Eupelmus (Eupelmus) cynipidis Ashmead

Gibson, Gary A. P., 2011, 2951, Zootaxa 2951, pp. 1-97 : 51-55

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Eupelmus (Eupelmus) cynipidis Ashmead


7. Eupelmus (Eupelmus) cynipidis Ashmead View in CoL

Figs 21, 65, 68, 74; Map 9

Eupelmus cynipidis Ashmead, 1882: 36−37 View in CoL . Holotype, female (USNM, examined). Type data: USA, Florida [Jacksonville]; reared from Cynips View in CoL q. batatoides Ashmead live-oak gall.

Eupelmus quercus Ashmead, 1886: 130 View in CoL . Holotype, female (USNM, examined). Type data: USA, Florida , [Jacksonville]; taken on an oak, April, 1881. N. syn.

Description. FEMALE ( Fig. 21). Length about 2.2−5.9 mm. Head varying from mostly bright metallic green to dark brown with variably bright and extensive green, reddish-coppery, bluish or violaceous lusters; maxillary and labial palpi dark brown. Antenna with at least pedicel and flagellum dark brown, the scape dark brown to entirely yellowish-orange, and scape and pedicel often with metallic lusters similar to head. Mesosoma with at least dorsal surface not much lighter than head and usually similar in color with variable metallic lusters as head, though prepectus and/or acropleuron sometimes lighter brown to orangey-brown or mesosoma dark compared to more distinctly metallic green head. Forewing with base of costal and basal cells usually at least slightly brown, but at least disc broadly brown from level of base of parastigma to beyond pmv, the infuscation not extending to apex of wing and often faded to absent posteriorly, and discal setae brown except for at least a few white setae behind extreme base of parastigma. Legs with at least pro- and metacoxa dark with metallic lusters similar to body, otherwise varying from mostly yellowish-orange to mostly dark brown except at least basitarsus of hind leg white and mesotibial apical pegs and mesotarsal pegs black, and sometimes mesofemur yellowish-orange in distinct contrast to mostly dark brown remainder of legs. Gaster dark brown with comparatively inconspicuous hairlike setae similar in color to cuticle; projecting strigose part of inner plate of ovipositor and about basal 0.1−0.15× of ovipositor sheaths black, hence about basal quarter to third of apparent sheath length dark and either remainder yellowish-orange or somewhat darker brown distally.

Head with frons meshlike coriaceous, in smaller specimens sometimes shiny with almost effaced, obscure sculpture, and smoothly, indistinguishably merged with parascrobal region; but vertex transversely coriaceousalutaceous to slightly imbricate in larger specimens; scrobal depression distinctly reticulate-rugulose; IOD about 0.33−0.4× head width; OOL: POL: LOL: MPOD = 0.5−1.0: 2.4−2.9: 1.3−1.5: 1.0. Antenna with combined length of pedicel + flagellum about 1.25−1.4× head width; scape about 5.5−5.8× as long as maximum width, in outer view ventral margin evenly curved and without evident flange; pedicel in lateral view about 1.9−2.1× as long as wide; fl1 transverse, up to about 1.2× as wide as long, to quadrate; fl2 about 2.0−3.5× as long as wide and 2.8−3.7× as long as fl1; subsequent funiculars increasing in width to quadrate or usually slightly longer than wide (up to about 1.2×) fl8; clava about 2.2−2.4× as long as wide, 0.7−0.9× as long as combined length of apical three funiculars, and 0.22−0.35× as long as funicle. Mesoscutum with convex anterior portion of medial lobe transversely reticulateimbricate anteriorly to meshlike reticulate posteriorly, but posterior concave portion shiny and at most very finely meshlike coriaceous, usually the sculpture almost effaced posteriorly, and lateral lobes finely meshlike coriaceous; scutellar-axillar complex with axillae reticulate-rugulose, but scutellum longitudinally reticulate-strigose to strigose on either side of median. Prepectus with at least a couple of setae and usually with 2 or more rows of white setae. Acropleuron shiny, meshlike coriaceous anterior of medial microsculptured region and with elongate, longitudinally aligned coriaceous sculpture posterior to microsculptured region except more meshlike coriaceous along posterior margin. Forewing with basal cell sometimes setose along length, but at least obviously more sparsely setose than disc, and usually mostly bare except for dark setae basally and white setae distally; costal cell ventrally setose at least apically and basally, sometimes more or less continuously setose along entire length but at least with only single line of more widely separated setae medially than basally and apically, and dorsally bare, excluding setae on submelanized band above parastigma, or at most with 2 or 3 dark seta along leading margin apically; disc with linea calva; cc: mv: pmv: stv = 4.9−5.5: 3.6−4.4: 1.0−1.3: 1.0. Mesotibia with apical row of 4−7 pegs; mesotarsus ventrally with pegs on basal four tarsomeres, basitarsus with 11−20 pegs arranged distally in double row on either side, second tarsomere with 5−10, third tarsomere with 2−4, and fourth tarsomere with single apical peg on either side. Propodeum with U-shaped plical depression extending to foramen; callus with dense white setae obscuring cuticle. Gaster with strigose inner plate of ovipositor extending beyond apex, usually by distance at least equal to half length of hind basitarsus and about 0.2× length of ovipositor sheaths; ovipositor sheaths about 0.95−1.2× length of metatibia and about 1.4−1.9× length of marginal vein, but apparent sheath length about 1.1−1.45× length of metatibia and 1.6−2.4× length of marginal vein.

