♀, 02.IV.2006 ( EMUS)   ; La Rosada , 560’[sic], 26°06’S 56°50’W, 1♀, 27-30.XII.2008, U. Dreschel ( EMUS) GoogleMaps   ; Presidente Hayes: Lolita, Yaragui , 23°06’S 59°38’W, 1♀, 05.III.2003, U. Dreschel ( EMUS) GoogleMaps   ; Filadelfia , 2♀, I.1995, Arriagada ( EMUS)   ; Loma Plata , 2♀, II.1993, Arriagada ( AMNH)   ; San Pedro, Cororó, Rio Ypane , 2♀ 6♂, XI.1979 ( EMUS)   ; URUGUAY, Rio Negro, Arroyo Negro, 15km S [kilometers South of]   Paysandu: 2♀, 01–06.I.1963, R.G. Van Gelder ( EMUS)   ; 7♂, 27.XII.1962, R.G. Van Gelder ( AMNH)   ; AR- GENTINA: Mendoza, Desaguadero , 1♀, 28.II.2005, R. Barrera ( EMUS)   ; Estacion Santa Rosa , 1♀, Jensen-Haarup ( ZMUC)   ; Mendoza , 1♀ 2♂, Jensen-Haarup ( ZMUC)   ; Salta: 10km S [kilometers South of] Cafayate , MT [Malaise Trap], 1664m [meters above sea level], 26°09.05’S 65°57.31’W, 29♀ 52♂, 24.X-12.XI.2003 ( EMUS) GoogleMaps   ; 8km N [kilometers north of] La Viña , 1171m [meters above sea level], 23°23.77’S 65°32.67’W, 2♀ 2♂, 26.X-13.XI.2003 ( EMUS) GoogleMaps   ; Alemania , 1♀, II.1983 ( EMUS)   ; Cnel. [Coronel] Moldes , 1♀, I.1994, M.A. Fritz ( AMNH)   ; El Brete , 1♀, IV.1994, di Lorio ( AMNH)   ; El Carril , 25°04’60’’S 65°28’W, 2♀, 14.ii.1986, G.J. Williner ( CSCA) GoogleMaps   ; Pocitos , 9♂, 5.II.1971, Fritz ( AMNH)   ; Rio Santa Maria , 1♀, 21.XII.2004, Carpenter & Davidson ( AMNH)   ; Rosario de Lerma , 1♀ 1♂, I.1983, M.A. Fritz ( AMNH)   ; San Carlos , 1♀, 23.I.1950, Monroe & Willink ( LACM)   ; Sumalao , 3♀, III.1995, M.A. Fritz ( AMNH)   ; Tartagal , 1♀ 9♂, XI.1971, Fritz ( AMNH)   ; San Juan, Basilion Nievas , 1♂, 10.XI.1998, H. Navarrete ( AMNH)   ; San Luis, Arizona , 4♀ 3♂, II.1980, M.A. Fritz ( AMNH)   ; Beazely [sic] to San Rafael , 1♂, 4.III.1983, Pena ( AMNH)   ; San Jeronimo , 1♂, I.1979, Williner ( AMNH)   ; Santa Fé: Rosario , 1♀, 23.I.1918, J. Hubrich ( CISC)   ; Granja , 3♂, 2.I.1922 ( UMSP)   ; Santiago del Estero: Barranacas, Bañados de Rio Dulce , 60km O D’Icaño [kilometers West of Icaño], 1♀, 1909, E.R. Wagner ( MNHN)   ; Fernández , 1♀, XII.1935 ( EMUS)   ; Rio Hondo, Terma , 1♀, 30.XII.1975, R. M. Bohart ( UCDC)   ; Tucumán: 11km N [kilometers north of] Cadillal , 3♀, 25.III.1990, J.G. Rozen & A. Roig ( AMNH)   ; 4km S [kilometers South of] Capitan Cáceres , 430m [me- ters above sea level], 27°13.54’S 65°38.34’W, 18♀ 17♂, 24.X-12.XI.2003, Irwin & Parker ( EMUS) GoogleMaps   ; Amaicha del Valle , 1♀, 28.XII.1965, H. & M. Townes ( EMUS)   ; Tapia , 600m [meters above sea level], 5♀, 03.IV.1902 ( EMUS)   ; An additional 190♀ 7♂ from Brazil, 51♀ 6♂ from Bolivia , 84♀ 2♂ from Paraguay, 53♂ 138♀ from Argentina, and 4♀ 7♂ from Uruguay were also examined ( EMUS, AMNH, FSCA, UCDC, ZMB, MNHN, USNM, UMSP, MNCN, CUIC, CISC, DEI, MZSP, MNRJ, DZUP, ANSP, MPEG, CESC, CMNH, UFGD)  

Distribution. Colombia (possibly mislabeled specimen), Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay and Argentina.

Host. Bembicinae   ( Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Spheciformes   , Crabronidae   , Bicyrtes Lelepletier, 1845   )

Biological notes. Sand nests were excavated in an area of cerrado stricto sensu in the the district of Itahum, Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (21 ° 59’S 55 ° 19’W), midwestern Brazil. The nesting area was in sandy soil with sparse vegetation, exposed to the sun. One of the excavated cells belonged to an unidentified Bembicinae   sand wasp from which a T. ocellaris   female emerged (vouchers deposited at MuBio-UFGD). Multiple T. ocellaris   were commonly observed at the same site between October 2014 and March 2016. Specimens appeared to be more abundant between 07:30-11:00 and 15:30-18:00. Females were usually seen moving rapidly on the ground, vibrating the antennae anteriorly towards the ground and, for a short period, rubbing the lateral felt lines on T2 with their hind legs. Rubbing of the felt line frequently intensified after the arrival of males at the site and the presence of males appeared to increase upon this behaviour by the females.

