Eupelmus (Eupelmus) pervius, Gibson. ALLOTYPE, 2011

Gibson, Gary A. P., 2011, 2951, Zootaxa 2951, pp. 1-97 : 66-71

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Eupelmus (Eupelmus) pervius

sp. nov.

11. Eupelmus (Eupelmus) pervius n. sp.

Figs 30, 40, 45−47, 51, 60, 66, 69, 72, 78; Map 12

Type material. HOLOTYPE (♀, LACM). [ USA] CA. [California], San Diego Co., 5 mi. W. Escondido, 7.II.1977, D. C. Pierce / collected from Yucca whipplei / LACM ENT 266844 / Holotype Eupelmus (Eupelmus) pervius Gibson. ALLOTYPE (♂, LACM). CA., San Diego Co., 3 mi. E. Fallbrook, 7.II.1977, D. C. Pierce, reared from Yucca whipplei pods 12.II.1977, LACM ENT 267146 / Allotype Eupelmus (Eupelmus) pervius Gibson.

PARATYPES (251♀, 182♂). USA. Parasite in l. [larva] of Macrancylus linearis Lec. , a snout beetle from Yucca stems, [?] Mrch 0/87 (1♀ USNM). AF-1, 26.II.77 (1♀ LACM). AJ-11, 5.III.77 (1♀ LACM). E-4, 5.II.77 (1♂ LACM). Frnck, 72-25 (1♀ LACM). ARIZONA: Joshua Tree National Forest, em. 24.III-5.IV.64, N. Sloan, ex pods of Yucca brevifolia (2♀ AEIC). Coconino Co., Williams, U.S.D.A. 9245 — Yucca (6♀ USNM); 1.VIII.01, chalcid on Praetonus coloradensis ?, 9425 02 (1♀ USNM). Williams, 9245 0 — 8.VII.01 (3♀ USNM); 8.VIII.01 on Prodoxus (2♀ USNM); Barber & Schwarz, on Prodoxus in Yucca (1♀ USNM). Santa Cruz Co., Patagonia , 31.53ºN 110.77ºW, 23.X.94, B. Brown & E. Wilk (1♀ LACM). CALIFORNIA: Inyo Co., Darwin Falls — 17.V.70, E.E. Grissell, Eriogonum inflatum (1♀ UCDC); 9.IV.73, R.M. Bohart, Salix (1♀ UCDC); 24.V.80, N.J. Smith & A.J. Gilbert (1♀ UCDC). Los Angeles Co., June, July, September, 96 o (5♀, 2♂ USNM). Claremont, 14.II.77, D.C. Force, Yucca whipplei pods — collected from (4♀, 7♂ LACM); reared 14, 26.II.77, 14, 18, 22, 26.III.77 (8♀, 13♂ LACM). 1 mi. S. Coldbrook Station, San Gabriel Canyon, 12.III.72, D.C. Frack, reared from Y. whipplei pods (1♀, 1♂ LACM). E. Fork Road, 0.4 mi. E. San Gabriel Canyon Road, 14.II.77, D.C. Force, reared from Y. whipplei pods 30.V.77 (1♀ LACM). Gorman, 16.IV.79, D.C. Force, reared from Yucca brevifolia pods (4♀, 1♂ LACM). Mount Baldy Village, 14.II.77, D.C. Force, Y. whipplei pods — collected from (4♀, 1♂ LACM); reared 14.II.77, 5, 22.III.77 (4♀, 1♂ LACM). Placerita Canyon Park, Walker Ranch, 34º38'N 118º44'W, 21.VII- 2.VIII.99, B. Brown & I. Swift (1♀ UCRC). San Gabriel Canyon, Rincon Guard Station, Camp Rincon, 12 mi. N. canyon entrance, 11.V.46, San Gabriel Canyon Biological Suvery (7♀, 3♂ LACM). Monterey Co., 6 mi. N. Santa Lucia Memorial Park on