Eupelmus (Eupelmus) pini Taylor

Gibson, Gary A. P., 2011, 2951, Zootaxa 2951, pp. 1-97 : 71-75

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Eupelmus (Eupelmus) pini Taylor


12. Eupelmus (Eupelmus) pini Taylor View in CoL

Figs 20, 33; Map 13

Eupelmus pini Taylor, 1927: 205−207 View in CoL . Lectotype, female (USNM, examined), here designated. Lectotype data: “Ex. Pissodes strobi View in CoL / Roslindale, Boston, Mass / R.L. Taylor coll. / Cotype No. 42028 U.S. N.M. / Eupelmus pini Taylor View in CoL ♀ cotypes / Lectotype Eupelmus pini Taylor, Gibson 2011 View in CoL ” [in terminal shoots of white pine taken October, 1926].

Eupelmus Aloysii Russo, 1938: 229−230 View in CoL . Syntypes, female (not examined). Type data: Italy, Salerno Prov. , Pisciotta; five females reared from Phloeotribus scarabaeoides (Bern.) . N. syn.

Eupelmus sculpturatus View in CoL Nikol’skaya, 1952: 502 (1963: 515). Unknown type status, female (ZINR, not examined). Type data: Southern part of European part of USSR; western Europe. Synonymy with E. aloysii View in CoL by Kalina, 1988: 3. N. syn.

Eupelmus suecicus Hedqvist, 1963: 137−138 View in CoL . Holotype, female (KHPC, not examined). Type data: Sweden, Uppland, Lovön; reared from Hylesinus toranio ( Coleoptera View in CoL : Scolytidae ). Synonymy with E. aloysii View in CoL by Bouček, 1968: 237. N. syn.

Eupelmus carinifrons Yang, 1996: 215−216 View in CoL , 326. Holotype, female (NWCF, paratype examined). Type data: Peoples’ Republic of China, Beijing, Yunnan, Henan; ex Cryphalus sp. on Pinus bungeana View in CoL , Tomicus piniperda View in CoL on Pinus yunnanensis View in CoL and Phloeosinus aubei on Platycladus orientalis View in CoL . N. syn.

Description. FEMALE ( Fig. 20). Length about 1.8−4.3 mm. Head of smaller specimens brown with limited green luster, but more commonly partly to almost entirely metallic green or bluish-green, the parascrobal and interantennal regions often with coppery luster under some angles of light and frontovertex usually at least obscurely nonmetallic dark in part, with variably distinct, narrow dark band between posterior ocellus and inner orbit and/or dark band from posterior ocellus toward scrobal depression on either side of anterior ocellus, to more extensively dark between level of posterior ocelli and scrobal depression except variably extensively green along inner orbit and often with green spot or vertical band below anterior ocellus; maxillary and labial palpi dark brown. Antenna dark brown except scape and pedicel sometimes with variably distinct metallic luster. Mesosoma with tegula partly yellow to yellowish-brown with basal, outer, and apical margins variably widely brown; mesonotum of smaller specimens sometimes mostly brownish, but usually at least outer inclined surface of mesoscutal lateral lobe metallic green, the mesoscutum medially variably extensively reddish-brown to purple or violaceous and scutellar-axillar complex often green with coppery or reddish luster under some angles of light; acropleuron of small specimens sometimes with only slight metallic luster, but usually quite distinctly green at least anteriorly or green with coppery luster under some angles of light, and sometimes non-metallic brown or more blue to purple posteriorly. Forewing hyaline with dark brown setae and yellowish to brownish-yellow venation. Front leg with femur mostly variably brown except trochantellus and apex lighter, tibia narrowly yellow apically but otherwise at least dorsal and ventrally surfaces variably extensively darker brown, and tarsus yellow to brownish-yellow except for more distinctly dark apical tarsomere. Middle leg, including coxa, sometimes completely yellowish except for dark mesotibial apical pegs and mesotarsal pegs, but more commonly at least partly darker brown, the femur variably extensively, tibia at least narrowly subapically, and apical one or two tarsomeres. Hind leg sometimes with trochanter, but at least trochantellus and up to about dorsoapical half of femur yellowish, the remainder variably dark brown, tibia yellowish at least basally and apically and often dorsal and ventral surfaces yellowish or at least lighter in color than darker brown outer and inner surfaces, and tarsus yellowish except for apical one or two tarsomeres. Gaster usually entirely or mostly brown with slight coppery or green luster under some angles of light, most commonly anteriorly on basal tergum, and usually with quite conspicuous, very slightly lanceolate white setae; ovipositor sheaths distinctly banded, the medial yellowish region much longer than very short basal dark region and about twice as long as light to dark brown apical region.