Remarks. The lectotypes of Mutilla ocellaris   , Mutilla gemina   , Mutilla cuyana   , and Mutilla lasiogastra   are herein being officially designated because although the specimens were labelled as lectotypes by Mickel ( Figs. 32–35 View FIGURES 26–36 ), the taxonomic acts were never published. Regarding the type of Mutilla acara, Cresson (1916)   provided a list of all the types of Hymenoptera   described by the author along with the collection number of the specimen considered by him to be the “types”. We argue that these specimens can be considered as the holotypes of Cresson’s species since it was the author himself that designated and labeled them as “type” ( Fig. 45 View FIGURES 43–55 ). This species seems to be widespread in the Pampas, Chaco, and Cerrado areas of South America, with some populations being found as far North as Amazon areas in Brazil ( Figs. 56 View FIGURE 56 , 79 View FIGURE 79 ). One record is made to Becerril, Cesar Department in Colombia, although we suspect that might be a case of mislabeled specimen. Such a wide distribution range explains the highly variable color patterns observed in both sexes of T. ocellaris   . Examination of the types of T. trinacria   , T. gemina   , T. cuyana   , T. lasiogastra   and T. ocellaris   , revealed them to be structurally similar and varying only in minor setae and color differences with multiple intermediate color forms found between species. In fact, these five species form a clear color gradient from south to north with T. cuyana   and T. ocellaris   being at each extreme of the color spectrum. There is a clear tendency for the males to have predominantly black setae in southern specimens whilst northern specimens, formerly known as T. acara   , have predominantly silvery-white setae. Several intermediate color forms for the males of this species have been found, but each has identical genitalic characters to T. acara   . The association of T. acara   with T. ocellaris   was based on mating pairs found in the MNCN collection and observed in situ by VL. Separating females of T. ocellaris   from T. quadrum   can be difficult in certain areas of Brazilian Cerrado due to their overall morphological similarities in the shape of the mesosoma.

Traumatomutilla ocellaris   is perhaps one of the most variable species in South America, with males and females having different color forms throughout their distribution. That, associated with their frequently overlapping distribution with T. quadrum   makes it difficult to tell females of these species apart even when using structural characters. Females of T. ocellaris   tend to have the frontal and mesosomal dorsal sculpture finer, denser, and smaller than females of T. quadrum   . The front almost always finely, densely foveolate-punctate in T. ocellaris   and coarsely, sparsely areolate-punctate in T. quadrum   . This difference in sculpture is also found on the mesosoma, but there are more exceptions in T. ocellaris   . Most specimens of T. ocellaris   also have distinct setose areas posterolaterally on S2, which have obvious micropunctures varying in density between specimens and that are not present in T. quadrum   to the best of our knowledge.Also, there appears to be a tendency for the lateral carinae of the pygidial plate to be more sharply defined and longer in T. quadrum   females than in T. ocellaris   . The sculpture of T1, as indicated in the key above, is apparently the only consistent trait for differentiating these species, as even when the setae are obliterated in T. ocellaris   , dense micropunctures can still be seen.


Museum für Naturkunde Berlin (Zoological Collections)


Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia


The Cleveland Museum of Natural History


Sao Paulo, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo


Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales


Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia


California State Collection of Arthropods


Universidade Federal do Parana, Colecao de Entomologia Pe. Jesus Santiago Moure


Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro


Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County


Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi


Florida State Collection of Arthropods, The Museum of Entomology


American Museum of Natural History


Illinois Natural History Survey


Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen


University of Minnesota Insect Collection


Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle


R. M. Bohart Museum of Entomology














Traumatomutilla ocellaris ( Klug, 1821 )

Bartholomay, Pedro R., Williams, Kevin A., Lopez, Vinicius M. & Oliveira, Marcio L. 2019

Traumatomutilla cuyana: André, 1904 : 40

Andre, E. 1904: 40

Traumatomutilla lasiogastra: André, 1904 : 40

Andre, E. 1904: 40

Traumatomutilla gemina: André, 1904 : 40

Andre, E. 1904: 40

Traumatomutilla trinacria: André, 1904 : 40

Andre, E. 1904: 40

Traumatomutilla acara: André, 1904 : 40

Andre, E. 1904: 40

Traumatomutilla ocellaris: André, 1904 : 40

Andre, E. 1904: 40

Mutilla acara

Cresson, E. T. 1902: 79

Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) cuyana: André, 1902 : 55

Andre, E. 1902: 55

Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) gemina: André, 1902 : 55

Andre, E. 1902: 55

Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) lasiogastra: André, 1902 : 55

Andre, E. 1902: 55

Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) ocellaris: André, 1902 : 55

Andre, E. 1902: 55

Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) acara: André, 1902 : 56

Andre, E. 1902: 56

Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) trinacria: André, 1902 : 57

Andre, E. 1902: 57

Mutilla polita: André, 1902 : 74

Andre, E. 1902: 74

Mutilla lasiogastra

Burmeister, H. C. C. 1875: 475

Mutilla cuyana

Burmeister, H. C. C. 1875: 475

Mutilla trinacria

Gerstaecker, A. 1874: 68

Mutilla gemina

Gerstaecker, A. 1874: 69

Mutilla polita

Smith, F. 1855: 48

Mutilla ocellaris

Klug, J. C. F. 1821: 321