Indians Arroyo Seco road, 13, 14, 15, 22.XII.66, H.B. Leech, emerged from dead stem of Y. whipplei (7♀, 3♂ CASC). Orange Co., Hwy 74, 16 mi. E. freeway 5, 17.I.77, D.C. Force, reared from Y. whipplei pods 18, 29.I.77, 5, 12, 26.II.77, 18.III.77 (11♀, 14♂ LACM). Santa Ana Mountains , 6.II.72, D.C. Frick (6♀, 5♂ LACM). Santiago Canyon, 17.I.77, D.C. Force, reared from Y. whipplei pods 18, 21, 29.I.77, 5, 19, 26.II.77 (19♀, 20♂ LACM). Silverado Canyon, 17.I.77, D.C. Force, reared from Y. whipplei pods 18, 21, 29.I.77, 5, 12, 16, 26.II.77, 18.III.77 (14♀, 15♂ LACM). Riverside Co., ex Yucca stems (2♀ USNM). Bautista Canyon, D.C. Force, Y. whipplei pods — 24.I.77, collected from (5♀, 3♂ LACM); 24.I.77, reared 29.I.77 ( CNC Photo 2010-62), 5, 12.II.77, 22.III.77 (8♀, 8♂ LACM); 23.IV.77, collected from (1♀, 2♂); 14.IV.78, collected from (1♂ LACM). Stream from junction Deep Creek & Horsethief Creek to 0.5 mi. N. junction Deep Canyon, Sec. 6, T. 7S, R.6E, 11.IV.75, J.B. Tucker (1♂ UCRC). Hwy 74, 5.3 mi. W. Lake Elsinore lookout, 24.I.77, D.C. Force, reared from Y. whipplei pods, 24.I.77, 12.II.77, 5.III.77 (6♀, 3♂ LACM). Mayhew Canyon, 1 mi. S. Glen Ivy Hot Springs, 19.II.66, G.R. Ballmer, ex Yucca stalk (4♀, 1♂ UCRC). Menifee Valley, hills on W. end, 33º39'N 117º13'W — 20.VII-27.VIII.80, J.D. Pinto (1♀ CNC Photo 2010-63); 3-17.VII.81 (1♀), 1.X-8.XI.81 (2♀), J.D. Pinto; 1- 30.IX.81, Woolley, Huber & Pinto (1♀); 1800', 29.V.78, J.D. Pinto, Keckiella (1♀ UCRC, CNC Photo 2010-53); 1800', 7.XII.80, 19-31.VII.95, 1-29.II.96, J.D. Pinto (4♀ UCRC). Palm Springs, 19.IV.24, ex Lepidoptera in Y. whipplei, L. Bruner (1♂ UCRC). Pinyon Flat campground, 26.XI.71, R.C. Frack, reared from Y. whipplei galls (1♂ LACM). Riverside — 22, 24.XI.72, G. Gordh, ex Y. whipplei pods (2♀, 1♂ UCRC); 28 mi. S., 12.XII.72, G. Gordh, ex Yucca sp. (1♀, 1♂ UCRC); 30 mi. S., 16.XII.72, Gordh & Pinto, ex Y. scyoigera (5♀, 2♂ UCRC). San Bernardino National Forest, 8.XI.37, J.E. Patterson, Hopk. U.S. 31978-1A, Lot No. 88-17957 (1♂ USNM). San Bernardino National Forest, Bautista Canyon — 2.III.79, J.D. Pinto (1♀ UCRC); 8.VIII.88, A. de la Garza, Yucca sp. (1♀ UCRC); 750 m, 33º39'57"N 118º49'50"W, 4.X.2008, E. Murray (4♀, 2♂ UCRC). Junction 234 & Twin Pine Road, 24.I.77, D.C. Force, reared from Y. whipplei pods 29.I.77 (1♀ LACM). Valle Vista, 8 mi. E., 24.I.77, D.C. Force, reared from Y. whipplei pods 29.I.77, 5, 19.II.77 (1♀, 3♂ LACM). San Bernardino Co., Baker, 14 mi. SE, 18.V.82, sweep desert willow, lava beds, J.B. Woolley (1♀). Devore [Heights], 23.X.77, J.B. Woolley (12♀, 12♂ CNC; 2♀ 2♂ LACM). Helendale, 21.V.55, W.R.M. Mason (1♀). Junction Route 138-195, 24.VII.71, D.C. Frack, reared from Y. whipplei pods (1♀ LACM). Kelso, 7.V.77, L.E. Guenther (1♀ UCDC). Lone Pine Canyon, W.L. Thompson — coll. 21.II.77, reared from Y. whipplei 29.IV.77 (5♀, 2♂ LACM); 4.VIII.77, collected from Y. whipplei (6♀ LACM). Mill Creek Canyon, Hwy 38 — 34º06'02"N 117º01'29"W, 994 m, 27.IX.2008, L. Bemiker (1♀ UCRC); 34º06'01"N 117º01'29"W, 996 m, 27.IV.2008, E. Murray (1♀ UCRC); 34º05'59"N 117º01'59"W, 996 m, 27.IX.2008 (3♀ UCRC), 23.XI.2008 E.S. Ballman (3♀, 1♂ UCRC; ♀ CNC Photo 2010-26, ♂ CNC Photo 2010- 27). Morongo Valley, 29.I.39, W.D. Pierce, Cleistoyucca arborescens (1♀, 1♂ LACM). San Gabriel Mountains, 1 mi. N. Mount Baldy Village, 4.II.65, R.J. Hamton (2♀, 1♂ CASC; ♀ CNC Photo 2010-55, 2010-56). San Diego Co., 4.9 mi. E. junction Hwy 99 & 188 on 94, 26.I.78, C. Force, reared from Y. whipplei pods 6.III.78 (1♂ LACM). Junction Hwy 15 & S-13, 7.II.77, C. Force, reared from Y. whipplei pods 26.II.77 (2♀, 3♂ LACM). Hwy 79, Oak Grove, 29.VIII.76, C. Force, reared from Y. whipplei pods 5.II.77 (1♀, 2♂ LACM). Border, Cleveland National Forest, Hwy 78, 7.II.77, D.C. Force, reared from Y. whipplei pods 12, 19.II.77 (4♂ LACM). Rd 79, 2 mi. S. Julian, 7.II.77, C. Force, reared from Y. whipplei pods, 19, 26.II.77, 18.III.77 (1♀, 2♂ LACM).. Fallbrook, 2 mi. W., 7.II.77, C. Force, Y. whipplei pods — collected from (1♂ LACM); reared 12 (♂ CNCI LB-specm 2010-009), 29, 26.II.77 (3♀, 2♂ LACM); Fallbrook, 3 mi. E., 7.II.77, C. Force, Y. whipplei pods — collected from (5♀, 4♂, LACM); reared 12, 19.II.77, 5, 14.III.77 (6♀, 10♂ LACM). Fallbrook, 5 mi. W., 7.II.77, C. Force, Y. whipplei pods — collected from (4♀, 4♂ LACM); reared 12, 19, 26.II.77, 14, 18.III.77 (7♀, 4♂ LACM). Santa Ysabel , 0.5 mi. E., 7.II.77, C. Force, reared from Y. whipplei pods, 19.II.77 (1♂ LACM). Scissors Xing [Crossing], 3 mi. W.R. & A.R. Hardy (1♀ CASC). Tulare Co., Ash Mountain Kwh Power Station #3 — 9.IX.82, R.D. Haines (1♀, 1♂); 20.II.83, J.A. Halstead (1♀). NEW MEXICO: Chaves Co., Mescalero Sands, 3.VI.74, H. Evans (1♀ CSUC). Hidalgo Co., mile 4.1, Hwy 9, VII.98, Gates & Carey (1♀ UCRC). Valencia Co., 20 mi. W. Los Lunas, Carrizo Arroyo, 1- 23.VIII.77, S. & J. Peck & M. Talong (1♂). TEXAS: Brewster Co., Big Bend National Park — through Canyon, 16.VI.91, R. Wharton (1♀); 0.5 mi. in Glenn Spring Road, 3000', 23.VI.82, G.A.P. Gibson (1♀); Panther Junction,