MALE. Length about 1.6−2.7 mm. Head variably brown to dark with slight metallic luster in small specimens, but usually green to bluish-green or purple; maxillary and labial palpi dark brown or apex of apical palpomeres at most yellowish-brown. Antenna dark brown except often scape and pedicel with metallic luster similar to head capsule. Mesosoma similarly colored as head, usually mostly metallic green to bluish-green or sometimes with some purple luster, the tegula at least dark brown and often also variably distinctly metallic. Front leg entirely dark brown to dark with slight metallic luster except sometimes knee and apex of tibia very narrowly lighter-colored, and tarsus at least basally yellowish or yellowish-brown. Middle leg dark except basal 3 tarsomeres white. Hind leg similar in color to middle leg except basal 1−3 tarsomeres white. Forewing hyaline. Gaster with basal tergum sometimes metallic green to bluish-green basally, but remainder brown.

Head (Fig. 63) with frons reticulate; scrobal depression extensively reticulate but interantennal region shiny and only very finely coriaceous; vertex rounded into occiput, reticulate to transversely reticulate-strigose but without evident transverse carina. Head with IOD about 0.5× head width: OOL: POL: LOL: MPOD = 0.5−0.7: 2.7−3.0: 1.2−1.5: 1.0; lower face with sparse white setae, the setae shortest mesally and variably conspicuously longer laterally, but evenly curved when long; gena with one much longer seta below malar sulcus. Antenna (Fig. 65) with scape ovoid, about 2.0−2.3× as long as maximum width, the outer surface ventrally with broadly lanceolate region of micropunctures ventrobasal to scapular scrobe, but punctures extending apically along scapular scrobe at most in single line ( Fig. 74); length of pedicel + flagellum about 1.5−1.7× head width; pedicel subglobular, at most only about 1.2× as long as wide, and ventrally with line of 4 or 5 distally curved setae; flagellum conspicuously, densely setose and robust-filiform, the flagellomeres often quite distinctly separated by short pedicel and/or setae dorsally slightly longer and more conspicuous, but flagellomeres of equal width or basal funiculars (including setae) appearing slightly wider than clava; fl1 strongly transverse, disc-like, often superficially bare but at least with single line of setae along apical margin; fl2 about 1.2−1.9× as long as wide and fl8 at least slightly oblong, about 1.2−1.7× as long as wide; clava lanceolate with micropilose sensory region occupying apical two claval subsegments or about apical two-thirds of ventral surface (usually collapsed in air-dried specimens), about 2.5−3.0× as long as wide and about 0.6−0.8× as long as apical three funiculars. Mesoscutum meshlike reticulate, but axillae and scutellum more shallowly reticulate-imbricate. Propodeum variably distinctly but finely coriaceous and shiny, and callus similarly finely sculptured with setae originating from tiny bumps. Forewing with cc: mv: pmv: stv = 3.6−4.0: 2.4−3.7: 1.0−1.1: 1.0; costal cell dorsally with line of dark setae extending at most over about apical half and ventrally with dark setae continuously along length, mesally with 1 line.

