Eupelmus (Eupelmus) utahensis Girault

Gibson, Gary A. P., 2011, 2951, Zootaxa 2951, pp. 1-97 : 77-79

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Eupelmus (Eupelmus) utahensis Girault


14. Eupelmus (Eupelmus) utahensis Girault View in CoL

Figs 34, 35; Map 13

Eupelmus cyaniceps utahensis Girault, 1916b: 244 View in CoL . Syntypes, 2 females (USNM, examined). Type data: USA: Utah, American Fork, July .

Eupelmus utahensis View in CoL ; Burks, 1979: 884.

Description. FEMALE ( Fig. 34). Length about 2.0− 4.3 mm. Head partly to entirely metallic green to bluish-green, though usually with variably extensive dark purple to black markings on some or all of: interantennal region, clypeal region, lower face adjacent to malar sulcus, parascrobal region, upper face variably widely mesally below anterior ocellus and sometimes along inner orbit, between anterior ocellus to posterior ocelli, between posterior ocelli and inner orbit, and within ocellar triangle; maxillary and labial palpi dark brown. Antenna dark brown, the scape and pedicel usually with metallic green luster under some angles of light. Mesosoma with tegula brown and often with slight metallic luster; otherwise mostly metallic green to bluish-green similar to head, though lateral lobe usually dorsolongitudinally and sometimes convex anterior part and/or concave posterior part of medial lobe and scutellum partly dark. Forewing hyaline or sometimes slightly brownish behind mv and stv; venation yellowishbrown; setae variably distinctly brown beyond level of parastigma, but at least more yellowish to white within basal cell, on submarginal vein, and within cubital cell except possibly apically. Front leg with trochanter dark brown; femur sometimes with trochantellus partly yellowish but otherwise dark brown or with slight metallic luster similar to mesosoma except for extreme apex; tibia mostly dark brown except extreme base and apex or apex more extensively yellowish, often more so on anterior or posterior surfaces, but at least extensively brown rather than with dark bands dorsally and ventrally; and tarsus yellowish except for pulvillus or sometimes with apical for one or 2 tarsomeres brown. Middle leg sometimes entirely yellowish-orange beyond coxa except knee and apex of tibia usually somewhat lighter and mesotibial apical pegs and mesotarsal pegs black, but more often trochanter, trochantellus, tibia variably extensively subbasally, and 1−3 apical tarsomeres brown. Hind leg with color pattern similar to front leg, the tibia extensively brownish and only rarely almost completely yellowish ventrally. Gaster often with distinct metallic green to bluish lusters anteriorly on basal tergum and laterally on terga, but mostly dark brown and with white hairlike setae contrasting quite conspicuously with dark cuticle ( Fig. 35); ovipositor sheaths with very short dark basal region abruptly delineated from much longer lighter colored apical region, the lighter colored region sometimes almost uniformly yellowish but usually graduated variably darker brown apically.

Head with frons entirely, finely, meshlike coriaceous to level of posterior ocelli or sometimes somewhat imbricate to very slightly imbricate-reticulate along inner orbit, but merged into parascrobal region though at most very slight undulation; vertex transversely alutaceous-reticulate to reticulate-imbricate posteriorly, and rounded into occiput; scrobal depression reticulate-rugulose; IOD = 0.37−0.4× head width; OOL: POL: LOL: MPOD = 0.7−0.8: 2.3−2.5: 1.5−1.6: 1.0. Antenna with combined length of pedicel + flagellum = 1.3−1.4× head width; scape about 4.4−5.5× as long as wide, in outer view ventral margin almost straight to slightly sinuate with very slender flange over at least apical half; pedicel in lateral view about 1.9−2.3× as long as wide; fl1 transverse (up to about 1.6× as wide as long) to subquadrate; fl2 about 1.6−2.0× as long as wide and about 2.6−3.5× as long as fl1; subsequent funiculars increasing in width to slightly longer than wide fl8; clava about 2.6−2.9× as long as wide, 0.74−0.86× combined length of apical three funiculars, and 0.27−0.33× length of funicle. Mesoscutum almost uniformly meshlike reticulate except lateral lobe more minutely coriaceous mediolongitudinally and mesoscutal medial lobe usually more transversely reticulate-imbricate anteriorly. Scutellar-axillar complex with axilla reticulate to obliquely reticulate-imbricate and scutellum more longitudinally coriaceous to reticulate-imbricate on either side of median. Prepectus with white hairlike to slightly lanceolate setae, the setal apices not extending beyond margins and usually with quite distinct dorsal and even broader ventral bare band. Acropleuron meshlike reticulate anterior and posterior of medial microsculptured region, the cells somewhat larger posteriorly than anteriorly but with flat surfaces defined by slightly raised ridges. Forewing with linea calva but disc and basal cell otherwise uniformly setose; costal cell ventrally setose along length with 2 or 3 lines of setae medially, and dorsally with line of setae near leading margin over at least apical half, though comparatively inconspicuous because of light color except apically; cc: mv: pmv: stv = 3.6−4.2: 3.2−3.7: 0.9−1.1: 1.0. Mesotibia with apical row of 5−7 pegs; mesotarsus ventrally with pegs on basal four tarsomeres, basitarsus with about 9−16 pegs arranged distally in double row on either side, second tarsomere with 3−6, third tarsomere with 2−3, and apical tarsomere with single apical peg on either side. Propodeum with U-shaped plical depression extending to foramen; callus variably densely setose with, white, slightly lanceolate setae often obscuring cuticle. Gaster with inner plate of ovipositor extending at most slightly beyond apex by distance about equal to maximum width of ovipositor sheath; ovipositor sheaths about 1.0−1.16× length of metatibia and about 1.3−1.7× length of marginal vein.