12 mi. SE, 2500', 10-16.VII.82, G.A.P. Gibson (1♀). San Patricio Co., Welder Wildlife Refuge near Verna Mills, 3.V.89, J. Heraty (1♂ UCRC). Travis Co., vicinity Long Hollow Creek, 30º27'43"N 97º52'19"W, 13.VII.94, on Quercus virginiana, M. Quinn, E. Riley & R. Wharton (1♀ TAMU). Zapata Co., Falcon State Park, 250', 5.VII.82, G. Gibson (1♂). UTAH: Washington Co., Shivwitts, 37.032ºN 113.913ºW, coll. 2.X.2003, em. 13.V.2005 [?], D.M. Althoff — ex Prodoxus weethumpi from fruit Y. brevifolia , #1469 (1♀), #1685 (1♀), #1688 (1♂); ex Prodoxus sordidus from inflorescence stalk Y. brevifolia, 1660 (1♂), 1659 (1♂), 1663 (1♀).

Uncertain species identity, excluded from type series. USA. ARIZONA: Cochise Co., Bisbee , 1.VI.33, Bryant, em. 1.VI.33 ex Agave weevil? (1♀ CASC; ovipositor sheath: marginal vein length = 1.4×). Pinal Co., Ray, 1.III.14, H. Bar[?], par. in Prodoxus in stem of Agave (1♀ USNM; ovipositor sheath: marginal vein length = 1.3×). CALIFORNIA: Santa Clare Co., Stevens Creek Park, 15.II.76, R.T. Ross, ex Baccharis gall (1♀ UCDC; ovipositor sheath: marginal vein length = 1.07×). TEXAS: Travis Co., Austin, Bilker Park, 20.IX.86, J. Heraty (1♀ TAMU; ovipositor sheath: marginal vein length = 1.1×).

Etymology. From the Latin word pervius (affording a passage, or open) in reference to the linea calva of females that is often open posteriorly to the vanal area.

Description. FEMALE ( Fig. 40). Length about 2.9−6.0 mm. Head ( Fig. 30) mostly metallic green or green with blue to purple region laterally along inner orbit to variably distinctly and extensively dark mesally below ocelli and green to bluish-green laterally along inner orbit, and then also one or more of parascrobal region, interantennal region and clypeal region also variably extensively dark; maxillary and labial palpi dark brown. Antenna with scape usually dark with variably distinct metallic green luster though rarely dark orangey-brown apically; pedicel dark brown except usually for slight metallic luster, and flagellum dark brown. Mesosoma with tegula brown or dark with slight metallic luster, otherwise metallic green to bluish-green similar to head except lateral lobe dorsolongitudinally, scutellum variably extensively, and convex or concave part of medial mesoscutal lobe often dark to reddish-coppery and acropleuron often darker brown with less distinct metallic luster than mesonotum. Forewing hyaline; venation yellowish-brown; setae uniformly brownish or sometimes lighter in basal cell and on submarginal vein. Front leg with trochanter brown; femur dark brown or, more commonly, trochantellus and extreme apex lighter, usually yellowish; tibia often entirely yellowish or with dorsal and ventral brown regions, but sometimes brown in smaller specimens except knee and apically more widely yellowish; tarsus yellowish except for apical brown tarsomere to uniformly brown. Middle leg with dark mesotibial apical pegs and mesotarsal pegs, otherwise often yellowish to yellowish-orange at least beyond coxa and sometimes including coxa, or femur and tibia in part more distinctly brownish, but knee, tibia apically, and at least basal tarsomere lighter yellowish to white. Hind leg with trochanter yellowish to dark brown; femur with trochantellus and apex variably extensively yellowish to yellowish-orange, often more so dorsoapically, but at least about basal half dark brown; tibia usually more or less dark brown mesally with knee and up to about apical third yellowish to white, though sometimes more extensively yellowish at least ventrally; tarsus with at least basitarsus white and apical tarsomere brown, but tarsomeres 2−4 variably white to dark brown. Gaster entirely dark brown or at most with distinct metallic green luster anteriorly on basal tergum and laterally on terga, and with brown hairlike setae similar in color to cuticle; ovipositor sheaths with short dark basal region abruptly delineated from much lighter region, the lighter region sometimes almost uniformly yellowish to only very slightly brownish apically, but usually more or less distinctly differentiated into lighter colored medial region and darker brown apical region, with the darker apical region often definitely shorter than medial region.