Material examined (83♀, 30♂). USA. 21.I.1886, 3769 x (1♀ USNM), 3769 xi (1♂ USNM). ARIZONA: Sycamore Flat reared 4.VI.19, Quercus oblongifolia, G. Hofer, Hopk. U.S. 10781 s (2♀, 1♂ USNM). Cochise Co., Chiricahua Mountains — summit, 7.IV.2008, ex galls of Andricus reticulatus on Q. arisonica, G. Melika (1♂); Cave Creek Canyon, 6 mi. W. Portal, 6700', 31º55'N 109º15'W 20.VII.81, H.A. Hespenheide, Quercus (1♂); Pinery Canyon, 7000', 18.VIII.78, M. Wasbauer, J. Slansky & C. Freeburg (1♀ CSCA); near Portal, 6.IV.2008, ex Disholcaspis edura galls on Q. arizonica, G. Melika (1♀). Lower Oak Creek Canyon, S. of Portal, 11.IV.2008, G. Melika — ex galls of Andricus spicatus on Q. arizonica (1♂), ex galls of Disholcaspis rubens on Q. arizonica (1♀). Portal, 2.IX.74, H. & M. Townes (1♀ AEIC). Oak Creek Canyon, S. of Flagstaff, G. Melika — 11.IV.2008, ex galls of Disholcaspis rubens on Q. gambelii (3♀); 1.XI.2007, ex galls of? Andricus scutella on Q. gamelli (1♂). Coconino Co., 25 mi. S. Flagstaff on [Hwy] 17, 31.X.2007, G. Melika, ex Andricus tecturnarum galls on Q. turbinella (1♀, 2♂). Gila Co., Tonto National Forest, G. Melika, ex Andricus wheeleri Beut. , Q. turbinella — coll. 5.I.95, em. 10, 12.II.95 (2♀, 1♂; ♂ CNC Photo 2010-58); coll. 6.I.95, em. 12.II.95 (1♀, 1♂). Maricopa Co., Cave Creek, Camp Creek, L.H. Weld , ex 917a – Diplol. acrashiformis Weld (1♀ USNM). Pima Co. , Santa Catalina Mountains, Molino Basin campground, 9.IV.2008, G. Melika, ex Disholcaspis sulcata galls on Q. oblongifolia (1♀). Pinal Co., Oracle, reared 28.IX.22, Quercus arizonica, Hopk. U.S. 15639 d (1♀ USNM). Yavapai Co., Prescott, reared 8.V.18, L.H. Weld, Hopk. U.S. 15604 a (1♀, 1♂ USNM). Stoneman Lake Road at 17, 10.IV.2008, ex galls of Andricus capronae on Q. turbinella, G. Melika (1♂). ARKANSAS: Cleburne Co., Post Oak, vi [?].53, W.J. Baerg (1♀ USNM). CALIFORNIA: Sta [ Santa ] Cruz Mountains (1♂ CASC). Towie, 20.VIII.38, R.H. Beamer (1♀ USNM). Amador Co., Jackson, 27.IV.61, reared from Q. chrysolepis, D.Q. Cavagnaro (1♂ UCDC). Butte Co., Chico, 2.V.75, T.R. Haig (1♀ CSCA). Calaveras Co., Arnold, 30 km NE, 6.XI.2007, G. Melika, ex Andricus reniformis gall on Q. vaccinifolia (1♀). Colusa Co., Williams , 30 km SW, 2.XI.2007, ex Disholcaspis mamillana gall on Q. douglassii, G. Melika (1♀). Fresno Co., Piedra, 17.I.82, J.A. Halstead, ex Disholcaspis eldoradensis gall on Quecus lobata (2♀). Glen Co., Elk Creek, 5 mi. N., 7.VI.81, J.D. Pinto (1♀ UCRC). Inyo Co., Lone Pine , 7 mi. W., 19.III.72, em. 26.III.72, R.F. Denno, Diplolepis galls on Rosa (3♀, 1♂ UCDC). Los Angeles Co., Placerita Canyon, Walker Ranch, 34.38ºN 118.44ºW, 24.V.99, B. Brown & I. Swift (1♀ UCRC). Marin Co., Carson Ridge, near Alpine Lake, 3.IV.72, em. 13.IV.72, E.E. Grissell, ex Disholcaspis plumbella on Quercus durata (1♀ FSCA). Mount Tamalpais State Park, 28.II.58, em. 25.III.58, C. [Callirhytus] perdens, Quercus wislenzii fructescens, R.L. Doutt (1♀ UCRC). Napa Co., Monticello Dam — 2 mi. W., em. 7.II.68, Andricus crystallinus Bassett , Quercus dumosa Nutt., E.E. Grissell (1♂ UCDC); 4 mi. SW, em. 30.XI.69, Antron echinus, E.E. Grissell (1♀ UCDC); 7 mi. SW, 4.IV.61, ex Q. aerifolia, D.Q. Cavagnaro (1♀ UCDC). Knoxville, 1 mi. S., em. 5.VII.65, Andricus californicus Ashmead , Quercus lobata, E.E. Grissell (1♀ UCDC). Pope Valley, 10.IX.98, L.S. Kimsey, ex leaf galls Quercus (1♀ UCDC). Placer Co., Roseville, Dry Creek, 38.734073 – 121.301154, 8.IX.07, G.W. Forister (1♂ UCDC). Riverside Co., San Timoteo Canyon, 14.IX.72, M. Wasbauer & A. Hardy (1♀ CSCA). San Bernardino Co., Cajon Summit, 12.X.80, J. Luhman, ex oak bullet galls (1♀). Howe Spring, N Y [New York] Mountains, em. 10.IV.70, cynipid gall, Quercus turbinella, E.E. Grissell & R.F. Denno (1♂ UCDC). 