MALE. See under “Remarks”.

Material examined (43♀, 8♂). CANADA. ALBERTA: Medicine Hat , 13.V.80, G. Gibson (1♀). BRITISH COLUMBIA : 15 road km NW Lower Nicola, 11.VII.88, J.A. Santiago-Blay, ex Artemisia tridentata gall, emerged after 27 days (1♀ USNM). Osoyoos, Mount Kobau, 990 m, 8-13.VII.91, D. Blades, C. Maier, SOCAP-MM3 (1♀, CNC Photo 2010-21).

USA. ARIZONA: Casey bequest (1♀ USNM). CALIFORNIA: Los Angeles Co., 0.5 mi. N. of Mile High and S. of Largo Vista, Angeles National Forest 5180', T4N, R9W, S4, 1, 7, 22.V.96, 13.III-9.IV.97, R. Goeden & J. Teerink, reared as parasite of Oxyna palpalis in bud gall of gall midge on branch of Artemesis tridentata (6♀ UCRC). Tuolome Co., Stan. Natl For. [Stanilaus National Forest], Hayes Station, 38º20'28"N 119º46'56"W, 6127', 16.VII.2006, Jeffrey Pine/meadow, S. Fullerton, E. Zoll, S. Kelly & P. Russell (1♀ UCFC). COLORADO: Montezuma Co., Arriola , 3 mi. W., 6000', T. Marquardt (1♀ CSCU). IDAHO: Ada Co. , 12 mi. NW Regina, 11.VII.52, W.F. Barr, Helianthus (1♀ WFBM). Blaine Co., 3 mi. W. Carey, 21.VI.68, R. G. Jones , Artemesia tridentata (4♀ WFBM). Butte Co., 6 mi. S. Howe, 1.VII.81, M. Stafford (2♀ WFBM). Camas Co., 12 mi. S. Fairfield, 25.VI.68, R.G. Jones , Artemesia tridentata var. vaseyana (2♀ WFBM). Elmore Co., 3mi. N. Mountain Home, R.G. Jones , reared from Artemesia tridentata — 18.V.68, ex 19-22.V.68 (1♂ WFBM); 24.III.69, ex 12.IV.69 (5♂ WFBM). Lincoln Co., 11 mi. N. Richfield, 7.VII.68, R.G. Jones , reared from gall of Artemesia tridentata 10.III.69 (3♀, 2♂ WFBM). Minidoka Co., Adelaide, 21.VII.27, W. Carter, S. [S orbu s?] filipes, 4395 SAR (1♀ USNM). Twin Falls Co., 5.5 mi. E. Twin Falls, 5.VI.68, R.G. Jones , Artemesia tridentata var. tridentata (3♀ WFBM). OREGON: Deschutes Co., Smith Rock, 9.VII.83, P. Hanson, ex Eutreta diana (4♀). Jefferson Co., Warm Springs, 3 mi. W., Hwy 26, 22.VI.88, R.H. Velten (1♀). Malheur Co., Succor Creek State Recreation Area, 20.VII.82, J.B. Johnson & R.L. Gillespie, possibly assoc. with Tephritidae (2♀ WFBM). UTAH: Cache Co., Logan Canyon between 3rd Dam + Temple Fork Road, 15.IV.200, P.J. Russell (1♀ UCFC). Salt Lake Co., 3.VII.13, 17.XI.13,17.I.14, Timberlake, on tephritid in Artemesia (4♀ UCRC). Utah Co., American Fork, VII (2♀ syntypes of E. utahensis, USNM Type and Paratype No. 20092). WYOMING: Park Co., N. side of Buffalo Bill reservoir, 19.VII.57, sagebrush gall (1♀ USNM).