Head ( Fig. 30) with frons at least very finely, usually quite distinctly, meshlike reticulate to somewhat reticulate-imbricate, even mesally below anterior ocellus, and usually merged into parascrobal region through slight undulation though sometimes smoothly merged in smaller specimens; vertex variably transversely alutaceousimbricate in smaller specimens to transversely reticulate or reticulate-strigose in larger specimens, but broadly rounded into occiput; scrobal depression reticulate-rugulose to transversely reticulate-strigose; IOD = 0.35−0.41× head width; OOL: POL: LOL: MPOD = 0.5−1.0: 2.1−3.0: 1.5−1.9: 1.0. Antenna with combined length of pedicel + flagellum about 1.1−1.2× head width; scape about 4.6−5.2× as long as wide, in outer view ventral margin often almost straight and angulate but sometimes slightly sinuate with very slender, inconspicuous flange over about apical half; pedicel in lateral view about 2.0−2.3× as long as wide; fl1 slightly transverse to quadrate; fl2 about 2.1−2.9× as long as wide and about 3.0−4.3× as long as fl1; subsequent funiculars increasing in width to slightly transverse or quadrate fl8; clava about 2.0−2.5× as long as wide, 0.8−0.9× combined length of apical three funiculars, and 0.25−0.33× length of funicle. Mesoscutum almost uniformly meshlike reticulate except lateral lobe more minutely coriaceous mediolongitudinally and mesoscutal medial lobe usually more transversely alutaceous-reticulate in smaller to reticulate-imbricate anteriorly in larger specimens. Scutellar-axillar complex with axillae obliquely alutaceous-reticulate to more coriaceous-imbricate, but at least scutellum mostly meshlike coriaceous to coriaceous- or somewhat reticulate-imbricate on either side of median. Prepectus extensively and usually quite conspicuously setose with slightly lanceolate white setae such that ventral-most line of setae close to ventral margin and/or apices of setae generally extend to ventral and/or dorsal margin (cf. Fig. 44). Acropleuron finely meshlike reticulate anterior and posterior of medial microsculptured region, the cells sometimes somewhat larger posteriorly than anteriorly but with flat surfaces defined by slightly raised ridges. Forewing (Figs 45−47) with linea calva usually continuous through vanal area or at least only narrowly closed by a few setae posteriorly, and then usually basal cell variably extensively bare apically adjacent to submarginal vein, mediocubital fold broadly bare, and often with variably distinct bare band extending at least partly along basal fold; costal cell (Figs 45−47) ventrally setose along length with 2 or 3 lines of setae medially, and dorsally bare or much more commonly setose apically along leading margin for distance usually little greater than length of parastigma or at most half length of cell; cc: mv: pmv: stv = 4.0−5.5: 3.7−5.5: 1.1−1.3: 1.0. Mesotibia with apical row of 4−6 pegs; mesotarsus ventrally with pegs on basal four tarsomeres, basitarsus with 12−18 pegs arranged distally in double row on either side, second tarsomere with 4−7, third tarsomere with 2−4, and apical tarsomere with 1 or 2 pegs on one side. Propodeum with U-shaped plical depression extending to foramen; callus variably densely and conspicuously setose, but often quite densely setose with comparatively long and slightly lanceolate white setae (Fig. 51). Gaster with inner plate of ovipositor extending at most extending slightly beyond apex; ovipositor sheaths about 0.77−0.97× length of metatibia and 0.84−1.2× length of marginal vein.

MALE (Fig. 60). Length about 1.8−3.6 mm. Head (Fig. 69) sometimes with at least scrobal depression dark, non-metallic or almost so, but at least frontovertex and gena under some angle of light variably distinctly and extensively metallic green to bluish-green; maxillary and labial palpi dark brown or apex of apical palpomeres at most yellowish-brown. Antenna dark brown except scape often and pedicel sometimes with slight metallic luster similar to head capsule. Mesosoma mostly metallic green to bluish-green similar to head, the tegula at least dark brown and often also variably distinctly metallic. Front leg mostly dark brown or dark with at least slight metallic luster similar to mesosoma except knee and tibia very narrowly apically, or posteroapical and anteroapical surfaces of tibia more widely yellowish to brownish-yellow, and tarsus yellow to dark brownish-yellow. Middle and hind legs dark except sometimes knees and apices of tibiae very narrowly, and basal 1−3 (usually basal 2 or 3) tarsomeres white. Forewing hyaline. Gaster with basal tergum sometimes metallic green to bluish-green basally, but remainder brown.