8 mi. W. 29 Palms, 1984, J. Huber (1♂). Santa Clara Co., Los Altos , 1.V.76, ex Quercus chrysolepis, R.T. Ross (1♀ UCDC). Mountain View, summer 1885, E.M. [?] (1♀ UCRC). Solano Co., 28.VIII.67, em. 2.II.68, Sphaeroteras trimaculosum McC. & Egb., Quercus lobata Nee, E.E. Grissell (2♂ UCDC). Sonoma Co. , 545 o (1♀, 2♂ USNM). Tulare Co., Ash Mountain Power Station, 22.IX.82, 1.X.82, J.A. Halstead (3♀). Tuolumne Co., 8.X.19, R.D. Hartman, Quercus chrysolepis, Hopk. U.S. 10782f (2♂ USNM). Yolo Co., Woodland, 5 mi. E., 10.IX.70, S.R. Sims (1♀ UCDC). DISTRICT OF COLUM- BIA: 1♀ ( USNM). FLORIDA: Alachua Co., Gainesville — 1.IV.62, G.Q. Platt, Q. cinerea emerged 85 (1♂ FSCA). IV.91, D.B. Wahl (1♀, CNC Photo 2010-14). Duval Co., Jacksonville, W.H. Ashmead — 1♀ ( USNM); “type” (1♀ USNM); from c. [ Cynips ] q. [ quercus ] batatoides (1♀ holotype of E. cynipidis ); on oak [?sk????], May/ 81 (♀ holotype of E. quercus ). Manatee Co., Bradenton, 11.XI.85, D. Schuster (1♂). Orange Co., Orlando, UCF, 11.IV.93 (2♀ UCFC), 23.IV.93 (1♀ UCFC), S.M. Fullerton, Sand Pine-Rosemary Scrub. Polk Co., Tiger Creek Preserve, Babson Park, NE Pfundstein Road, 27º48'36"N 81º29'01"W, 5.V.07, B. Pace-Aldana & A. Petersen, Sandhill/Xeric Oak Hammock (1♀ UCFC). Georgia: Peach Co., Byron, 28.III.86, A.A. Amis, ex gall on Quercus (1♀ USNM). MARYLAND: Montgomery Co., Cabin John, 23[?]. VI.1889, C.L. Marlatt (1♀ USNM). MASSACHU- SETTS: Hampden Co., 19.I.11, reared Feb.+ Mar., em. galls Amphibolips ilicifoliae on Q. ilicifolia, 2407 -C, G. Dimmock (1♀ USNM). MICHIGAN: 1037, Gillette (1♀ CSUC). MISSOURI: 6.VI.1883 (1♀ USNM). Butler Co., Poplar Bluff, reared 12.II.19, 4.VI.19, S.A. Rohwer, Quercus minor , ex twig gall of Loxaulus sp. , Hopk. U.S. 1077 a (2♀ USNM). NEW HAMPSHIRE: Strafford Co., Durham, 1 mi. SW, water tower, 10.VIII.88, W.J. Morse (1♀ DENH). NEW MEXICO: Bernalillo Co., 2.X.22, L.H. Weld, ex Disholcaspis sp. , Quercus pungens (1♀ USNM). NEW YORK: Suffolk Co., Wading River, LI [Long Island], 27.VI.72, F.M. Shott (1♀ USNM). NORTH CAROLINA: Polk Co., Tryon, W.F. Fiske, Hopk. U.S. 3523 (1♀ USNM). Wake Co., Raleigh, em. 5.V.40, S.C. Schell (9♀ USNM). OREGON: Benton Co., ex Weldia washingtonens ., em. 25.II.83 (1♀). Corvallis, P. Hanson — IV.82 (1♂), V.82 (1♂), VI.82 (1 ♂ CNCI LB-specm 2010-007), ex Disholcaspis simulata (3♂); 13.VII.82, Disholcaspis washington (1♀). TEXAS: Brazos Co., College Station, 15.IV.65, J.C. Schaffner (1♀ TAMU). Culberson Co., Guadalupe National Park, McKitrick Canyon, 22.X.85, P. Hanson, Disholcaspis , Q. muehlenberg . (1♀). Kimble Co., Junction, 29-30.IV.83, J.C. Schaffner (1♀ TAMU). Taylor Co., Tuscola, 2.5 mi. S., 24.X.63, D. Cavagnaro, 256B-36 (1♀ CASC). UTAH: Davis Co., 2.VIII.83, P. Hanson, ex Dish. rubens , Q. gambelii (1♀). Kysvll [Kaysville], 1.IX.29, em. 1.XI.29, Q. utahensis , ex Dishol. globulus, Kinsey coll. (2♀ USNM).