Head with frons variably sculptured, sometimes almost entirely meshlike coriaceous in smaller specimens, to variably extensively reticulate to reticulate-imbricate, but at least coriaceous medially below anterior ocellus and near transverse undulation, and even in smallest specimens differentiated from parascrobal region by quite distinct undulation or transverse ridge; vertex transversely coriaceous-alutaceous in smaller specimens to transversely imbricate-strigose in larger specimens; scrobal depression shiny and smooth or only very finely coriaceous in part; IOD about 0.42−0.5× head width; OOL:POL:LOL:MPOD = 0.7−1.0: 2.3−3.2: 1.3−1.8: 1.0. Antenna with combined length of pedicel + flagellum = 1.2−1.3× head width; scape about 4.4−5.3× maximum width, in outer view ventral margin almost straight over basal half, with at most almost linear flange apically; pedicel in lateral view about 2.6−2.7× as long as wide; fl1 slightly transverse in smaller specimens to very slightly longer than wide; fl2 about 1.4−2.5× as long as wide and about 2.0−2.6× as long as fl1; subsequent funiculars increasing in width to slightly longer than wide fl8; clava about 2.6−2.77× as long as wide, about 0.8−1.1× combined length of apical three funiculars, and 0.3−3.7× length of funicle. Mesoscutum almost uniformly meshlike reticulate except lateral lobes more meshlike coriaceous with smaller cells dorsolongitudinally. Scutellar-axillar complex meshlike reticulate or scutellum laterally more reticulate-imbricate, the cells with distinctly raised inner but not outer edges. Prepectus completely setose with apices of very slightly lanceolate, white setae extending beyond ventral margin. Acropleuron comparatively coarsely sculptured, more or less reticulate-alveolate anterior and posterior of medial microsculptured region, with most cells somewhat concave rather than flat between distinct ridges and cells larger posteriorly than anteriorly. Forewing completely setose, without linea calva; costal cell ventrally setose with at least 3 lines along length toward leading margin, and dorsally with at least two lines of dark setae along leading margin and usually third line mesally over about apical half; cc: mv: pmv: stv = 4.0−4.5: 3.7−4.2: 1.2−1.5: 1.0. Mesotibia with apical row of 3 or 4 pegs; mesotarsus ventrally ( Fig. 33) with pegs on basal four tarsomeres, basitarsus with about 12−17 pegs, distally the pegs varying in length so as to form slightly irregular row along either side, second tarsomere with row of 4−6 pegs, third tarsomere with 2 or 3 pegs apically, and fourth tarsomere with 1 or 2 pegs apically on either side. Propodeum with U-shaped plical depression extending to foramen; callus with quite sparse white setae not obscuring cuticle or sculpture. Gaster with inner plate of ovipositor not extending beyond apex; ovipositor sheaths about 0.8−0.85× length of metatibia and 0.85−0.96× length of marginal vein.

MALE (based on single extralimital specimen). Length 2 mm. Head metallic green; maxillary and labial palpi yellow. Antenna with scape extensively yellowish but darker brown dorsoapically; pedicel and flagellum dark brown. Mesosoma metallic green similar to head, except tegula brownish to more distinctly yellowish-hyaline laterally and apically. Legs mostly yellowish beyond coxae, but mesofemur along most of ventral length and apical 2 tarsal segments dark. Forewing essentially hyaline but with very slight, inconspicuous infuscation over setose area behind marginal vein. Gaster with basal tergum having slight metallic green luster basally, but remainder brown.

Head with frons and scrobal depression quite strongly and distinctly meshlike reticulate. Head with IOD about 5× head width; OOL: POL: LOL: MPOD = 1.5: 3.2: 1.5: 1.0; lower face with uniformly distributed, short, white setae except for one distinctly longer seta below malar sulcus. Antenna with scape ovoid, about 2.5× maximum width; the outer surface mostly smooth and shiny, with only single line of obscure micropunctures ventrobasal to scapular scrobe; length of pedicel + flagellum about 2× head width; pedicel about 1.3× as long as wide, ventrally with 4 distally curved setae in a line; flagellum elongate-filiform with conspicuously projecting curved setae (cf. Fig. 56); fl1 very strongly transverse, disc-like, and at least superficially bare; fl2 about 3.5× as long as wide and apical funiculars only slighter shorter, fl8 about 3× as long as wide; clava lanceolate, about 1.75× as long as last funicular. Mesonotum with mesoscutum distinctly meshlike reticulate similar to frontovertex, but scutellum with shallower sculpture and more reticulate-imbricate laterally. Propodeal plical region finely meshlike coriaceous on either side of median carina, and callus similarly sculptured. Forewing with cc: mv: pmv: stv = 3.7: 3.3: 1.2: 1.0; costal cell dorsally with line of setae extending over about apical third, and ventrally with setae continuous along length, mesally with 2 lines.