Specimens of uncertain species identity. CALIFORNIA: Inyo Co., Grays Meadow Camp , 6000', 14.VII.85, A.S. Menke (1♀ USNM) . Lassen Co., Hallelujah Junction , 28.VII.76, R.M. Bohart (1♀ UCDC) . OREGON: Deschutes Co., Terrebonne , 4.4W., 19.VII.86, P. Hanson (1♂) . Malheur Co., Sucker Creek Canyon, 15-18.VI.51, B. Malkin (1♀ CASC) .

Distribution. Although relatively rare, widely distributed from about 37º–50ºN in western North America (Map 13).

Biology. Primary parasitoid of Tephritidae (Diptera) , including Metatephritis fenestrata Foote on Artemesia nova A. Nelson (black sagebrush) ( Fronk et al. 1964), Oxyna palpalis (Coquillett) inquiline in rosette galls of Rhopalomyia florella Gagné ( Diptera : Cecidomyiidae ) on Artemisia tridentata Nuttal (common sagebrush) ( Goeden 2002), and Eutreta diana (Osten Sacken) and likely other Tephritidae on Artemisia L. ( Asteraceae ) ( Santiago-Blay 1989).

Remarks. Eupelmus utahensis has quite a different host range than E. annulatus , but females are morphologically very similar to each other. Among other features individuals share comparatively long ovipositor sheaths with a similar color pattern (cf. Figs 34, 36) as well as an entirely or mostly coriaceous frons (cf. Fig. 27) and quite a distinct though slender flange along the ventral margin of the scape in outer view. Perhaps the most conspicuous difference between females of the two species is that in E. annulatus at least the gastral setae are similarly brown as the cuticle and therefore not very conspicuous ( Fig. 36), whereas in E. utahensis the gastral setae are white in quite a distinct contrast to the dark brown cuticle ( Figs 34, 35). However, this may be less conspicuous in smaller or dirty specimens and the gastral setae may be whitish in some females of other species (see further below). Females of E. utahensis also have even longer ovipositor sheaths than females of E. annulatus , being at least as long (1.0−1.16×) as the hind tibia and obviously longer (1.3−1.7×) than the marginal vein as compared to at least slightly shorter (0.84−0.94×) than the hind tibia and at most slightly longer (0.93−1.15×) than the marginal vein in E. annulatus . Females of E. annulatus also have the anterior and posterior surfaces of the protibia yellowish so that there are discrete dorsal and ventral dark bands, whereas the protibia is more extensively dark without discrete bands in E. utahensis females (cf. Figs 34, 36). Furthermore, the setae on the submarginal vein and on the dorsal surface of the costal cell are darker brown and therefore more evident in E. annulatus than for E. utahensis females. Females of E. utahensis could also be mistaken for smaller females of E. cushmani that have long ovipositor sheaths in combination with a dark scape and a relatively extensively brown protibia, but in addition to the difference in gastral setal color, females of E. cushmani have a less extensively setose prepectus (Fig. 42) and sparsely setose propodeal callus, the costal cell dorsally usually setose for distinctly less than half its length (cf. Fig. 45), and the frons usually quite distinctly reticulate to reticulate-imbricate (cf. Fig. 29).

Three females listed above under “Uncertain species identity” that I observed are in most respects very similar to typical E. utahensis females, including color pattern and having a slender flange ventrally on the scape. However, at least two of the females have obviously shorter ovipositor sheaths, about 0.74−79× length of the metatibia and about 0.81−0.88× length of the marginal vein. The third (Oregon) female lacks its gaster but like the other two females its forewings have completely white discal setae and its prepectus is more extensively and conspicuously setose, the apices of the white setae projecting distinctly beyond the ventral margin. Further specimens are required to more confidently assess the status of these three females, though quite possibly they are females of E. cyaniceps with white gastral setae. I include the specimens here to bring attention to them.

Based on the very few males associated with females through rearing, males of E. utahensis appear very similar to those of E. cyaniceps , including the outer surface of the scape having a band of distinct, circular, separated micropunctures along at least the entire length of the scapular scrobe ventrally (cf. Figs 77, 78). I include one male from Oregon that is not associated with a female under “Uncertain species identity” because of this scapular sculpture pattern and where it was collected.


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes


University of California, Riverside


University of Central Florida


W.F. Barr Entomological Collection


R. M. Bohart Museum of Entomology














Eupelmus (Eupelmus) utahensis Girault

Gibson, Gary A. P. 2011

Eupelmus utahensis

Burks, B. D. 1979: 884

Eupelmus cyaniceps utahensis

Girault, A. A. 1916: 244
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