Distribution. Widely distributed throughout USA except central plains (Map 9).

Map. 9. Regional distribution of E. cynipidis .

Biology. A parasitoid of * Diplolepis variabilis (Bassett) ( Hymenoptera : Cynipidae ) on Rosa pisocarpa A.

Gray ( Rosaceae ) plus the following species of Cynipidae on Quercus spp. (Fagaceae) — * Amphibolips quercusil- icifoliae (Bassett), * Andricus crystallinus Bassett , * Andricus quercuscalifornicus (Bassett) , * Andricus reniformis McCracken and Egbert , * Andricus reticulata Bassett , * Andricus spicatus (Bassett) , * Andricus tecturnarum Kimsey , * Andricus wheeleri Beutenmüller , * Antron acraspiformis (Weld) , * Antron quercusechinus (Osten Sacken) , * Atrusca capronae (Weld) , *Callirhytus perdens (Kinsey), Callirhytis quercusbatatoides (Ashmead) ( Ashmead 1882) , * Disholcaspis edura Weld , * Disholcaspis eldoradensis (Beutenmüller) , * Disholcaspis mamillana Weld , * Disholcaspis plumbella Kinsey, Discholcaspis quercusvirens (Ashmead) ( Ashmead 1886) , * Disholcaspis rubens (Gillette) , * Disholcaspis simulata Kinsey , * Disholcaspis sulcatus (Ashmead) , * Disholcaspis washingtonensis (Gillette) , * Loxaulus sp. , * Sphaeroteras trimaculosa (McCracken and Egbert) , and * Synergus batatoides (Ashmead) .