Regional material examined (45♀). CANADA. ONTARIO: Ancaster , 10-23.VIII.91, DeJong, MT (1♀) . Brighton , 21.VI.55, A.P. Arthur (1♀) . Dundas Valley near Ancaster , 26.VII.93, 15.VIII.93, B. DeJonge, MT ex black walnut (2♀) . Hamilton , 19-28.VIII.80, M. Sanborne (1♀, CNC Photo 2010-60) . PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND: Crapaud , 10.VII.91, E.E.M. Smith (1♀) . QUÉBEC: St. Clothilde , AAFC [Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada], 45E10'05"N 73E40'53", 30.VII-13.VIII.2001, 60 m, L. Black & H. Goulet (1♀) .

USA. CONNECTICUT: New London Co., Groton, 25.VI.48 (1♀ NHRS). MARYLAND: Montgomery Co., Plummers Island, 1.IX.50, K.V. Krombein (1♀ USNM). Prince George’s Co., Patuxent Research Station, 27.VII.86, D. Wahl (1♀). MASSACHUSETTS: Franklin Co., Erving, 12.VII.33, 37-12733, coll. J.P.M. (2♀ USNM). Suffolk Co., Boston, Roslindale, R.L. Taylor, ex Pissodes strobi (♀ lectotype of E. pini ). MICHIGAN: Wayne Co., Livonia, Bicentennial Park, 42E 25.77N 83E 23.71W, 237 m, 30.VI.04, on dying ash tree, M. Gates, G. Gibson (1♀). NEW HAMPSHIRE: Carr Co., 1 mi. N. Wonalancet, E. Fk. Spring Brk. [East Fork Spring Brook], 1900', 22.VI-1.VII.85, D.S. Chandler (1♀ DENH). Rockingham Co., Northwood, 2 mi. SE, 31.VIII-2.IX.82, A.T. Eaton (1♀ DENH). Strafford Co., Durham — 22.II.54, W.J. Morse, reared from Rhus (1♀ USNM); 17.IV.54, J.G. Conklin, reared from weeviled W. [white] pine (1♀ USNM); 25.VI.65, 7.VII.65, collected on apple tree bark, W.J. Morse (6♀ DENH). NORTH CAROLINA: Haywood Co., GSMNP [Great Smoky Mountains National Park], The purchase near house, N35.35.8 W83.4.23, 1945', 12-18.2004, cut lawn-forest edge, Steck, Sutton & Super (1♀ UCFC). McDowell Co., 37E00'N 81E30'W, VII-IX.87, 9.VII-17.XI.87, FIT, Oak-Rhododendron, BRC Hym. Team (2♀). Jackson Co., Whiteside Mountain, near Highlands, 1600 m, VII-13.IX, BRC Hym. Team (1♀). PENNSYL- VANIA: Butler Co., Cranberry Township , 40E40'52.15"N 80E05'53.13"W, 23.IX.2008, ex Fraxinus pennsylvanica bark infested with EAB, J. Wildonger (1♀). Pike Co., Milford, A.D. Hopkins, Hopk. U.S. 2652a (1♀ USNM). VIRGINIA: Clarke Co., Univ. Va. Blandy Experimental Farm, 2 mi. S. Boyce, 20.V-1.VI.95 (1♀), 8- 27.VIII.80 (2♀), D.R. Smith. Fairfax Co., near Annandale, D.R. Smith, MT — 3850'N 77E12'W, 20-26.V.2001 (1♀ USNM); 14-20.VI.87 (1♀), 12-18.VII.87 (1♀), 17-23.VII.88 (1♀, CNC Photo 2010-20), 20-26.VII.89 (1♀), 27.VII.86 (1♀), 2-8.VIII.87 (1♀), 16-22.VIII.87 (1♀ USNM), 13-19.VIII.89 (1♀), 25-31.VIII.91 (1♀). WISCON- SIN: Dane Co., Madison, UW campus picnic point, 16-19.IX.99, N.D. Flowers & M.S. Mackay, abandoned apple orchid (1♀ IRCW). Fond du Lac Co., T13N, R19E S23, 9.IX-2.X.75, Gypsy moth-M.T. (1♀ IRCW).

Distribution. Fusu (2009) stated that this species is very rarely collected but is widely distributed in Europe from Italy and Spain in the south to Sweden in the north. I examined 14 specimens from Austria, France, Czech Republic, England, Hungary and Spain as well as 3 females from the eastern Palaearctic region in China and South Korea (CNC). Consequently, E. pini might be a naturally Holarctic species, though perhaps more likely it was introduced accidentally into northeastern North America (Map 13).

Map 13. Regional distribution of E. arizonensis (․), E. pini (●) and E. utahensis (̝).