Head (Fig. 69) with frons shallowly but quite distinctly reticulate; scrobal depression extensively reticulate, the scrobes more finely meshlike coriaceous and interantennal region sometimes almost smooth and shiny; vertex rounded into occiput, often transversely reticulate-alutaceous to finely reticulate-strigose but without evident transverse carina. Head with IOD about 0.42−0.46× head width: OOL: POL: LOL: MPOD = 0.5−0.7: 2.6−3.2: 1.4−1.8: 1.0; lower face with sparse, straight white setae mesally, the setae between torulus and malar sulcus variably distinctly increasing in length but similarly sparse and evenly curved; gena with one much longer seta below malar sulcus. Antenna (Fig. 66) with scape ovoid, about 2.3−2.7× as long as maximum width, the outer surface ventrally with elongate, slender region of micropunctures along most or all of length of, but not basal to, scapular scrobe ( Fig. 78); length of pedicel + flagellum about 1.1−1.3× head width; pedicel about 1.3−1.5× as long as wide, ventrally with line of 5 or 6 distally curved setae; flagellum slender but at least slightly clavate with short setae more or less appressed to flagellomeres so at least not appearing conspicuously, densely setose and often appearing quite sparsely setose; fl1 transverse, ringlike, but usually quite distinct and with at least a single line of setae; fl2 about 1.5−1.9× as long as wide and subsequent funiculars decreasing in length and increasing slightly in width to only slightly longer than wide to quadrate fl8; clava broadly oval with micropilose sensory region occupying entire ventral surface (usually collapsed in air-dried specimens), about 2.2−2.5× as long as wide and about 0.7−0.8× as long as apical three funiculars. Mesoscutum meshlike reticulate; axillae and scutellum more finely coriaceous-reticulate or slightly imbricate. Propodeum (Fig. 72) very finely meshlike coriaceous on either side of median carina, and callus coriaceous to coriaceous-alutaceous with setae originating from tiny bumps. Forewing with cc: mv: pmv: stv = 3.8−4.4: 3.0−3.7: 1.1−1.3: 1.0; costal cell dorsally with line of dark setae extending over only about apical onequarter to one-third and ventrally with dark setae continuously along length, mesally with 1 line.

Distribution. Currently known only from southwestern USA (Map 12), but probably similar to the distribution of Yucca and its Prodoxus pollinators.

Map 12. Regional distribution of E. pervius (●) and E. stramineipes (̝).

Biology. Multiple rearings indicate E. pervius is at least primarily a parasitoid of Prodoxus Riley ( Lepidoptera : Prodoxidae ) pollinating Yucca L. ( Agavaceae ). The holotype and allotype were selected from the material obtained by Force and Thompson (1984), who reported it as a multivoltine, solitary, larval, facultative secondary ectoparasitoid of a “number” of Prodoxus species from seed pods and fruiting stalks of Y. brevifolia Engelmann , Y. schidigera Roezl , and Y. whipplei Torrey , and the stalks of Y. schottii Engelmann. They also stated that adults can be found throughout the entire year and discussed sex ratio, egg production and oviposition behavior. Some of the results were taken from Thompson (1980), who suggested that “at least two species of Eupelmus ” were involved but without providing supporting data. One E. pervius female from Arizona was also supposedly reared from a Macrancylus linearis Le Conte ( Coleoptera : Curculionidae ) larva in a Yucca stem. The identification is based on forewing and prepectal setal pattern, but the female lacks its metasoma so that length of the ovipositor sheaths is unknown. See further under “Remarks” for other possible hosts.