Remarks. Darker females of E. cynipidis superficially most closely resemble those of E. nitifrons except for having comparatively much longer ovipositor sheaths (cf. Figs 21, 23), partly because the sheaths themselves are longer but also because the inner plate of the ovipositor extends beyond the gaster to form part of the apparent sheath length. Females of E. cynipidis usually are also much larger than those of E. nitifrons , but at least they have a somewhat longer antenna with comparatively shorter clava, less densely setose to largely bare basal cell, and usually more distinctly coriaceous upper face. Phylogenetically, E. cynipidis is more likely the sister species of E. conigerae , females differing primarily only in color pattern. Females of E. conigerae typically have the antennae, more or less extensively, as well as the mesosoma and legs yellowish-orange, whereas they are much darker in typical E. cynipidis females (cf. Figs 21, 22). However, some E. cynipidis have a yellowish scape, the mesosoma laterally comparatively light yellowish-brown, and the legs yellowish-orange except for the pro- and metacoxa, whereas smaller E. conigerae sometimes have the antennae almost completely dark brown, the mesosoma brownish-orange with a slight metallic green luster dorsally and on the metacoxae under some angles of light, and with the femora and tibiae brownish rather than the legs, including the coxae, being completely yellowish-orange. The color patterns of females of the two species therefore intergrade to some extent, but females of E. conigerae always have the head and mesosoma conspicuously different in color whereas female E. cynipidis have the head and at least dorsum of the mesosoma similarly dark even though rarely the head is sometimes quite distinctly metallic green whereas the mesosoma is mostly dark brown. Most females of E. conigerae also have the upper face somewhat more coarsely sculptured, slightly reticulate, at least along the inner orbits compared to the variably distinctly but entirely coriaceous upper face of E. cynipidis . Based on much fewer specimens, females of E. conigerae also always have the basal cell broadly bare, whereas some females of E. cynipidis have the basal cell more or less completely setose, though always less densely setose than the disc. Eupelmus cynipidis and E. conigerae are the only two Eupelmus known to parasitize cynipid galls in North America . Unlike the Palaearctic region most of the eupelmid parasitoid diversity in cynipid galls in North America is comprised of species of Brasema .

Even though females of E. cynipidis and E. conigerae are morphologically very different from other urozonus - group females, males of E. cynipidis are very similar to those of most other urozonus -group species. If the host is unknown, males are most likely to be mistaken for those of E. cyaniceps and E. cushmani because of their very similar, conspicuously and densely setose, robust-filiform flagellum (cf. Figs 63, 65). However, males of E. cynipidis have the micropunctate sensory region of the scape developed as a distinct, lanceolate region ventrobasal to the scapular scrobe but not along the scrobe itself ( Fig. 74), whereas males of E. cyaniceps have a distinct band of punctures along the scrobal depression ( Fig. 77). Males of E. cushmani often lack distinct punctures along most of the length of the scapular scrobe ( Fig. 75) but if developed then similar to E. cyaniceps they also lack a distinct region of micropunctures ventrobasal to the scrobe ( Fig. 76). Some males of E. dryorhizoxeni are atypically dark in color and therefore more closely resemble typical urozonus -group males. Such males could easily be mistaken for E. cynipidis males because of a similar scapular sculpture pattern (cf. Figs 73, 74), but are distinguished by the color differences given in the key. Milliron (1949) stated that in the opinion of A.B. Gahan the male syntype of E. ficigerae (Ashmead) was possibly a male of E. cynipidis , likely because it was reared from a cynipid gall. However, I believe it is an abnormally dark E. dryorhizoxeni male and revise the synonymy accordingly (see under E. dryorhizoxeni ).

I have only seen a single male of E. conigerae tentatively associated with a female through rearing, which is insufficient to confidently propose differences to distinguish males of the two species (see further under E. conigerae ). It has an unusually gracile-filiform flagellum compared to most E. cynipidis males, though it is conspicuously setose and the more gracile-filiform structure likely is correlated with its comparatively small, 1.3 mm length. Individual males that are not reared for host association or that are collected individually and not associated with females are most likely to be confused with E. cyaniceps or E. cushmani males, but unlike these males and more similar to E. dryorhizoxeni males the outer surface of the scape has a more or less lanceolate or enlarged region of micropunctures ventrobasal to the scapular scrobe that does not extend apically along the scrobe except at most as a single irregular line of punctures.


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


California State Collection of Arthropods


American Entomological Institute


Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes


R. M. Bohart Museum of Entomology


University of California, Riverside


Florida State Collection of Arthropods, The Museum of Entomology


University of Central Florida


California State University, Chico, Vertebrate Museum


University of New Hampshire


Canadian National Collection Insects


Texas A&M University














Eupelmus (Eupelmus) cynipidis Ashmead

Gibson, Gary A. P. 2011

Eupelmus quercus

Ashmead, W. H. 1886: 130

Eupelmus cynipidis

Ashmead, W. H. 1882: 37
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