Biology. Eupelmus pini was reared in Italy as an early instar larval parasitoid of the introduced citrus longhorn beetle, Anoplophora chinensis (Förster) ( Coleoptera : Cerambycidae ) ( Haack et al. 2010). Duan et al. (2009) also collected a single female associated with the emerald ash borer, Agrilus plannipennis Fairmaire ( Coleoptera : Buprestidae ) on ash trees in Pennsylvania and subsequently induced females to parasitize late instar larvae. However, most definitive rearing records are from bark beetles ( Coleoptera : Scolytidae ). The mixed type series of E. pini was reared from white pine, Pinus strobus L., which was infested with Pissodes strobi (Peck) . The type series of E. aloysii was reared from Phloeotribus scarabaeoides (Bernard) , that of E. suecicus from Hylesinus toranio (Danthoine) , and that of E. carinifrons from Cryphalus sp. , Phloeosinus aubei Perris , and Tomicus piniperda (L.). Fusu (2009) also reported the species from Scolytus spp. , Pityogenes bistridentatus (Eichhoff) , and Pityophthorus buyssoni Reitter. Two other collection records suggest some association with apple trees.

Remarks. Females of E. pini are readily distinguished from all other North American and European species of E. ( Eupelmus ) by the absence of a linea calva from the forewing (e.g. Russo 1938, fig. CXXI; Hedqvist 1963, fig. 73) in addition to having the acropleuron more strongly reticulate-alveolate ( Fig. 20) than females of other species.

Taylor (1927) described E. pini from five female syntypes that were stated to be in the Bussey Institution, Forest Hills, Boston, MA, but three of the syntypes are in the USNM. Based on these three females E. pini was described from a mixed type-series. One of the females is E. pini , in the present sense, whereas the other two are E. annulatus . I hereby designate the former female, the only one having the label “ Eupelmus pini Taylor ♀ cotypes”, as lectotype of E. pini in order to establish the identity of the name and resolve synonymy. The lectotype mesosoma is mounted dorsoventrally by a minutien pin through the scutellum and has the head and gaster detached but glued to the cork mount into which the minutien pin is fixed. This female was in the type collection of the USNM, whereas the other two females were in the general collection. I do not know who decided which female to place in the type collection, but the newly designated lectotype most closely fits the original description based on the head being “purple between scapes and eyes” and the acropleuron (= mesoepisternum sensu Taylor) being described as “rugose medially to coarsely reticulate posteriorly and finely reticulate anteriorly”. Furthermore, the lateral image of E. pini given in Taylor (1929, fig. 1) shows the ovipositor sheaths as obviously shorter than the marginal vein ( Fig. 20), whereas the ovipositor sheaths are at most only very slightly shorter than the marginal vein in E. annulatus females ( Fig. 36). The figure is not detailed enough to be certain whether the forewing is drawn without a linea calva, though Taylor (1929) obviously missed the presence of a linea calva in the E. annulatus females of the mixed type series.

I have not seen any males of E. pini from North America , though Fusu (2009) reared a single male in Romania that he described and imaged ( Fusu 2009, fig. 2c) under the name E. aloysii . My concept and description of E. pini males is based on another male he identified plus his published description of the male. Comparison of his description with the male at hand indicates some variation in the extent the scape, mesofemur and metafemur are darkened, which is taken into account for the key features. Males might most easily be confused with those of E. microzonus or perhaps E. dryorhizoxeni because of their extensively light colored legs and filiform flagellum, but as noted by Fusu (2009) males of E. pini have unusually long flagellomeres for a species of E. ( Eupelmus ). A relatively much longer marginal vein and somewhat different color pattern also differentiates them from E. microzonus (Fig. 53) males, and the absence of a lanceolate micropunctate region ventrobasal to the scapular scrobe from males of E. dryorhizoxeni ( Fig. 73).

Examination of 1 of 11 paratypes of E. carinifrons determined that this name is a junior synonym of E. pini . I did not examine type material of the other three names newly synonymized under E. pini , but the synonymies are based on the original description and habitus image of E. aloysii by Russo (1938, fig. CXXI) and the synonymy of E. sculpturatus and E. suecicus under E. aloysii by previous authors.


Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes














Eupelmus (Eupelmus) pini Taylor

Gibson, Gary A. P. 2011

Eupelmus carinifrons

Yang, Z. - Q. 1996: 216

Eupelmus suecicus

Boucek, Z. 1968: 237
Hedqvist, K. J. 1963: 138

Eupelmus sculpturatus

Kalina, V. 1988: 3
Nikol'skaya M. N. 1952: 502

Eupelmus Aloysii Russo, 1938: 229−230

Russo, G. 1938: 230

Eupelmus pini

Taylor, R. L. 1927: 207
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