Remarks. The paratypes from Utah are from the rearings by Althoff (2008). Females of E. pervius most closely resemble E. cyaniceps females because both typically have a more extensively and conspicuously setose prepectus ( Fig. 40) and propodeal callus (Fig. 51) than E. cushmani females (Figs 42, 50). Eupelmus pervius appears to be supported as a distinct species from E. cyaniceps based on host biology (parasitoids of Yucca moths) and a difference in male flagellar structure/setation (see below). However, females are differentiated primarily by a single variable feature, forewing setal pattern, and correct identification of some females based on this single feature is uncertain. Females of E. pervius characteristically have the linea calva either completely open to the vanal area or only narrowly closed posteriorly by a few setae (Fig. 45). When the linea calva is narrowly closed the forewing also is characteristically less densely setose basally than the disc, the mediocubital fold being broadly bare, the basal cell more or less bare apically (usually as triangular area adjacent to the submarginal vein and basal fold), and often with a more or less developed bare region below the parastigma along the basal fold (Figs 45, 46). Typical females of E. cyaniceps have the forewing uniformly setose behind the marginal and submarginal veins, with the linea calva an obviously isolated bare band separated from the vanal area by several lines of setae including along the mediocubital fold (Fig. 48). This includes a single E. cyaniceps female from Arizona that was apparently reared from Yucca . In contrast, one female from Tallulah, Georgia, reared from Lixus musculus Say has an elongate linea calva open to the vanal area (cf. Fig. 45) similar to typical E. pervius females. Forewing setal patterns appear to by highly variable with no distinct separation between the two extremes of an open or broadly closed linea calva. Some females from western USA have ovipositor sheaths that are shorter than the marginal vein and a broadly closed linea calva similar to typical E. cyaniceps females, but to a greater or lesser extent the forewing is partly bare basally similar to those E. pervius females in which the linea calva is only narrowly closed by setae. Two females from California (San Gabriel Mountains) that were caught the same day in a Malaise trap with a male of E. pervius illustrate the variation. One of the females has its linea calva isolated from the vanal area by at least four lines of setae, but the basal cell and mediocubital fold are quite obviously bare (Fig. 46). The other also has the mediocubital fold broadly bare but the linea calva is isolated from the vanal area even more broadly by setae and the basal cell is only somewhat less densely setose than the disc (cf. Fig. 47). Unfortunately, both females lack their ovipositor sheaths, though based on the remaining ovipositor stylets the sheaths likely were the same length or slightly longer than the marginal vein. I include these two females within the type series of E. pervius in part because of their presumed sheath length and collection with a male identified as E. pervius . However, some other very similar females with slightly shorter ovipositor sheaths from Arizona, California and Texas I identify as E. cyaniceps . In contrast, one female from California and one from Texas I examined have extensively setose forewings similar to typical E. cyaniceps females, but ovipositor sheaths that are as long as the marginal vein and host associations that appear aberrant for the known biology of E. pervius . One was reared from a gall of Baccharis L. ( Asteraceae ) and the other has what appears to be a stem gall from some unidentified plant pinned with it. I exclude these two females from the type series of E. pervius , but list them above along with the length of their ovipositor sheaths relative to the marginal vein (in parenthesis) to bring attention to their uncertain species identity. Further, some females of E. cushmani from western USA, in particular those reared from Acacia seeds, very likely from bruchids, have a posteriorly open or very narrowly closed linea calva similar to E. pervius females. I include these females in E. cushmani because of their prepectal and propodeal setal patterns. However, because of the variability of females that I include in E. pervius , E. cyaniceps and E. cushmani , it is certainly possible that sibling species associated with specific hosts remain unrecognized under these three names. Two females from Arizona that I exclude from the type series and description of E. pervius are associated with Agave rather than Yucca , though possibly as parasitoids of Prodoxus and/or the agave weevil, Scyphophorus acupunctatus Gyllenhal ( Coleoptera : Curculionidae ). Although the linea calva is isolated from the vanal area by a few lines of setae the membrane below the parastigma is bare adjacent to the basal fold and the basal cell is obviously less setose than the disc similar to some females I include in E. pervius . The two females are at least as large as the largest females I include in the type series of E. pervius (about 6 mm in length), but have longer ovipositor sheaths (slightly longer than metatibia and about 1.3−1.4× length of marginal vein) and appear to have a somewhat more elongate-slender gaster with the apex of the hypopygium within its basal half rather than beyond its midline as for other females I include in E. pervius . However, these two females are insufficient to conclude whether the unusual features represent infraspecific variation within E. pervius correlated possibly with body size or a different host association, or indicate a separate sibling species.

As noted above, males of E. pervius differ from E. cyaniceps and other similar urozonus -group males by flagellar structure. Males of most urozonus -group species in North America have a conspicuously, densely setose, robust-filiform flagellum because the curved setae project obviously out from each flagellomere and the flagellum is at least of equal width if not tapered slightly distally (Figs 59–63, 65). In contrast, males of E. pervius have the flagellar setae more appressed to the flagellum so that this usually appears slightly clavate and certainly less conspicuously setose (Figs 64, 66). Flagellar structure and setation of E. pervius males is more similar to E. annulatus males, but these have different setal patterns of the lower face and costal cell, and the anterior and posterior surfaces of the mesotibia light-colored.


Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


American Entomological Institute


R. M. Bohart Museum of Entomology


University of California, Riverside


Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes


Canadian National Collection Insects


California State University, Chico, Vertebrate Museum


Texas A&M University













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